|Residents||103,985 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1,010 inhabitants / km²|
|Patron saint||Gaudenzio di Novara ( January 22nd )|
Cityscape with Basilica San Gaudenzio
Novara ( Piedmontese Noara , Lombard Nuara ) is a city in Italy , capital of the province of Novara , in the Piedmont region with 103,985 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Novara .
Ancient Novaria , which dates back to the founding of the Ligurians , became a Roman Municipium under Caesar and was on the road between Vercellae ( Vercelli ) and Mediolanum ( Milan ). Its right-angled layout could go back to Roman times. In the 4th century the city became the seat of a bishop. After it was destroyed by Magnus Maximus in 386 because of their partisanship for his rival Valentinian II , it was rebuilt by Theodosius . Then it was sacked by Radagaisus (405) and Attila (452).
A Duchy of Novara was established by the Lombards and a county by Charles the Fat . The city itself took part in the development of a free commune. In 1110 it was captured by Heinrich V and burned down. Since 1167 it was a member of the Lombard League . Before the end of the 12th century, it accepted the protection of Milan and so came first into the hands of the Visconti and then the Sforza .
In 1500, in the course of the conflict over rule in Italy, an event called the betrayal of Novara took place . During the clashes between France's King Louis XII. and Ludovico Sforza was betrayed when he was discovered in disguise among the retreating Swiss Guards. He had wanted to evade an agreed extradition to the French; this was one of the conditions that there was no battle between the respective armies, both of which consisted of Swiss mercenaries.
On June 6, 1513, the area around the city was the scene of a battle that took place during the Italian Wars between the French under King Louis XII. and the Novara was carried out for the Sforzas defending federal mercenaries of the Holy League and ended in a defeat for the French. In 1515 and 1522, however, Novara fell into the hands of the French. In 1535 it came into the possession of the Spanish line of the Habsburgs with Milan .
In 1706 Novara, which had long before been promised by Filippo Maria Visconti to the Savoy duke Amadeus VIII , was occupied by Savoy troops. With the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the city and the Duchy of Milan fell to Austria. But after they were in 1734 by Karl Emanuel III. was occupied, it was awarded to him the next year.
After Napoleon's Italian campaign , Novara became the capital of the Dipartimento dell'Agogna, but was returned to the House of Savoy in 1814 . On April 9, 1821, the Austrian field marshal Count Bubna drove the Piedmontese insurgents apart near Novara. On March 23, 1849, the Austrians under Field Marshal Radetzky achieved a decisive victory over the Sardinians in the battle of Novara . This success led to the abdication of Karl Albert and the partial Austrian occupation of the city. The defeat of the Sardinians can be seen as the real beginning of the Italian Risorgimento . The province of Novara was created by decree in 1859 , which at that time also included the provinces of Vercelli , Biella and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola .
Today the city has a large market for agricultural products. The main industries are:
- Production of metal goods
- Manufacture of printed matter
- Novara is the end of the Rolling Road from the Freiburg (Breisgau) freight station to Northern Italy.
- The Italian A4 motorway , which runs north of the city, provides good connections to Milan and Turin.
- The Basilica of San Gaudenzio was built in 1888 and is crowned with a 121 meter high dome.
- The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta was built in the neo-Romanesque style in 1863-69 and is the episcopal church of the Novara diocese.
Novara maintains partnership relationships with the cities
- Chalon-sur-Saône in Burgundy ( France ), since 1970
- Koblenz in Rhineland-Palatinate ( Germany ), since 1991
- Haskovo in Bulgaria , since 2003
Sons and daughters:
- Gianni Bettini (1860–1938), inventor
- Gian Domenico Borasio (* 1962), physician
- Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia (1915–1944), pilot in the Italian Air Force
- Giovanni Caccia-Piatti (1751–1833), Cardinal of the Curia
- Guido Cantelli (1920–1956), conductor
- Felice Casorati (1883–1963), painter
- Gianluca Cavalli (* 1978), racing cyclist
- Roberto Cota (* 1968), politician
- Fra Dolcino († 1307), member and since about 1300 leader of the lay movement of the Apostle Brothers, which the Church opposes as a heretical sect
- Domenico Fioravanti (* 1977), swimmer
- Vittorio Gregotti (1927–2020), architect and designer
- Pier Davide Guenzi (1964–2020), Roman Catholic theologian
- Giovanni Lajolo (1935–2020), Curial Cardinal and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State and the Vatican City Governorate
- Isabella Leonarda (1620–1704), nun and composer
- Petrus Lombardus (around 1100–1160), theologian
- Enzo Mari (* 1932), designer
- Teresio Martinoli (1917–1944), one of the most successful Italian fighter pilots of the Second World War
- Ottaviano Fabrizio Mossotti (1791–1863), physicist
- Umberto Orsini (* 1934), actor
- Luciano Pedullà (* 1957), volleyball coach
- Cosimo Pinto (* 1943), boxer
- Ardicino della Porta (1434–1493), Bishop of Aleria and cardinal
- Giuseppe Ravizza (1811–1885), legal scholar and inventor
- Oscar Luigi Scalfaro (1918–2012), politician, President of the Italian Republic from 1992 to 1999
- Stephan von Novara (10th century), famous teacher of Wolfgang von Regensburg and Heinrich von Trier at the Würzburg Cathedral School
- Urbano Quinto (1933–1997), writer
- Antonio Tornielli (1579–1650), Bishop of Novara
- Achille Varzi (1904–1948), racing driver
- Costanza Zanoletti (* 1980), skeleton pilot
- Luigi Visintin (1892-1958), geographer
- Hans Stadler: Novara, battles at. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 2010 .
- Bernard Truffer: Novara (Diocese). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 2010 .