General German Kommersbuch
The Allgemeine Deutsche Kommersbuch (ADK, also Lahrer Kommersbuch or Lahrerbibel ) is the best-known Kommersbuch (song book for use in student bars ) in Germany. It was first published in 1858 and reached its 166th edition in 2013 . It is the most frequently published songbook in the German-speaking world. In its latest, greatly expanded edition, it again contains over 700 songs, including mainly student and folk songs .
The ADK is bound by hand especially for the customer and equipped according to the customer's wishes, for example bound in leather, provided with beer nails , provided with a circle of connection and with a color cut. The resulting different outputs are traditionally spelled out to differentiate.
Originally, student songs were only passed on orally or by hand. The oldest known collection is the Niederrheinische Liederhandschrift (1574). The first printed, purely student songbook was written by Christian Wilhelm Kindleben . He published the student songs in Halle in 1781. The current version of Gaudeamus igitur was printed there for the first time. However, Kindleben was unsuccessful with the book. It contained too much that was offensive for the time, so it was confiscated and Kindleben was expelled from Halle.
In the spirit of the Wars of Liberation and with the founding of the original fraternity, Kommers books spread more and more. In 1825 Ferdinand August Serig brought out the selection of German songs , which was deliberately held as a fraternity , and which soon became a standard work. From the 4th edition of 1836, however, there were hardly any changes and the "Serig" lost its importance again.
In 1843, Hermann Schauenburg, together with Rudolf Löwenstein and Justus Wilhelm Lyra, published the book Deutsche Lieder and their melodies in Leipzig by Robert Friese. Due to the success of this so-called “Leipziger Commersbuch”, the “Serig” was finally ousted.
After a few years Hermann Schauenburg was persuaded to create a new Kommersbuch based on the German songs . Moritz Schauenburg had founded a publishing house in Lahr and so the two brothers got together. The composers and music educators Friedrich Silcher and Friedrich Erk were won over for the musical editing .
The German songs were not simply reissued, but all German universities were contacted to find out which were the most popular songs among the students. The result was published in 1858 for the 300th anniversary of the University of Jena as the General German Commers Book . The success was so great that the 4th extended edition appeared within a year. In this, the publishers ask for patience, since at the time of printing almost the entire edition had already been reserved and the 5th edition was announced as an unchanged reprint.
In order to adapt to the times, the book has been divided into two parts. The main part was to remain unchanged and contained the most important national, folk and student songs in three sections. The appendix, which already included 73 songs in the first edition, should include lesser-known or regional songs that were mentioned less often in the answers of the universities and for which one was not quite sure whether they would be included in the following editions would. This division was made mainly in order to be able to use the printing plates of the main part for a long time and kept them, with only a few changes, until the 24th edition in 1880.
After Hermann Schauenburg's death in 1876, Ludwig Eichrodt took over the editorial office the following year. For the 25th edition in 1882 he rearranged the entire content. 52 songs were not taken over from the old main part (for the time being), 25 from the appendix. 163 new songs were added. Although the 26th edition appeared in the following year, the demand for the anniversary edition seems to have been so great that until 1885 the so-called 2nd, 3rd and 4th copies of the 25th edition were published. In terms of content, however, they corresponded to the 26th edition of 1883, which had been expanded by 6 songs. Then another 26th edition (1886) was published, which had again been revised, but - apart from the title picture - did not change until the 50th edition (approx. 1895).
From 1893 Eduard Heyck continued the General German Kommersbuch up to the time of National Socialism . The ADK experienced its greatest successes under him. On average, 3 editions were printed per year, so that after the 54th individual editions were combined. Only the 75th and 100th anniversary editions were printed individually. With regard to the latter, Heyeck found that, after more than 50 years since the first edition, the older editions could hardly be found. In order to create something more permanent, a gift edition limited to 1000 pieces was issued in addition to the normal edition.
song numbers 3
|1.||1858||444||389||Edited by Hermann Schauenburg and Moritz Schauenburg, musical editing: Friedrich Silcher and Friedrich Erk|
|2.||probably unmarked reprints of the first edition|
|4th||1859||477||456||Very improved edition, digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in the Google book search|
|5.||1859||477||456||unchanged edition; Lahr, M. Schauenburg & C. / Leipzig, G. E. Schulze; Jena anniversary commers book for the 300th foundation festival of the university|
|6.1.||1861||562||536||Badly incorrect with wrong page numbers and 16 songs in the table of contents, which have been deleted since the 5th edition|
|6.2.||1861||578||549||Corrected, expanded edition, with the anniversary cover picture of the 5th edition, digitized version of the Austrian National Library in the Google book search|
|7th||1862||578||549||with anniversary cover picture of the 5th edition|
|8th.||1862||578||549||Lahr, M. Schauenburg & C.|
|9.||1863||578||549||with anniversary cover picture of the 5th edition, ( Munich Digitization Center of the Bavarian State Library )|
|11.||1867||578||549||with anniversary cover picture of the 5th edition, ( digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf )|
|16.||1873||624||621||Strasbourg, M. Schauenburg, 4 new songs for the “ Opening Ceremony of the University of Strasbourg ” added after the table of contents, digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in the Google book search|
|17th||1874||628||625||Strasbourg, M. Schauenburg (M Fr. Silcher and Ms. Erk), the 4 Strasbourg songs have been added to the regular appendix|
|18th||1877||628||625||continued by Ludwig Eichrodt|
|22nd||1878||628||625||increased by the Lachner melodies for V. von Scheffel's songs|
|23.||1879||628||625||increased by the Lachner melodies for V. von Scheffel's songs|
|25.1.||1882||696||695||Anniversary edition, completely revised (77 songs deleted and 168 new ones recorded), the division into a fixed main part and a variable appendix, which had existed since the first edition, was abandoned|
|26.1.||1883||704||701||Appendix with 6 new songs|
|25.2.||1883||704||701||Anniversary edition, second impression|
|25.3.||1884||704||701||Anniversary edition, third impression|
|25.4.||1884/85||704||701||Anniversary edition, fourth imprint|
|26.2.||1886||716||709||partly with adapted cover picture for the 500th anniversary of Heidelberg University August 1886|
|27.||1886||716||709||with anniversary cover picture of the 26th edition from 1886|
|29||1886||716||709||with anniversary cover picture of the 26th edition from 1886|
|30th||1886||716||709||alternative cover picture with cityscape of Heidelberg|
|31.||1888||716||709||with anniversary cover picture of the 26th edition from 1886|
|33.||1888||716||709||Issues either with the anniversary cover picture of the 26th edition from 1886 or an alternative cover picture with a city view of Heidelberg|
|34.||1888||716||709||Issues either with the anniversary cover picture of the 26th edition from 1886 or an alternative cover picture with a city view of Heidelberg|
|36.||1889||716||709||alternative cover picture with cityscape of Heidelberg|
|38.||1890||716||709||alternative cover picture with cityscape of Heidelberg|
|39.||716||709||alternative cover picture with cityscape of Heidelberg|
|42.||1891||716||709||with both a classic boat scene and an alternative cover picture with a city view of Heidelberg|
|44.||1893||716||709||continued by Eduard Heyck|
|45.||1893||716||709||Digitized by the Duchess Anna Amalia Library , Weimar|
|51.||1896||735||811||or afterwards , new processing, etc. a. Songs with the melodies of Otto praise received, I sit at the full glass twice reprinted from 53rd at the latest once Come into our beautiful dance replaced|
|55th-58th||735||811||in Wikisource added|
|63–66||1898||735||811||Special edition with color illustr. Ln.-Ibid.|
|96-99||1912||768||850||Dedication from Christmas 1912|
|100.||1914||760||821||In addition to the regular edition, a large-format special edition, limited to 1000 pieces and numbered, was published in an all-leather cover with ornamental blind embossing and gold-embossed title on the spine, gilt edge punched on three sides, two-color printing and a special illustration.|
|115-120.||1920||760||821||3 songs exchanged|
|127-135.||1925||745||803||supported by Alfred Schlenker and Hans Joachim Moser|
|151||1953||525||488||continued by Walther Haas|
|157.||1970||543||continued by Erdmann Werner Böhme|
|160.||1978-1996||543||491||also "unchanged reprint 1990" or "unchanged reprint 1992"|
|161.||2000||543||491||Edited from 2000 by Morstadt Verlag  in Kehl am Rhein by Michael Foshag|
|165.||2008||780||716||150 years of general German Kommersbuch - completely revised, expanded edition, 780 pages [previously 544 pages], ISBN 978-3-88571-336-4 . Expansion of the content from 450 to over 700 songs by recording new songs with regional references, to German university cities and contemporary songs. Adaptation of the pitches to today's needs. Guitar harmonies. Table of contents with page concordance to 160. – 164. Edition. There was a special edition of ~ 80 pieces for the anniversary summer on November 15, 2008 at Lahr.|
Each edition of the General German Kommersbuch is structured according to the same scheme. At the beginning there is the color lithograph of the Rhine section by Caspar Scheuren (1857) as the front title. This is followed by the title page with the name, the reference to the first musical editors Friedrich Silcher and Friedrich Erk, followed by the number of the edition (from 151. one page further), publisher name and place. The year is not given in all editions. After the title page there is sometimes a foreword to current or previous editions. The dedication of the original constitution to Ernst Moritz Arndt and his answer (from the 6th edition as a facsimile ) are present in every edition. This is followed by the song part and the table of contents. At the end, advertisements from the publisher were sometimes added or several blank pages were left with space for dedications, individual songs or additional stanzas.
The original frontispiece is by Caspar Scheuren and shows students on a boat trip on the Rhine. In particular, the framing elements were repeatedly changed in the various editions.
In the meantime, a view of Heidelberg was used as the cover picture.
The central element is an image of partying students on a boat with mountains in the background. Above it is a goblet decorated with flowers and ribbons in front of crossed Parisians , on which a putti sits. To the left and right of it are two medals, the edge of which was provided with text for special occasions. Below each - next to the title - the two original musical editors Silcher and Erk were immortalized. Below the boat scene is an eagle with a coat of arms and a wreath in front of two other Parisians. This variant was used as the cover picture from the 1st to at least the 34th and again from the 42nd edition.
Some details have been redesigned again and again:
- In the course of the 51st edition, the spelling of Commersbuch on the cover picture was changed from C to K. This took place on the cover sheet in the 26th edition from 1886.
- The title has been given different degrees of curlicue .
- The two medals in the upper part of the picture were labeled with congratulations on special occasions:
- “Jenaer Jubiläums Commersbuch” on the left and “To the 300th anniversary of the foundation festival 15-17. Aug. 1858 "right in the 5th to 11th edition,
- "25. Edition "or" Jubilee Edition "only in the first impression from 1882 and
- "For the 500th anniversary" or "Heidelberg University August 1886" (26th (1886) to at least 34th edition).
- The decorated cup in the upper part contains two crossed Parisians, whose blades are pale (up to 25th edition, 4th imprint) or not at all afterwards.
- From the 25th edition, 4th imprint, the shadows that the sun would cast in this scene are hatched . This can be seen in particular on the faces of the student at the bow and the helmsman at the stern, as well as the backs of the students looking towards the bank.
- Up to the 24th edition, the sun is shown somewhat larger than in later editions, so that the pipe of the student standing in the middle covers it partially. In the editions from 1882 to 1884, the sun was completely absent - the sky was partly cloudy.
- The student with the raised glass drinks red wine in some copies up to the 20th edition, otherwise white wine.
- The eagle with the shield in the lower part
- sometimes has two heads (up to the 15th and from the 151st edition), in the time in between he only had one head,
- is gray with a large beak (up to the 25th edition, 4th imprint), then black with the tongue out.
- The wings are spread out up to the 34th edition and from the 42nd edition they tend to hang.
- The sign has been reduced twice (from the 42nd and again from the 151st edition).
- The sign gives the place and name of the publisher, with the exception of the 16th and 17th editions, where, on the occasion of the “ reopening of the University of Strasbourg ” after the Franco-German War, “Strasbourg” is written instead of “Lahr”. Sometimes the year of publication is given (up to the 6th edition), the first name Moritz is abbreviated and a & Co is given (up to the 11th edition).
- Couleur ribbon is wrapped
around the cup and the wreath surrounding the eagle
- colorless up to the 7th edition,
- then partly with the German or the Prussian colors according to Jena reading (from bottom to top),
- from the 25th edition, 4th imprint probably with pink-white-moss-green of the fraternity Franconia Freiburg around the cup and blue-white-red around the wreath,
- from the 151st edition again with black-red-gold (front).
The alternative cover picture shows Heidelberg Castle and Heidelberg Old Town . A similar scene with students as in the original variant is added below. In the lower third are portraits of Ernst Moritz Arndt on the left and Joseph Victor von Scheffel on the right . This variant was used at least from the 29th to the 42nd edition and contains a decorated cup similar to the other variant, but the blades are shown very wide.
Hermann Schauenburg recognized that it is absolutely necessary for the success of a Kommersbuch to be up to date. Therefore the compilation of the songs in the Lahrer Kommersbuch has been adjusted several times. While the main part of the first 24 editions remained almost unchanged, there was a constant change in the appendix from the beginning.
Well-known and popular songs (128 in total) such as Gaudeamus igitur , Ergo bibamus or O old Burschenherrlichkeit are included in all 166 editions. Other songs that were newly recorded, but could not prevail (68 in total), on the other hand, were thrown out again the next time the artwork was changed. Over 1600 different songs were printed in the Allgemeine Deutsche Kommersbuch over the years. The following table gives an impression of the changes:
|Number of songs||387||456||536||549||564||621||625||712||718||729||814||834||853||832||832||818||746||488||505||505||495||491||490||490||491||716|
- Harald Lönnecker : Kommersbuch. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, supplement for both parts. Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2008, ISBN 978-3-7618-1139-9 , Sp. 424-427 ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
- Theodor Hölcke: From the German student song . In: Historia Academica. Series of publications by the Student History Association of the Coburg Convent. Issue 29/30, 1990/1991.
- General German Kommersbuch on the Internet
- Forewords to the General German Kommersbuch from various editions, facsimile of a letter from Ernst Moritz Arndt (PDF; 1.3 MB)
- Badische Zeitung on the 150th anniversary
- Christian Wilhelm Kindleben: Student songs: Called Florido from the papers left behind by an unfortunate philosopher. Halle (Saale) 1781 ( digitized version of the Munich Digitization Center of the Bavarian State Library )
- Hermann Schauenburg: German songs and their melodies. Robert Friese (Ed.), Leipzig 1843, digitized version of the Duchess Anna Amalia Library, Weimar