Military academy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A military academy , also a war academy , leadership academy or general staff academy , is a higher or highest military teaching institution for the qualification (education, further training and further education) primarily of officers of the armed forces and other armed forces in the various states.

At the same time, they can be used as scientific centers for research into problems of security policy and the military.

In some countries the facilities for training officer candidates are also called military or naval academies.

World map of forms of recruitment, personnel for the armed forces (Apr. 2019)
Armed Forces Army
Armed Forces Navy


The purpose of a military academy is to qualify officers for the exercise of leadership functions in the various branches of the armed forces in the levels from battalion (and equals) upwards as well as for special assignments or employment in higher staffs of national and alliance defense.

In contrast, the military academies for general staff training for officers and generals / admirals (e.g. academy of the general staff or general staff academy, leadership academy) follow the holistic security policy approach in the teaching program and are the highest military teaching institutions.

A specific military academy (e.g. naval war academy, military medical academy, medical academy) is usually assigned to each branch of the armed forces and other military command areas.

The qualification includes the troop, weapon and class-specific subjects related to the armed forces and other specialist teaching components to develop professional competence, methodical and (foreign) language competence for leadership as well as practical competence for future uses.

Military academies are involved in research in the fields of military sciences, social sciences, and technical sciences to varying degrees.


Archaeological excavation of the Platonic Academy in today's Athens district of Akadimia Platonos

The modern term academy for scientific or artistic universities as well as for scholars' associations, such as the Academy of Sciences , goes back to Plato's Akadḗmeia .

The term originally the place where the Platonic Academy ( ancient Greek Άκαδήμεια Akademeia or Άκαδημία Akademia , Latinized Academia ) that of Plato founded ancient school of philosophy in Athens , the oldest and most durable institution of its kind in Greece, is situates - in which Akademeia called Hain of the Attic hero Akademos .

Prehistory in German-speaking countries

Throughout history there have been various forms of military schools with completely different objectives.

Some had "pre-military" training as their goal, such as the Pagenschule in Kassel (1596–1598) or later cadet schools . Others trained officer candidates up to their appointment (such as naval academies ) and some aimed to further qualify higher officers (such as war academies).

In the German-speaking area of ​​the Holy Roman Empire, the first educational institutions for military training and further education of officers were established at the end of the 16th century. It was founded in connection with the establishment of firmly organized and disciplined (standing) armies and the strengthening of national defense ( Landesdefension ). Advances in weapons technology brought about changes in the art of war. The feudal military system was also influenced by ideas of the early bourgeois Enlightenment.

Noble schools and knight academies

The earliest mention of the Palatinate Nobility School in Selz (French Seltz, 1575–1577) and the Nobility Academy in Sedan (around 1590) and a knight's academy in Tübingen (Collegium illustrious, 1596–1684). Knight academies for the military training of young nobles were also established in Brandenburg and Bavaria.

General subjects, including old and new languages ​​and natural sciences, dominated the curricula of all these institutions. Military knowledge was taught primarily in mathematics, fortification art, artillery science and tactics; In addition, there was riding and fencing training as well as weapons exercises.

War schools and academies - 17./18. century

One of the oldest academies is the war school of Count Johann VII von Nassau-Siegen (1561–1623), which was opened in 1616 in the armory of the Upper Castle in Siegen .

Like the Friedland Academy created in Gitschin (Jičin) in 1624 by the imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583–1634), however, it only existed for a few years.

In the 18th century, the advances in the organization of the standing armies and branches of arms, especially the artillery, as well as the development of the fortification system required more trained officers. With this aim in mind, were built

  • an engineering school in Vienna in 1717;
  • an engineering school in Dresden in 1742 and an artillery academy in 1766, both merged to form the military academy in 1816;
  • an engineering academy in Berlin in 1788 and an artillery academy in 1791.

In addition to these academies oriented towards weapons technology, there were also general academies, which mainly prepared young nobles for the officer profession and trained officers. These included:

  • the Knight Academy in Berlin, which operated from 1705 to 1713;
  • the Knight Academy in Ettal Abbey , which existed from 1711 to 1744 ;

The oldest military academies are:

École militaire in Paris

Military training of officers - 19th century

Influence of the army reform movement

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the coalition wars resulted in the building of mass armies. This required the continuous training of all officers. This tendency was reinforced by the growing influence of the natural and social sciences and technology, which developed rapidly in the 19th century, on the military.

The military education system was favored by an army reform movement, which sought to eliminate the grievances in the standing mercenary armies through improved education and training of the officers. General subjects continued to make up a high proportion of the curricula of the academies.

The training institute for young infantry and cavalry officers founded in Berlin in 1801 under Lieutenant Colonel of the Artillery Gerhard Scharnhorst (1755-1813) came closest to meeting the requirements of a higher educational institution for officers . In 1804, Colonel Gerhard von Scharnhorst was the soul of the reorganization that was carried out, which led to the formation of a training institute for the Berlin inspection and the academy for young officers .

Military training in Prussia

Innovations in the organization, structure and training of the armed forces and, as a result, the full formation of general staffs and war ministries required, in addition to the continuous training of all officers, a large number of specially trained, advanced and further trained officers. In the course of the military reforms (1807–1815) in Prussia, an academy was created for the first time as the highest military teaching institution on the initiative of Scharnhorst in 1810 with the General War School (since 1859 War Academy ).

Building of the General War School in Berlin, Burgstr. 19, Berlin before 1883.

The General War School was attended primarily by infantry and cavalry officers. Their task was to train officers for the senior adjutant career, the general staff and as teachers for the officers' schools (war schools). Artillery and engineer officers mostly attended the second (higher) course of the combined artillery and engineering school founded in Berlin in 1815, which had the character of an officers' school as well as that of an academy.

(Berlin, 1859-1919)

Higher officer training in Baden, Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony

Other states of the German Confederation also set up academies and reorganized existing educational institutions in order to meet the new requirements:

City map Hanover 1834; on the westernmost ravelin in extension d. Calenberger Strasse the " military school ;"
  • The Saxon military academy was created in 1816 from the merger of the engineering and artillery school and from 1819 to 1866 held several two-year courses to train general staff officers and higher commanders.
  • In Hanover there was a General Staff Academy from 1824 to 1834 , the courses of which lasted five years; it was merged in 1834 with the former military academy.
  • In 1831/32, Baden established a higher war school with three-year courses.

In the second half of the 19th century, the experiences of the Crimean War (1853–1856) and the Prussian-German wars (1864, 1866, 1870/71) and the arms race that began after 1871 influenced the further development of higher military education.

Based on the Prussian model, the Bavarian War Academy was established in Munich in 1867. It continued to exist for the Bavarian army after 1871, when the Prussian War Academy took over the training of general staff officers and higher commanders in all federal states of the German Reich .

Higher officer training in other European countries

In the course of the 19th century, other European countries also founded academies as the highest military educational institutions. For the land forces (the army) appropriate facilities were e.g. B. Created in Russia in 1830 and 1855, in Great Britain in 1858, and in France in 1878.

In Austria, an academy-like war school was founded in 1852 for the training and further education of staff officers.

Military technical training - 19./20. century

The maritime armament of the German Empire was prepared with the establishment of a naval academy in Kiel in 1872. The academy trained officers primarily for admiralty staff. The curriculum included military and technical and scientific subjects, although after 1900 the proportion of the latter fell in favor of military subjects.

The Cranzbau (1904/05) on Hertzallee , successor to the former Military Technical Academy

In connection with the rapid development of military technology, a military technical academy was set up in Berlin in 1903 with the aim of theoretical training and further training for officers of the artillery, pioneers and other technical arms. The academy did a limited amount of military engineering and research. In 1907 the combined artillery and engineering school was attached to it.

The visit to the Military Technical Academy was not well received by the officer corps. The training took place to a greater extent through the various courses, e.g. B. the artillery officers at the Jüterbog artillery shooting school .

(Berlin, 1876 to 1918)

Consequences of the war in officer training - early 20th century

After the outbreak of war in 1914, the German academies temporarily stopped teaching and working. The personnel losses in the years 1914/15 and the reorganization of associations and command authorities, however, led to a lack of trained staff officers and commanders. From 1916 onwards, short courses were held at the War Academy .

In most European countries, such academies for the armed forces and general warfare had also existed since the First World War, for example the Imperial Defense College in Great Britain .

The provisions of the Versailles Treaty (1919) prohibited the German military from maintaining academies and training general staff officers. The Reichswehr circumvented this prohibition by training assistant leaders using the so-called "Reinhardt courses".

In evaluating the experiences of the First World War, she also delegated a number of officers after passing the military district examination for so-called weapons technology special training to civil universities and colleges to study such subjects as bridge construction, ballistics, engine and aircraft construction. These officers provided the cadres for the technical general staff areas of the planned German armed forces and for the management of weapons and equipment development.

Military Academic Training of the Soviet Union - 1918 to 1945

After the establishment of the Red Army of Workers and Peasants ( Red Army , RKKA) in 1918, the first academies were opened by order of W. I. Lenin (1870-1924) in Moscow and Petrograd (from 1924 Leningrad ).

The first to start work was the RKKA General Staff Academy in December 1918 . Further academies emerged in connection with the military reform (1924–1928) and the technical re-equipment of the army and naval fleet in the 1930s.

From the beginning of the 1920s, a close collaboration with the German Reichswehr developed in secret. In terms of foreign policy, the Chief of Army Command, Colonel General Hans von Seeckt , advocated cooperation with the Soviet Union , as he anticipated a new war against France and Poland soon . In the autumn of 1923, the experienced military leader of the RKKA, Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky, was posted to Berlin. In the following weeks, as a liaison for the Red Army, he made direct contact with the Reichswehr leadership in order to further deepen existing military cooperation. Under his auspices, Russian military scientists and the Reichswehr secretly researched new weapon systems and methods of use until the Red Army discontinued its cooperation with the Reichswehr in May 1933.

Germany supported the development of modern technologies and the development of Soviet industry. On the one hand, commanders of the Red Army received general staff training (leadership assistant training) in Germany, on the other hand, German aviation and tank specialists were able to complete training on Soviet soil up to 1933.

By mid-1941 the number had increased to 19 military academies. In addition to the Academy of the General Staff, the Military Political Academy “W. I. Lenin ”and the Military Technical Academy “ F. E. Dzierzynski ”there were academies for the armed forces, branches of the armed forces, special forces and services, as well as 7 naval war schools and 10 military faculties at civil universities.

Military cadres of the international, revolutionary labor movement and the national liberation movement from various countries were also trained at the Soviet academies. They fought in the Spanish War (1936–1939) and in the anti-fascist resistance and partisan struggle during the Second World War.

Military academic training for the Wehrmacht - 1933 to 1945

The seizure of power and the establishment of the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany was followed by the open breach of the Versailles Treaty. In 1935 were Military Academy and the Naval Academy reopened and the Air War College and the Air Technical Academy (both in Berlin) recreated as higher educational institutions for the Air Force.

The two air force academies should provide further and advanced training as well as work on the solution of technical and military problems of the development of this branch of the armed forces as well as on the planned air warfare. The courses at the Air War Academy lasted 2 years and included short troop commands and so-called instruction trips.

The Lufttechnische Akademie initially aimed to train technical general staff officers. In the course of the armament of the Luftwaffe, it was incorporated into the Air War Academy as a technical facility in 1938 and the activities of its employees were geared towards supporting the teaching process.

The defense technology faculty established at the Technical University of Berlin fulfilled the tasks of a general technical academy . In addition, officers of the Wehrmacht continued to be sent to universities and colleges to study technical and scientific subjects after passing the entrance examination for the war academy.

In 1935 the Wehrmacht Academy was opened as a new educational facility. The program was based on its predecessors, the so-called "Reinhardt courses". In one-year courses, general staff officers from all branches of the armed forces received instruction in the conduct of joint operations and in general warfare, while higher-ranking Wehrmacht and state officials were instructed in questions of supplying and safeguarding the armed forces.

The commanders-in-chief of the three branches of the armed forces, who feared a loss of importance for their academies, largely boycotted this institution, so that the Wehrmacht Academy was closed again on March 31, 1938.

Consequences of the war in officer training - 1939 to 1945

With the beginning of the Second World War , the German academies initially ceased teaching and service. The Air War Academy was reopened on November 1st, 1939. By the end of the war she conducted 6 courses of varying duration, on which questions of air defense and support for the army played an increasing role.

As early as 1940, however , the War Academy held courses again, which had to be constantly expanded from 1941. This was primarily due to the high losses of commanders in the war against the Soviet Union and the rapidly increasing demand due to the reorganization of associations and command staff.

From 1943 the Naval Academy resumed its courses, each lasting 4 months.

The Lufttechnische Akademie regained its independence in 1942 under the name of the Technical Academy of the Air Force . Its task was to help reduce the technical backlog of the German Air Force. Since a separate career path as engineer officer had been created in the Air Force from 1940, a course for the qualification of engineers began there from 1944.

Post-war developments in Europe - after 1945

After the end of the war in 1945, the entire higher military education system was influenced by the experiences of the Second World War, the military-political changes in the world and, since the 1950s, in particular by the far-reaching changes in military technology with their effects on the armed forces and their command and deployment methods. The number of academies increased, with increasing specialization taking place.

Developments in the NATO Alliance

The NATO Defense College (NDC), which was founded in 1951 on the proposal of Dwight D. Eisenhower , was initially located in Paris as a NATO military academy for staff officers and generals of the Alliance forces , and from 1966 moved to Cecchignola , a district in the south of Rome (IT ).

The academies of the NATO countries are in close contact with the academies of the Bundeswehr (Bw). These include the Bundeswehr leadership academy (from 1957 Bad Ems , since 1958 Hamburg ), which was specifically linked to the former military academy, and the Bundeswehr Medical and Health Academy (1963 Munich), which was redesigned and restructured as a medical academy from 2013 of the Bundeswehr ( Munich ).

After a military administration school was established in Mannheim in 1956 , the Academy for Defense Administration and Defense Technology was founded in 1961 . In 1974 it was renamed the Federal Academy for Defense Administration and Defense Technology . As part of the realignment of the Bundeswehr, it was integrated into the Bundeswehr's newly established training center at the end of 2012 .

In military terms, officer candidates are trained at so-called officer schools; unlike in other countries, there are no military academies in Germany that are comparable to the French Saint Cyr or the American West Point and are geared towards basic degrees.

Developments in the Warsaw Treaty Organization

The military academies of the Soviet Union were the highest educational institutions of the armed forces of the USSR and centers of military scientific research of the USSR, the tradition of which is continued by the present military academies of the Russian Federation.

After the Second World War, their profile, as well as their teaching and research activities, were adapted to the corresponding requirements resulting from military-political and scientific-technical developments.

With the creation of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (1955–1990), numerous officers of the allied armed forces also acquired university degrees at Soviet military academies for the armed forces, branches of service, special forces and services.

A faculty of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR “K. J. Voroshilov “was intended for the study and courses of officers' listeners from abroad.

The Soviet academies supported the establishment and expansion of military academies and similar higher military educational institutions in other allied states.

Military academic training in the GDR - 1949 to 1990

In 1952, the higher officers' school of the Ministry of the Interior ( MdI ) of the GDR began its activity in Dresden. In the following year it was converted to the College of the Barracked People's Police (KVP). After the creation of the National People's Army (NVA) in 1956, the University of the NVA in Dresden was established without any academic claim .

The military academy "Friedrich Engels" (MAFE) of the National People's Army of the GDR in Dresden was the first military university to be founded in the GDR in 1959 and at the same time the highest military teaching and research institution and the center of military science research in the GDR.

Due to its internal structure, the military academy of the NVA of the GDR was unique among the military academies of the Warsaw contracting states, because all branches of the NVA with their branches of arms, special troops, forces, branches and services and the border troops of the GDR were bundled under one academic roof.

A specialty for German universities was the use of the military science discipline as a compact theoretical, methodological and organizational science building. In addition, the (social) social and technical sciences were represented.

The military academy had the right to award degrees to graduates and aspirants: diploma military scientist, diploma engineer, diploma social scientist, diploma teacher, doctor of a branch of science and doctor of science.

The School of Administration Enlightenment of the Ministry of National Defense of the GDR, founded in 1952 in Klietz , was converted into the Military Science Institute (MWI) of the NVA in 1979 and was given the right to award the academic degree of Diplom Military Scientist like a faculty of the military academy.

The military medical section at the University of Greifswald (MMS, 1955 to 1990) in Greifswald served the university training of medical officers in the medical, dental and pharmaceutical fields. From 1970 the section had the status of a faculty of the University of Greifswald and existed administratively parallel to the medical faculty of the university. She had the right to a doctorate A and a doctorate B. In addition to the qualification of medical graduates, stomatologists and pharmacists, military medical research projects were worked on.

The Military Medical Academy (MMA) of the East German NVA in Bad Saarow was a training and research institution with a university character. It was created in 1981 from the central hospital of the NVA Bad Saarow and had a clinic with 25 clinics, institutes and departments for all relevant medical specialties.

The Military Political College “Wilhelm Pieck” (MPHS) in Berlin-Grünau was founded in 1968 and received university status in 1970. It was the highest military training institution for political officers of the NVA and other armed organs of the GDR. The MPHS had the right to award diplomas and degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Science.

In 1971, the Military Transport and Communications Section (MTW) ​​at the University of Transport “Friedrich List” in Dresden was entrusted with the academic diploma training and postgraduate training in special uses.

In 1971 the officers' schools of the armed organs of the GDR received university status as military teaching institutions for the training of officers.

The officers' colleges (OHS) of the armed forces of the NVA and the border troops of the GDR served to train officers as professional soldiers or officers on a temporary basis. The students were officer students (OS) and carried the appropriate OS ranks . In addition to citizens of the GDR, this training was also open to citizens of other countries.

After completing their training, the graduates were appointed to the first officer's rank and were allowed to use the professional titles “university engineer” or “university economist”. The diploma law was transferred to the officers' colleges in 1982.

Existing military academies, structured according to continents

Continent Europe

Germany - Bundeswehr

Coat of arms FüAk of ​​the Bundeswehr

The command academy of the Bundeswehr does not train aspirants, but primarily provides general staff training for top service posts as command assistants and future troop leaders of the Bundeswehr, and since 1970 also training to become a staff officer.

The “civilian academic training with a university degree for all soldiers” remains separate and is carried out at the civilian-structured universities of the Bundeswehr. The academic degrees achieved are on an equal footing with the academic degrees of the state universities, the studies are carried out in accordance with the state university laws of the host countries (Free State of Bavaria, Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg). The soldiers concerned are seconded to civilian universities for medical courses, and there are also officer candidates with academic degrees prior to joining the armed forces. Officer candidates are trained in military matters at so-called officer schools; unlike in other countries, there are no military academies in Germany that offer basic degrees comparable to those of the French Saint-Cyr or the American West Point.

Military and academically oriented universities of the Bundeswehr

Military academies of the Bundeswehr (without academic degrees in the strict sense)


Today's Military Academies of the Russian Federation (RF) continue the traditions of the Military Academies of the Soviet Union (USSR). They are the highest educational institutions of the armed forces of Russia and centers of (military) scientific research. This includes:

Other European countries

  • Belgium
    Building of the former military school in Saint-Cyr-l'École FR
    • Royal Military Academy (Brussels)
  • France
    • Saint-Cyr Military School
    • École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (FR)
  • Great Britain
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst  UK
    • Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
  • Italy
    • Accademia Militare di Modena
  • Kosovo
    • Qendra Për Studime Universitare
  • Norway
    • Krigsskolen
  • Austria
    • National Defense Academy in Vienna
    • Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt
    • Army sergeant academy in Enns
  • Poland
    • Academy of Martial Arts in Warsaw
    • Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie (Technical Military Academy) in Warsaw
    • Akademia Marynarki Wojennej (Naval War Academy) in Gdansk
  • Romania
    • Technical Military Academy Bucharest
  • Switzerland
    • Military Academy (Switzerland)
  • Serbia
    • Belgrade Military Academy
  • Slovakia
    • Liptovký Mikuláš Military Academy
  • Hungary
    • Military Academy Budapest - Ludoviceum

Non-European continents

United States

In the United States, officers are trained at the armed forces' military academies. The officer candidates in these academies are active soldiers and must serve five years of active service in the armed forces after graduation. The United States Merchant Marine Academy is excluded from this. She is not part of the armed forces, but the graduates are reserve officer candidates in the US Navy and are required to serve as reserve officers in the United States Navy Reserve for eight years .

United States Military Academy at Westpoint

In the USA, a senior military college is a college or university that has a special legally regulated status in the context of officer training. In addition to civil colleges and the Military Junior Colleges (MJC), they are the third form of colleges for the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), a training program for officers in the US armed forces . The senior military colleges maintain a cadet corps , in which all officer candidates of the ROTC are militarily organized, receive military training and are subject to the rules of military discipline. They train according to the standards of the military academies.

The following six colleges have this status:



  • Japan:
    • Army University (Japan)
    • Naval College (Japan)
  • Thailand: Chulachomklao Military Academy


  • Royal Military College Duntroon

See also


  • Author collective: Dictionary of German military history. 2 vols., A – Me, Wed – Z. 2nd, revised edition. Military publishing house of the GDR, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00239-8 .
  • Military encyclopedia dictionary (Russian): Военный Энциклопедический Словарь (ВЭС). (Ed.) Ministry of Defense, Institute of Military History. Under main editorial office v. SF Achromeev (Chairman), 2nd edition, Military Publishing House, Moscow 1986.

Web links

Wiktionary: Military Academy  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 629 .
  2. Author collective: Military encyclopedia dictionary (Russian) . Военный Энциклопедический Словарь. Moscow 1986, p. 135 .
  3. Author collective: Military encyclopedia dictionary (Russian) . Военный Энциклопедический Словарь . Moscow 1986, p. 135 .
  4. An older form of the name that was used in the 6th century BC. Apparently still predominant was Hekademos , accordingly Hekademeia ; see Marie-Françoise Billot: Académie (topographie et archeologie) . In: Richard Goulet (ed.): Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques , Vol. 1, Paris 1989, pp. 693–789, here: 697 f.
  5. For the topography and the excavations, see the overview by Marie-Françoise Billot: Académie (topographie et archeologie) . In: Richard Goulet (ed.): Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques , Vol. 1, Paris 1989, pp. 693-789.
  6. Norbert Conrads: Knight academies of the early modern times. Education as a professional privilege in the 16th and 17th centuries . In: Series of publications by the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . tape 21 . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1982, ISBN 3-525-35918-7 (also: Saarbrücken, University, habilitation paper, 1978: Academia equestris).
  7. ^ Pierre Even: The House of Orange-Nassau . In: Series: German Princely Houses . No. 30 . Börde-Verlag, Werl 2009, ISBN 978-3-9811993-6-9 , pp. 22 .
  8. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 12 above .
  9. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 12 below .
  10. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 12 f .
  11. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 12 below .
  12. Viktor Alexandrow: The marshal was in the way . Ullstein-Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 161 .
  13. Jump up ↑ Gerd: The Tukhachevsky saga . Rolf Kaufmann Druck und Verlag, Eichstätt 1990, ISBN 3-927728-04-7 , p. 176 .
  14. ^ Helm Speidel: Reichswehr and Red Army . In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte . Volume 1, Issue 1. Munich 1953, p. 41 f .
  15. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 14 .
  16. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 13 .
  17. Hansgeorg Model: The German General Staff Officer - His selection and training in the Reichswehr, Wehrmacht and Bundeswehr . Bernard & Gräfe, Frankfurt am Main 1968, p. 63 .
  18. Author collective: Dictionary on German military history . Wed - Z. 2nd, revised edition volume 2 . Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-327-00478-1 , p. 13 .
  19. ^ Peter W. Ragge: Bundeswehr builds a central education center in Mannheim . In: Mannheimer Morgen . December 14, 2012, p. 20 .
  20. ^ Ministry for National Defense of the GDR (MfNV): location database of the National People's Army of the GDR . Abbreviation MAFE. Ed .: Military History Research Office MGFA. ( ).
  21. ^ Ministry for National Defense of the GDR (MfNV): location database of the National People's Army of the GDR . Abbreviation MAFE. Ed .: Military History Research Office MGFA. ( ).
  22. ^ Ministry for National Defense of the GDR (MfNV): location database of the National People's Army of the GDR . Abbreviation MAFE. Ed .: Military History Research Office MGFA. ( ).
  23. ^ Ministry for National Defense of the GDR (MfNV): location database of the National People's Army of the GDR . Abbreviation MAFE. Ed .: Military History Research Office MGFA. ( ).
  24. Stellenbosch University - About Us ( Memento from May 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive )