Mürwik Naval School
Naval School Mürwik
|Lineup||Imperial Navy: 1910 (opening)
German Navy: July 5, 1956 / November 1, 1956 (school operation)
|Armed forces||armed forces|
Flensburg - Mürwik (since 1956)
|commander||Flotilla Admiral Wilhelm Tobias Abry|
|Deputy Commander and Head of Training Group||Frigate Captain Kurt Leonards|
The architect was construction officer Adalbert Kelm from the naval construction administration in Kiel. The model was the Marienburg Order Castle , which corresponded to the wishes of Kaiser Wilhelm II . He had various castle projects realized at the same time: the reconstruction of the Hohkönigsburg (1901–1908), the renovation of the Marienburg Ordensburg (1896–1918) and the new construction of the Posen residential palace (1905–1913). The red brick building complex is located on the Flensburg Fjord and is therefore also known as the Red Castle on the Fjord, as well as the Red Castle by the Sea . The Osbek brook is located in a gorge on the south side . Further buildings for the MSM were erected in the area, including the marine water tower and the marine hospital in Flensburg-Mürwik .
When the school was built, an associated garrison church was also to be built. The plans initially envisaged a large four-tower castle church on the waterfront to the north of the school, which was to be enclosed by the castle wall, which was also later not expanded. However, the plans were not implemented. The auditorium should therefore be used as a prayer and church room . In the Weimar Republic there was a lack of money. During the Nazi era , the National Socialist state showed no interest. Since the 1930s, however, the Mürwik district had a small chapel. In the 1950s, the Bundeswehr participated in the construction of the Christ Church , which has served as the base's garrison church ever since. Around 2000, a small ecumenical chapel was also set up in the main school building . It is located next to the school auditorium , which is still used from time to time.
With the First Naval Law of 1898, the armament of the fleet began. Instead of 70 to 80, 200 sea cadets per year had to be trained. That is why the then State Secretary of the Reichsmarineamt Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz suggested the new building in Mürwik. It was to be built as a replacement for the Kiel Naval Academy and School, which was completed in 1888 . Vice-Admiral Volkmar von Arnim also saw political (social democratic) threats to the young navy in Kiel. Like its predecessor, the MSM was to serve the Imperial Navy for training naval officers . On June 22, 1903, Kaiser Wilhelm II approved the relocation. On May 9, 1905, the city council of Flensburg offered a 15-hectare site in the almost uninhabited Mürwik free of charge on the condition that the naval school would be relocated there by April 1, 1909. The Navy agreed and bought 2 hectares. The Mürwik Naval School was built in 1907 as a replacement for the Kiel Naval Academy and School . Only three years later, on October 3, 1910, the newly built school could begin training. Shortly afterwards, on November 21, 1910, the emperor, accompanied by Admiral von Tirpitz, traveled with the cable boat Sleipner and officially inaugurated the new building.
With the beginning of the First World War , teaching at the naval school was discontinued. The midshipmen and ensigns were distributed to the high seas fleet. Some of the vacant premises were then used by the radio school. As an officer school, the MSM also served the Reichsmarine and the Kriegsmarine after the First World War.
In 1920 the German soldiers had to leave the city; because they should not take part in the upcoming referendum on belonging to Germany or Denmark. British soldiers moved to the naval school. The said Sherwood Foresters regiment was supposed to oversee the process of the referendum in Schleswig . In June 1920 the Reichsmarine moved back into the naval school.
During the Second World War , the naval school remained undamaged in the air raids on Flensburg . At the end of the war, large parts of the main building belonged to the Flensburg-Mürwik naval hospital . After May 3, 1945, the school was briefly part of the Mürwik special area . The adjoining Marine Sports School served at the end of World War II and the Third Reich of managing national government under Admiral Karl Doenitz as the seat of government . On May 14, 1945 there was an incident in which the commanding officer of the school, Captain Wolfgang Lüth , was shot by a guard. On 18 May 1945, the school was allied soldiers by members of the SS searched. On May 23, 1945, the Allies occupied the Mürwik special area and arrested the Dönitz government . The naval school was then demilitarized and partially emptied by the British occupation forces. Model ships, paintings and the imperial flags that were at the main entrance of the Naval School came to the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich , London . Other items apparently ended up in the fund of the regimental museum of the King's Shropshire Light Infantry near London.
After the World War, the school was first used as part of the naval hospital , then as a pedagogical university (PH) and as a customs school. The mentioned PH later moved to the Volkspark . In the 1990s the PH developed into the Flensburg University . Today it is at the Sandberg . From 1950 to 1956, a large part of the naval school was the aforementioned Flensburg customs school , which had been established in Flensburg in 1938. In 1956 the navy needed the building again and the customs school left Flensburg. The inner German border had grown in importance and the Cold War had begun.
On May 2, 1956, the Marine Academy was set up in Kiel-Holtenau. As early as July 2, 1956, when it was relocated to Flensburg-Mürwik, it was renamed the Mürwik Naval School and taken over by the newly founded German Navy (since 1990 "German Navy"). Initially, the Marines and PH students shared the buildings, which eventually led to several marriages between teachers and officers. In the fall of 1959, the civilian use finally ended and the naval school became the sole owner of the house.
In the early 1980s, extensive restoration work began on the buildings, which should take almost 30 years. In 1989, five women graduated from the naval school for the first time. In September 1990, the first officers from the National People's Army began their training. After reunification on October 3rd, the school trained officer candidates from all over Germany for the first time, who were to serve the now common German Navy.
In 2010 the 100th anniversary of the Naval School was celebrated. Federal President Christian Wulff visited the school on August 13, 2010, the day the officer candidates were sworn in. The Deutsche Post published a “full print” on the occasion. It was an envelope on which the naval school was depicted, with a Gorch Fock postage stamp from 2008.
The naval school is led by a flotilla admiral as commander and is subordinate to the personnel, training and organization department head in the naval command in Rostock . It is divided into various teaching groups and special organizational elements. The school's commanding officer is also responsible for the training ship Gorch Fock .
Navy officers receive their general military training at the MSM. Technical and advanced training takes place at joint armed forces training facilities of the Bundeswehr and at technical schools for the Navy. The naval school has the training conditions and training evaluation continuously evaluated by the Social Science Institute of the Bundeswehr .
The teaching group for training with the teaching staff, who work here at the school as a military specialist or civilian teacher, develops the principles of officer training in the Navy and acts as the mediator between the regulations of training and the teachers. It includes the two specialist areas “Supervisor training ”And“ Nautics ”as well as the three specialist teacher groups for“ Law ”,“ Language Training ”and“ Sport ”.
The teaching group A with its three inspections is responsible for the training of officer candidates as well as for the professional training and further education of officers. It trains the officers in accordance with the principles of internal leadership as well as in the field of nautical science .
The school's third teaching group is the training ship GORCH FOCK.
The anchor-shaped main building, the actual naval school, has a length of over 200 meters on the water side. In addition to classrooms , offices and accommodation rooms for the officer cadets , it contains other rooms:
The two-aisled, flat-roofed colonnade with pointed arch arcades is located on the first floor of the east wing and was originally used as a "model hall". For many decades, not only ship models but also other changing exhibitions have been presented there. At the end of the colonnade hangs the portrait of Wilhelm II in Grand Admiral's uniform.
The remter serves as a dining room and is located at the top of the central flight of stairs on the water side of the main building. On the Remter walls there are frescoes of medieval Hanseatic cities , which were created from 1944 to 1955 by the painter Otto Thämer . The frescoes replaced the paintings on the remter from 1923, which showed naval war scenes from the First World War. The "Junior Navy Pub" is also located in the south wing.
The remter also received glass windows with the coats of arms of the five most important naval ports: Danzig , Flensburg , Kiel , Sonderborg and Wilhelmshaven . The windows in Flensburg, Wilhelmshaven and Kiel, which were destroyed in the Second World War, were replaced in 2010 by a donation from the Navy Officers Association on the occasion of their centenary.
The auditorium was planned and executed by Adalbert Kelm at the same time as the school was built. The ceiling of the auditorium houses the 26 coats of arms of the states of the former empire . According to the constitution of the time, the land forces were a matter for the states, while the “imperial” navy was borne by the Reich alone. In this context, Kelm wanted to refer to the unity of the empire with the ceiling design. The imperial eagle in the center of the ceiling looks unusually to the right as seen by the observer, but also to the water side with the Flensburg Fjord. The assembly hall of the Naval School Mürwik is currently being partially redesigned. In the future, it should also reflect the recent history of the German Navy. In the auditorium there are busts of Karl Rudolf Bromme , Albrecht von Stosch , Rolf Johannesson , Dieter Wellershoff , Adalbert von Prussia and Alfred Kranzfelder .
The library was established in 1910. The oldest book dates from 1573 and deals with star navigation. The library has over 60,000 media with a subject-specific focus related to the school and the navy. The library was initially located on the top floor of the central part of the main building. Their location had been determined by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz . But in the time after that she changed her location several times. Today it is located in the "South" teaching wing. The library is open throughout the week from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. It is also open on Monday and Wednesday until 4:30 p.m., and Tuesday and Thursday even until 7 p.m. Since 2009, the library has also been open to the public on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 2 p.m. to 7 p.m.
Since January 14, 1986, the nautical department of the Mürwik Naval School has had a Zeiss small planetarium suitable for astronomical navigation (ZKP 2 Skymaster) for the audiovisual display of the dome, which is equipped with 26 concentrically arranged seats, for the training of future officers, watch officers and nautical personnel in astronavigation with a diameter of 6 meters, as a successor to a device that was already installed during World War II. This only military planetarium in Germany is located in the east wing of the main building. The dome dates from the time of the Second World War. The next public planetarium is the Menke planetarium in Glücksburg . In contrast to this, the planetarium of the naval school uses a conventional projector in which the stars shine more intensely.
The dominant tower of the school was demolished in 1998 due to structural damage and rebuilt true to the original by 2000. The tower clock is also located in the tower, the clockwork of which can be seen inside. At the very top of the tower is a tower room, from which the school area and the fjord can be seen through windows on each side. The federal service flag flies on the tower .
From the original horticultural design of the outdoor area, only part of the lime tree avenue at the rear of the main building has been preserved, which was separately registered as a cultural monument. Large parts of the listed outdoor facilities are characterized by spacious lawns. The green roundabout in front of the south wing hides an overgrown fountain from the 1930s, which was also listed separately as a cultural monument. The nationalistic wording on the edge of the fountain was preserved, the imperial eagle that sat on the fountain was not. Here and there are memorial stones, statues, anchors and other maritime objects in the garden. On the water side is the so-called Admiralswiese.
The gate guard of the Naval School Mürwik serves as the main entrance to the Naval School.
Defense history training center (WGAZ)
The commander's villa was built with the school building and served as a residence for the respective commander and his family. Later it stood empty for a long time and fell into disrepair. From 1989 it was renewed by the then Schleswig-Holstein State Building Authority. Since 1991 the villa has housed the military history training center of the Mürwik naval school . The military history training center serves primarily to train officer candidates and naval officers. On four floors, the WGAZ opens up German naval history with over 10,000 objects, consisting of ship models , ship coats of arms , certificates , paintings , drawings , photographs , flags , uniforms and other maritime objects. The WGAZ also maintains the so-called bolt file .
Gorch Fock House
The Gorch-Fock-Haus was built with the main building of the naval school. Today it houses the Protestant Military Parish and Department S 12 of the Federal Language Office as the language service of the Naval School.
The marina of the Naval School Mürwik was built at the same time as the Naval School was built and is located below the outside staircase. It is a berth for motor and sailing boats, which are required for nautical training.
Tramped roof warehouse
The former tramp roof camp consists of accommodation barracks built in 1937 for officer candidates for the Navy. On February 22, 1940, the camp was named after frigate captain Claus Trampedach , who fell in the North Sea . Used as refugee accommodation after 1945, the camp was taken over as accommodation by the German Navy in 1956. Five of the former seven barracks were demolished (barracks 3–7). Barrack 1 was returned to military use. Barrack 2 is to be converted into an exhibition building in which the history of the “trampoline roof camp” is presented through exhibits, photos and information boards.
Marine sports school
The sports school was built from 1936 to 1937 and used as a naval service. In 1945 there was the actual official seat of the Dönitz government. The building complex is now largely a listed building and continues to be used as a sports facility. The simulator for nautical training (AANS) was installed in the northern building of the sports school .
Marine riding school
Initially, a guardhouse on the shipboy's school ship SMS König Wilhelm served as a stable for the training of the officer candidates. Back then, riding was considered an "officer's sport" like sailing and fencing. In 1937, the sports school in north arose Twedter Mark a big stables with associated riding area ( ). After 1945 the stables were used for civilian purposes. The newly established “Nordmark Driving and Riding School” began using the facility on March 3, 1960. In 1985 the riding facility was finally demolished. The local street Am Sattelplatz , which got its name in 1973, is still reminiscent of the riding stables with the riding arena. Today there are residential buildings in the adjacent area. The property of the marine riding school no longer exists today.
The Mürwiker open-air swimming pool (also: Mürwiker bathing facility and swimming facility), which was used for swimming training for soldiers, used to be located roughly below the trampoline roof camp on the banks of the Förde in the direction of Twedter Mark . When exactly it was set up is unclear. The swimming pool already existed in 1912. In the time after the war, the swimming pool was heavily used by the people of Flensburg. The swimming pool mentioned was demolished by the Navy sometime after 1965 due to its dilapidation. Previously, in 1963, the municipal indoor swimming pool in the Bahnhofsviertel in the southern part of the city had been opened.
After the open-air swimming pool was demolished, the Bundeswehr built a new swimming pool near the gate guard of the Mürwik naval school , the Mürwiker Bundeswehr swimming pool, which still exists today. Following the initiative of the District Swimming Association with the then Defense Minister Georg Leber , civilians were also able to train there from September 1975. For the swimming athletes of the DLRG and of clubs from the city and district area, including the Flensburg Swimming Club , there was the opportunity to train there in the early evening for six and then eight hours. From autumn 1996 the clubs increased their training units in the hall.
The building for the staff training is opposite the marine sports school on the other side of Fördestrasse. The workshop buildings were built as a training workshop for the practical training of technical officers in 1939/40. At that time, the Heinz Krey warehouse was located next to the building on Fördestrasse. After 1945 it was first used for civilian purposes. During the Cold War, the Bundeswehr technical school was located in the headquarters building .
Workshop building for weapons training
In 1938 the training workshop for the training of weapons officers was set up north of the trampoline roof warehouse at Twedter Mark . After 1945 it was used for civilian purposes and was taken over by the German Navy in 1960. The property last served as the headquarters of the former telecommunications area 91 until 2013 (see marine telecommunications staff 70 ). The buildings are now used by the neighboring Federal Motor Transport Authority .
Training equipment for nautical ship command (AANS)
The facility serves the theoretical and practical nautical training of prospective naval officers and bridge crews of the Federal Police Office See . For this purpose, a hydraulically movable ship bridge simulator was installed, which can display a realistic situation at sea with video projectors. Different ships with corresponding nautical behavior and characteristics as well as different weather situations and incidents (fire, system failures, collision, but no use of weapons) can be simulated. The bridge is connected via an intercom with six other cabins, in which only the most important devices for navigation are installed, so that a total of seven groups can virtually “go to sea” at the same time. In a central briefing room, the training sections are discussed beforehand and the maneuvers performed are analyzed afterwards using computer technology. The facility was housed in the adjacent marine sports school.
School ships were used for naval training even before the Mürwik Naval School was built (see list of German school ships ). In the 1930s, the ships of the Gorch Fock class , such as the Horst Wessel and the Albert Leo Schlageter , were apparently used for naval training at sea. But apparently the training ships were not yet directly under the command of the Mürwik Naval School. After the war, the Gorch Fock class ships were used as reparations. Even after the war, the school ships were not yet subordinate to the Mürwik Naval School. The school ships have been under the command of the school ships since 1961 . Their school ships basically served the training of the Mürwik Naval School. The Graf Spee and the Hipper , which had been commissioned in 1959, were decommissioned in 1964. In service, the training ship remained Gorch Fock (1958) and 1963, commissioned in Germany . When the command of the school ships was dissolved in 1966, the remaining school ships were placed under the command of the Mürwik Naval School. The naval training ship Germany was decommissioned in 1990.
Trips abroad by school ships contribute as “ambassadors in blue” to the promotion of international relations. School ships as warships under sail and without weapons are a magnet for the population and an exclusive platform for official receptions. When the cadets go ashore, not only the ship but also the crew appear in the harbor or in the cityscape, invites to discussions and represents the state in the world. The foreign policy of the state is supported by extensive reporting in the local press, by discussions at official receptions, and by meetings between the occupation and locals.
Each marine officer student is assigned to a newly formed crew of the respective year. The first crew of the Mürwik Naval School was Crew 09, which was drafted on October 1, 1910. Crew I / 56 became the first crew of the German Navy after moving into the building on August 7, 1956. Once a year, in July-August, the prospective naval officers are sworn in (see swearing-in and pledge by soldiers of the Bundeswehr ).
Foreign course participants at the Naval School Mürwik
As early as 1916-1918, Bulgarian naval officer candidates from the then machine school of His Majesty (Varna, Bulgaria) were trained at the Naval School Mürwik as predecessors of today's Naval Academy in Varna , a special moment in the genesis of the educational system of the navy and the naval officer corps in Bulgaria. It is therefore no coincidence that between the two world wars this phenomenon aroused sustained public interest in Bulgaria for the Mürwik Naval School and led to the publication of memoirs of cadets from Flensburg, even after 1945. The Warna Naval Academy is now a partner of the Mürwik Naval School in the course of the Cooperation between naval academies from NATO countries.
Even today, foreign navy members take part in the courses in Mürwik. The foreign course participants are now obviously assigned to the crews of the respective year.
Annual public events
An open house usually takes place several times a year. The Naval School takes part in the Open Monument Day . Once a year the Flensburg City Council meets in the school auditorium. Free tickets must be pre-ordered. For chamber music concerts in the school auditorium, tickets must be purchased in advance.
- Naval School Szczecin
- Naval Cadet Institute Berlin
- Naval Academy and School (Kiel)
- Imperial Navy
- Imperial Navy
- Federal Navy
- German Navy
- North wind (ship, 1945)
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