With peroral (from latin per "by about" and os, oris "mouth"; abbreviated .. P o for per os ) is in Medicine and Pharmacy the administration of a drug through the mouth followed by swallowing designated.
There are liquid and solid preparations for oral use.
The liquid dosage forms include solutions , emulsions and suspensions . If necessary, liquid forms are reconstituted from powders or granules immediately before use, for example if the liquid preparation is not stable enough over a long period of time. In the case of small-volume dosage forms to be dosed drop by drop, one speaks of "drops", while thick, sweet-tasting forms dosed with a measuring spoon or cup are called " syrup ". This shape is usually good for children.
The solid dosage forms are often more durable, easier to dose and are more able to cover up the unpleasant taste of some medicaments. They can also be manufactured with a modified release of active ingredients (e.g. prolonged , delayed, pulsating) or gastric juice-resistant (active ingredient release only in the small intestine , e.g. in the case of drugs that are sensitive to gastric acid ).
For ruminants such as cattle, there are intraruminal systems that remain in the rumen (rumen) for a longer period of time and that have a release time of a few days to several weeks, depending on the type of formulation and / or the release system. They are usually administered through the mouth with an application tube into the rumen.
The oral route of administration must be distinguished from buccal or sublingual administration, where the drug is applied to the cheek mucosa or under the tongue and the active ingredient is already absorbed in the oral cavity . Lipophilic , low-molecular-weight pharmaceuticals are absorbed directly into the large bloodstream via the approximately 200 cm² absorption surface of the oral mucosa , bypassing the first-pass effect . However, the absorption capacity of the oral mucosa is limited and is therefore only suitable for medicinal substances that are effective even in very low doses. This type of application is considered when presystemic metabolism means that intestinal uptake is insufficient (e.g. glycerol trinitrate ), or when a particularly rapid onset of action is to be achieved (e.g. fentanyl ).
Chewing gum containing active ingredients is not swallowed, but releases the active ingredient when chewed. This develops its effect either locally in the oral cavity or systemically after absorption of the active ingredient through the oral mucosa or in the digestive tract.
- Klaus Aktories: General and special pharmacology and toxicology: for students of medicine, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, chemistry and biology as well as for doctors, veterinarians and pharmacists. Elsevier, Urban and Fischer, Munich / Jena 2005, ISBN 3-437-42521-8 .