Charles Hermite
Charles Hermite [ ʃaʁl ɛʁˈmit ] (born December 24, 1822 in Dieuze , Lorraine , † January 14, 1901 in Paris ) was a French mathematician .
Life
Hermite left the École polytechnique as a student in a dispute after strict conditions were imposed on him for inadequate performance. In the following years he developed on his own, in particular in exchange with Joseph Liouville , to a productive mathematician. In 1848 he became a lecturer, in 1869 professor at the École Polytechnique; from 1876 to 1897 he only taught at the Sorbonne . In 1856 he was elected to the Académie des Sciences , in 1883 to the Roman Accademia dei Lincei . In 1857 he became a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburgelected; since 1895 he was an honorary member. He was elected as a corresponding member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1859; since 1884 he was an external member. In 1873 he was admitted to the Royal Society as a foreign member . In 1883, Hermite was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . In 1884 he became an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh .
Hermite was in close contact with Joseph Liouville , Charles-François Sturm and Augustin Louis Cauchy ; among his students were Gösta Mittag-Leffler , Jacques Hadamard and Henri Poincaré . For the latter he was even a doctoral supervisor; he married the sister of Joseph Bertrand and became the father-in-law of Émile Picard .
plant
Hermite worked in number theory and algebra , on orthogonal polynomials and elliptic functions . He obtained important results on doubly periodic functions and invariants of quadratic forms. In 1858 he solved an algebraic equation of the fifth degree using elliptic functions.
In 1873 he achieved his most famous result: He proved that Euler's number e is transcendent ; Building on Hermite's method, Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann proved the transcendence of the circle number π in 1882 (impossibility of squaring the circle ).
Eponyms
The following mathematical structures are named after Hermite:
- Hermitian differential equation , a linear ordinary differential equation of the second order
- Hermitian form , a bilinear form that is linear in the first, semilinear in the second argument, and complex symmetric
- Hermitian function , a sequence of functions that result from the multiplication of the Hermitian polynomials with the normal distribution
- Hermite interpolation , a method for polynomial interpolation that also takes derivatives of the function to be interpolated into account
- Hermitian conjugated (also Hermitian adjoint), the adjoint of a matrix
- Hermitian matrix , a complex square matrix that matches its adjoint
- Hermitian manifold , a complex Riemannian manifold with a Hermitian metric
- Hermitian normal form , a step form for integer matrices
- Hermitian operator , a term that is used inconsistently, mostly for a symmetric operator, a self-adjoint operator, or a substantially self-adjoint operator
- Hermitian polynomial , a sequence of polynomials that represent the solutions to the Hermitian differential equation
Furthermore is named after Hermite:
- (24998) Hermite , a Main Belt asteroid
- the lunar crater Hermite
Quote
"Je me détourne avec effroi et horreur de cette plaie lamentable des fonctions continues qui n'ont point de dérivées ..."
"With horror and horror I turn away from this deplorable plague of continuous functions that have no derivatives ..."
Individual evidence
- ^ Foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1724: Hermite, Charles. Russian Academy of Sciences, accessed December 19, 2019 (in Russian).
- ↑ Historical Academicians: Charles Hermite. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, accessed on December 19, 2019 .
- ↑ entry on Hermite; Charles (1822-1901) in the Archives of the Royal Society , London
- ^ Members of the American Academy. Listed by election year, 1850–1899 ( PDF ). Retrieved September 24, 2015
- ^ Fellows Directory. Biographical Index: Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002. (PDF file) Royal Society of Edinburgh, accessed December 19, 2019 .
- ^ Charles Hermite in the Mathematics Genealogy Project (English)
- ↑ Klaus Volkert: The history of the pathological functions . A contribution to the emergence of the mathematical methodology. In: Archive for History of Exact Sciences . tape 37 , no. 3 , doi : 10.1007 / BF00329901 .
Web links
- John J. O'Connor, Edmund F. Robertson : Charles Hermite. In: MacTutor History of Mathematics archive .
- Hermite's works and correspondence with Stieltjes
- Spektrum.de: Charles Hermite (1822–1901) December 1, 2012
personal data | |
---|---|
SURNAME | Hermite, Charles |
BRIEF DESCRIPTION | French mathematician |
DATE OF BIRTH | December 24, 1822 |
PLACE OF BIRTH | Dieuze ( Lorraine ) |
DATE OF DEATH | January 14, 1901 |
Place of death | Paris |