The term rainbow press is understood to mean illustrated weekly magazines that often deal with topics from the nobility or show business . The name is derived from the design in all the colors of the rainbow and the header on the title page. Another name is colored leaves . It is also sometimes assigned to the yellow press , a term that rather characterizes the daily sensational press . During the lifetime of the Persian Empress Soraya , the name Soraya-Presse had developed for this genre. In publishing jargon, the rainbow sheets are counted among the "entertaining women's magazines".
Format, distribution, target audience and design
The weekly papers form a considerable part of the press landscape. In the women's magazine segment (with approx. 21.6 million copies sold per edition in 2001) they occupy a 44 percent market share (2003). About 9 million of these magazines are sold every week. The weekly papers are differentiated from classic bi-weekly women's magazines and daily tabloid products. Originally and until the 1960s, the sheets of the rainbow press actually had a newspaper format and not the magazine or magazine format that is common today , which is why the expression rainbow newspapers became established.
Many rainbow sheets are specifically aimed at women and are "entirely tailored to the suspected entertainment and gossip needs of older women". However, it has been assumed since the 1960s that the actual reach of the papers extends well beyond the specified target audience. According to analyzes of the readership structure, rainbow leaves are and were in principle present in all classes of the population, with a female audience from the lower class being overrepresented from the age of around 49. As a result of multiple reception, in the 1980s a reading audience of around 32 million German citizens (at that time almost half of the population of West Germany ), well in excess of the circulation figures, consumed rainbow sheets. However, the proportion has fallen sharply in the past 20 years, which is why many publishers are trying to create a more youthful appearance or appropriate substitute products that appeal to younger women.
The choice of topics and the preparation of the rainbow press do not differ significantly from tabloid journalism and the tabloid media , the boundaries are fluid. Much of the reporting in the rainbow press is focused on people from prominent circles, who are usually assumed to have a certain image created by the editorial team and often also coordinated with those concerned themselves , and who are consolidated through recurring reporting. The coverage of Farah Diba , Silvia of Sweden , Lady Di , Caroline of Monaco or Letizia of Spain is emblematic of many other prominent nobles in Europe.
In general, there is a lot of work with emotional content and messages that are sensationally disseminated and, to a large extent, based on unproven or fictitious assumptions. Frequent topics are love relationships, public "scandals" and personal suffering such as illnesses , accidents or aging .
In addition to emotional reporting on the fate of celebrities and all sorts of gossip , fashion , cosmetics , diet and travel tips , health topics as well as advice and life help sections help to loosen up the reading diet.
The image of life conveyed in these magazines generally has conservative features. The readership is offered to cling to traditional values as a solution to cope with reality. In addition to this value orientation, which is often only conveyed subliminally, reading is intended to serve as a distraction and diversion.
Because of the high sales figures and the broad public, the rainbow press is a popular and highly competitive market for the advertising and PR industry. The pharmaceutical industry in particular invests large sums of money in advertising in this print segment, whereby pharmaceutical manufacturers primarily advertise over-the-counter drugs and health- promoting products in line with target groups . In line with this orientation of the advertising market, medical topics play an important role in the relevant reporting in the rainbow press.
From German history
- In 1725/26 the Leipzig professor Gottsched published “The Reasonable Blamers” and thereby respected women as readers for the first time with their own ideas about interesting reading material.
- 1932 - With the title “Neue Welt”, the Welt am Sonnabend Verlag distributes a forerunner of the rainbow press that flourished after the Second World War.
German-language magazine titles
|Magazine title||Publishing year||Publisher (as of 2018)|
|Avanti||2000||Bauer Media Group|
|Image of woman||1983||Funke Women Group|
|The golden leaf||1971||Funke Women Group|
|the new||1983||Bauer Media Group|
|The new sheet||1950||Bauer Media Group|
|The actual||1979||Funke Women Group|
|The new woman||1999||Klambt media group|
|Echo of the woman||1973||Funke Women Group|
|Woman currently||1965||Funke Women Group|
|Woman in the mirror||1946||Funke Women Group|
|Woman with heart||1949||Klambt media group|
|Leisure review||1970||Hubert Burda Media|
|Leisure week||2004||Bauer Media Group|
|Gala||1994||Gruner + Jahr|
|Lucky mail||1977||Ringier Axel Springer Media AG (CH)|
|Happiness Review||1986||Hubert Burda Media|
|InTouch||2005||Bauer Media Group|
|Take a rest||1993||Bauer Media Group|
|Mini||1986||Bauer Media Group|
|New post||1948||Bauer Media Group|
|New world||1932||Funke Women Group|
|New week||1998||Hubert Burda Media|
|Nice week||2000||Bauer Media Group|
|Schweizer Illustrierte||1911||Ringier Axel Springer Media AG (CH)|
|Have fun||1999||Hubert Burda Media|
|World of women||2001||Klambt media group|
|Week of the Woman||1999||Klambt media group|
- Walter Nutz: The rainbow press. An analysis of the colorful German weekly papers. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1971.
- Christa Kodron-Lundgren, Christoph Kodron: 20,000,000 under the rainbow. To the content analysis of the rainbow press (= series Hanser 210 communication research ). With a foreword by Jürgen Ritsert . Hanser, Munich et al. 1985, ISBN 3-446-12204-4 .
- Johannes Raabe: Rainbow press. In: Günter Bentele , Hans-Bernd Brosius , Otfried Jarren (eds.): Lexicon of communication and media studies. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-13535-X , p. 243.
- Oskar Stodiek: The media agenda in medical journalism in the “rainbow press”. Theming pattern of a type of print media. Lit Verlag, Berlin 2009 (dissertation, Bochum 2008), ISBN 978-3-643-10054-2 .
- Friedrich Wehrle , Holger Busch: Developments and perspectives in the consumer magazine market. In: Andreas Vogel , Christina Holtz-Bacha (ed.): Journals and magazine research (special issue 3/2002 of the journal Publizistik ). 2nd edition, Springer VS , Wiesbaden 2002, pp. 85-108 (here: p. 98).
- Oskar Stodiek: The media agenda in the medical journalism of the "rainbow press". Berlin 2009, pp. 85, 146, 309.
- Wolfgang Koschnick (1996), quoted from Oskar Stodiek: The media agenda in the medical journalism of the “rainbow press”. Berlin 2009, p. 152.
- Oskar Stodiek: The media agenda in the medical journalism of the "rainbow press". Berlin 2009, p. 149 f.
- Georg Seeßlen , Bernt Kling : The great entertainment lexicon. Western, science fiction, horror, crime, adventure, comedy, romance, home and family, sports and games, sex. Gondrom Verlag, Bayreuth o. J. (1982), p. 134.
- Norbert Schulz-Bruhdoel, Katja Fuerstenau: The PR and press fibula (= BBC book. ). 5th updated edition. FAZ Institute for Management, Market and Media Information, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-89981-170-4 , p. 109.
- Oskar Stodiek: The media agenda in the medical journalism of the "rainbow press". Berlin 2009, p. 163 ff. (Chapter: Medical journalism and the “rainbow press”: configuration of an interdependence ).