Frederick Philip Grove

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Frederick Philip Grove (born February 14, 1879 as Felix Paul Greve in Radomno, West Prussia , † August 19, 1948 in Simcoe , Ontario ) was a German-Canadian writer and translator .


Felix Paul Greve was born on February 14, 1879 in Radomno (then West Prussia) as the son of Eduard and Bertha Greve (née Reichentrog). After a stay as estate manager in Pomerania, the family moved to Hamburg in 1881 . After their parents separated in 1892, Greve lived with his older sister (who emigrated to the USA soon afterwards) with his mother, who ran a pension. He attended elementary school and secondary school in St. Pauli , then the secondary school and finally the "learned school" of the Johanneum , where his special talent for languages ​​was shown. He passed his Abitur in 1898 . He then studied classical philology and archeology with the help of several scholarships at the universities in Bonn and Munich , interrupted by a stay at the German Archaeological Institute in Rome 1900/1901. While his studies in Bonn had been shaped by his activity in an academic rowing club, Greve tried to join the circle around Stefan George as an author and translator in Munich, where he developed extensive translation activities ; At times there was a close friendship with Karl Wolfskehl . During this time Greve's extensive occupation with Oscar Wilde fell . In Munich he published his first volume of poetry and a monodrama .

From Munich, Greve went to Berlin in 1902 , where he had a relationship with Else Endell, nee. Ploetz , the wife of the architect August Endell , whom he had met in Munich. He ran off to Palermo with her. On the return journey Greve was arrested in Bonn in 1903; a former homosexual friend from university had urged him, presumably out of jealousy, to repay a private loan and reported him in the event of insolvency. Greve was sentenced to one year in prison for fraud ; while serving his imprisonment in Bonn prison he worked as a prolific author , editor and translator and made contact with André Gide and HG Wells . Afterwards Greve lived with Endell in Switzerland , France and again in Berlin. They married in the spring of 1907. He continued to translate from English and French and, in addition to two novels, also wrote essays and a play (accepted for performance by the German stage, but lost). In 1909 Greve, who was constantly struggling with large debts and who had most recently sold his translation of Jonathan Swift's prose writings to two different publishers at the same time, saw no alternative but to fake suicide and leave Europe on board the Megantic in June 1909 .

From Liverpool , Greve traveled to Montréal , then to Toronto and New York. In America he assumed a new identity under the name "Frederick Philip Grove" . His wife Else followed him to Pittsburgh in 1910 ; they lived in Kentucky until their separation in 1911 or 1912 . Else is known in New York as von Freytag-Loringhoven , Dadaist countess , artist model and poet. In 1912 Grove went to the Canadian province of Manitoba . In the following years he taught as a teacher and principal in various smaller towns in the country. In 1914 he married his teacher colleague Catherine Wiens. In 1921 he received Canadian citizenship . In 1922 he took the external examination for a Bachelor of Arts in French and German at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. Grove's first works in English appeared from 1922; In 1924 he gave up his teaching job for health reasons. In 1928/29 the author Grove undertook three extensive reading and lecture tours through Canada , which made him known nationwide. In 1929 the family moved to Ontario . In 1931 she settled in Simcoe. Grove worked there in addition to his writing work, various activities, including as a publishing editor ; his economic situation remained critical until his death despite growing literary fame, so that he was repeatedly dependent on financial support from the Canadian Authors' Association . In 1941 he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Canada , in 1946 he received honorary doctorates from the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg and Mount Allison University , in 1947 he was awarded a prestigious Canadian literary prize, Governor General's Award , for his partially autobiographical work In Search of Myself , awarded.

Grove's English-language works, which several times deal with his own experiences during his years in the American and Canadian Midwest , are now considered classics of Canadian literature . In his semi-autobiographical works, Grove spread the legend, made necessary by the First World War and the danger of internment, that he came from a British-Swedish family and, as the son of wealthy parents, traveled half of Europe in his youth. His German origins were only revealed in 1973 by the Canadian literary scholar Spettigue. Grove and his circle in Winnipeg and Ontario are considered pioneers in the development of Canadian literature between the world wars. His influence on the realistic prairie novel and later authors such as Sinclair Ross and Hugh MacLennan is very high. Grove also played a large part in the internationalization and professionalization of Canadian literature.

Collections and archives in Germany

The FP Greve / Grove collection in the " Klaus Martens Collection " in the "Saar-Lor-Lux Literature Archive, Saarland University and State Library " contains Greve's works in various editions, a number of manuscripts, an abundance of letters from and to Greve and poems . There are research papers by Martens zu Greve 1987-2009 as well as the materials for his five books on Grove from 1996-2007 and for articles. The collection has been made accessible by the library.

A second part of Martens 'collection contains books and material (correspondence, business documents, diaries, notes) on Max and Margarete Bruns and on the JCC Bruns publishing house around the turn of the century, Greves' first publisher.


Works in German

  • Hikes. Munich 1902
  • Helena and Damon. Munich 1902
  • Rand arabesques for Oscar Wilde. Minden 1903
  • Oscar Wilde. Berlin 1903
  • George Meredith and his style. Minden 1905
  • Fanny Essler. Stuttgart 1905
  • Master mason Ihle's house. Berlin 1906

Translations in German

  • Honoré de Balzac : Balzac's Human Comedy. Leipzig
    • Volume 1. A bachelor's life. 1908
    • Volume 2. Stories from the Napoleonic sphere. 1908
    • Volume 6. Splendor and misery of the courtesans. Part 1, 1909
    • Volume 7. Splendor and misery of the courtesans. Part 2, 1909
    • Volume 11. The Unknown Masterpiece
  • Robert Browning : On a balcony. In a gondola. Leipzig 1903
  • Robert Browning: The Tragedy of a Soul. Leipzig 1903
  • Robert Browning: Paracelsus. Leipzig 1904
  • Robert Browning: Letters from Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Barrett. Berlin 1905
  • Miguel de Cervantes : The novellas of Cervantes. Leipzig 1907
  • Miguel de Cervantes: The astute knight Don Quixote of the Mancha. Leipzig 1908
  • Ernest Dowson : Dilemmas. Leipzig 1903
  • Alexandre Dumas : The Count of Monte Christo . Berlin-Westend 1909
  • The stories from the thousand and one nights. Leipzig 1907–1908
  • Gustave Flaubert : The Temptation of St. Anthony. Minden 1905
  • Gustave Flaubert: Letters about his works. Minden 1906
  • Gustave Flaubert: travel sheets. Minden i. Westf. 1906
  • Gustave Flaubert: Letters to contemporary and guild members. Minden 1907
  • André Gide : The Immoralist . Minden 1905
  • André Gide: Paludes . Minden 1905
  • André Gide: An attempt at love and other short stories . Berlin 1907
  • André Gide: Saul, Berlin-Westend 1909
  • André Gide: The narrow gate . Berlin-Westend 1909
  • Junius: The letters of Junius. Leipzig 1909
  • Alain-René Lesage : The Story of Gil Blas of Santillana. Leipzig 1908
  • George Meredith : Richard Feverel's Examination. Minden 1904
  • George Meredith: Harry Richmond's Adventures. Minden 1904
  • George Meredith: Diana of the Cross. Minden 1905
  • Henri Murger : The Bohème. Leipzig 1906
  • Walter Pater : Marius the Epicurean. Leipzig 1908
  • Jonathan Swift : Prose Writings. Berlin 1909–1910
  • Herbert George Wells : Dr. Moreau's island. Minden 1904
  • Herbert George Wells: The time machine . Minden 1904
  • Herbert George Wells: The giants are coming! Minden 1904
  • Herbert George Wells: The first people in the moon. Minden 1905
  • Herbert George Wells: When the Sleeper Wakes Up. Minden 1906
  • Herbert George Wells: Outlook on the consequences of technical and scientific progress for human life and thought. Minden 1905
  • Oscar Wilde: Pointers. Minden 1903
  • Oscar Wilde: Dorian Gray's Portrait. Minden 1902
  • Oscar Wilde: Apologia per Oscar Wilde. Minden 1904
  • Oscar Wilde: The Portrait of Mr. WH; Lord Arthur Saviles crime. Minden 1904
  • Oscar Wilde: The Sphinx. Minden 1906
  • Oscar Wilde: The Pomegranate House. Leipzig 1904

Editor in German

Works in English

  • Over prairie trails. Toronto 1922
  • The turn of the year. Toronto 1923
  • Settlers of the Marsh. Toronto 1925
  • A Search for America. Ottawa 1927
  • Our Daily Bread. Toronto 1928
  • It needs to be said. Toronto 1929
  • The Yoke of Life. Toronto 1930
  • Fruits of the Earth. Toronto [u. a.] 1933
  • The Master of the Mill. Toronto 1944
  • In Search of Myself. Toronto 1946
  • Consider Her Ways. Toronto 1947
  • Tales from the margin. Ed. Desmond Pacey. Toronto 1971
  • The Letters of Frederick Philip Grove. Ed. Desmond Pacey. Toronto [u. a.] 1976
  • Poems. Winnipeg, Manitoba 1993
  • A Dirge for My Daughter. Selected Poems. Edited by Klaus Martens. Würzburg 2006

Translation in English


  • Hallvard Dahlia: Isolation and Commitment. Toronto 1993
  • Jutta Ernst, Klaus Martens (Ed.): Felix Paul Greve - André Gide: Correspondence and Documentation. St. Ingbert 1999
  • Irene Gammel: Sexualizing Power in Naturalism. Calgary 1994
  • The Grove Symposium. ed. John Nause. Ottawa 1974
  • Beate Hermes: Felix Paul Greve as translator for Gide and Wilde. Frankfurt 1997
  • Paul Hjartarson (Ed.): A Stranger to My Time. Edmonton 1986
  • Horst Immel: Literary design variants of the immigrant novel in American and Anglo-Canadian literature. Grove, Abraham Cahan , Rölvaag , Henry Roth . Peter Lang, Bern 1987 (Mainz Studies in American Studies, 21) Additional: Diss. Phil., University of Mainz 1986
  • Axel Knönagel: Nietzschean Philosophy in the Works of Frederick Philip Grove. Frankfurt 1990
  • Klaus Martens: Over Canadian Trails. FP Grove in New Letters and Documents Würzburg 2007
  • Klaus Martens: FP Grove in Europe and Canada. Edmonton 2001
  • Klaus Martens: Felix Paul Greve - André Gide. Correspondence and Documentation. St. Ingbert 1999
  • Klaus Martens: Felix Paul Greve's career. St. Ingbert 1997
  • Markus M. Müller: Felix Paul Greve, alias Frederick Philip Grove: Some observations on his personal process of palimpsest. in Müller, Robert C. Thomsen, David Parris Eds .: Passages to Canada: Eighteen Essayistic Routes Proceedings of the European Student Seminars on Graduate Work in Canadian Studies, 1. Brno University Press , 2002. pp. 86–95 (Zugl. Diss . phil. University of Trier , excerpt) full text see below links
  • Reingard M. Nischik , Konrad Groß, Wolfgang Klooss Eds .: Canadian literary history. JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2005; from unchang. 8th edition and as an ebook: Springer Nature , pp. 131 - 134 (presentation of his major English works; photo)
  • Desmond Pacey: Frederick Philip Grove. Toronto 1945
  • Desmond Pacey, JC Mahanti: Felix Paul Greve / Frederick Philip Grove: an international novelist , in: Yearbook "Bear of Berlin", ed. Association for the history of Berlin . 23 born in Berlin in 1978
  • Walter Pache: The Grove case , in degeneration, regeneration. Wuerzburg 2000
  • Walter Pache: The Grove case. Past life and afterlife of the writer Felix Paul Grove, in Deutsch-Kanadisches Jahrbuch - German-Canadian Yearbook, 5, 1979, ed. Hartmut Froeschle u. a. Historical Society of Mecklenburg, Upper Canada ISSN  0316-8603 pp. 121-136
  • Alice J. Pitt: Interference Phenomena in the Language of Frederick Philip Grove. Fredericton 1977
  • Julia Reinike: Frederick Philip Groves "A Search for America" ​​and "In Search of Myself". Kiel 2000
  • Marita Roehl: Frederick Philip Grove (1879-1948). Berlin 1988
  • Douglas O. Spettigue: Frederick Philip Grove. Toronto 1969
    • dsb .: FPG: the European Years. Ottawa 1973
  • Margaret R. Stobie: Frederick Philip Grove. New York 1973
  • Ronald Sutherland: Frederick Philip Grove. Toronto 1969

Web links