Invalid Cemetery

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The Invalidenfriedhof
Map section in Berlin-Mitte (1915), the cemetery next to the Invalidenhaus
Gerhard von Scharnhorst's grave monument in 1925

The Invalidenfriedhof is a historic cemetery and memorial in the Mitte part of Berlin's Mitte district . It is located between Scharnhorststrasse and Berlin-Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal , north of the Federal Ministry of Economics . The complex is one of the oldest cemeteries in Berlin and is regarded as a testimony to Prussian and German military history as well as a memorial to the German Wars of Liberation from 1813 to 1815.

Destruction towards the end of the Second World War and in the GDR era, when part of the Berlin Wall ran through the cemetery , resulted in only around 230 graves being preserved on the 2.54  hectare site. A support association of the cemetery has been trying to preserve and restore the complex and grave sites since 1992.

Because of the historical and cultural importance of the entire complex and individual grave monuments , the Invalidenfriedhof is listed as a garden monument .

The cemetery in the 18th century


Map of Invalidenhaus with lands 1748 and 1882; the Invalidenfriedhof to the right of the Invalidenhaus
The oldest part of the Invalidenfriedhofs (grave field A), in the background the area of ​​the "commanders graves"

In 1746, King Friedrich II of Prussia had a house for the disabled set up near the Charité , in a largely uninhabited and desolate area northeast of the urban area surrounded by the Berlin customs wall . Since the opening on November 15, 1748, "lame war men", that is, war invalids, have been accommodated in it. They should provide for themselves as much as possible through agriculture, but also help to cultivate the area popularly known as the “Sahara”. Plans for a condominium for invalid soldiers had been among the kings I. Friedrich and Friedrich Wilhelm I gave. But it was not until the high number of disabled people in the first two Silesian Wars 1740–1742 and 1744/1745 prompted Frederick the Great to implement these plans.

The royal legacy included extensive land holdings of 134 hectares. The burial site was located directly north of the Invalidenhaus, at a windmill on Kirschallee (from 1860: Scharnhorststrasse) that was part of the overall facility. At the first burial in the new cemetery on December 20, 1748, the Catholic NCO Hans Michael Neumann from Bamberg was buried; the grave no longer exists.

Originally the "churchyard of the disabled community" only included today's grave field A in the northeast of the area, in which the commanders of the disabled house were later buried ("commanders' graves"). It is near the current farm yard and lapidarium . In 1769, a second part of the cemetery was opened to the west, today's grave field B. The remainder of today's cemetery area was still used for agriculture in the 18th century; in the area to the east of the Schönhauser Landwehrgraben (today Berlin-Spandauer-Schifffahrtskanal ) lay meadows.

The original cemetery was presumably fenced, but otherwise had no jewelry or path markings. A comprehensive design of cemeteries with the development of their own cemetery culture and park-like facilities did not begin in Prussia until 1794. In this year the “General Land Law of the Prussian States” came into force, which prohibited burials in churches and inhabited urban areas. By 1872, 18,000 burials took place on the area of ​​today's Invalidenfriedhof, in the entire history of the cemetery there were around 30,000.

18th century funerary monuments

From the early days of the cemetery there are some valuable tombs that reflect both the history of the place and the development of the Sepulchral Culture in Prussia up to the beginning of the 19th century.

Late baroque sarcophagus tombs

Gravestone of Gustav Friedrich von Schütz (1781), one of the six sarcophagus graves

Some of the oldest surviving tombs of the Invalidenfriedhof were only discovered in summer 1998 during installation and path work in grave field A. They are in the area of ​​the "commanders' graves". Six late Baroque sandstone sarcophagus graves from the period between 1774 and 1790 came to light, including the grave of the second commandant of the Invalidenhaus, Georg Christoph von Daembke (1719–1775). He was the first of 21 Invalidenhaus commanders to be buried in the cemetery until World War II. Daembke's predecessor Heinrich von Feilitzsch , on the other hand, was buried in 1768 under the altar of the Protestant Invalidenhauskirche. The six sarcophagi are richly decorated with inscriptions, ornaments, symbols of death and some with coats of arms. With their traditional design in the form of high baroque epitaphs , they represent a transition phase between church and cemetery burials at the end of the 18th century.

Hourglass as an allegory of transience; Detail on the sarcophagus of Elisabeth von Kottulinsky (1774)

The design of the tomb of Elisabeth von Kottulinsky (1767–1774), the oldest still existing grave in the cemetery, is touching and artistically outstanding. A (not completely preserved) inscription speaks of a “lady who died in blissfulness”, who died “on June 1, 1774, of an 18-hour Kriesel disease” ( tuberculosis ): “A child of good hope, her soul pleased God, so she hurried he with her out of this evil life, and moved her early into eternal joy and bliss. ”The reliefs on the girl's sarcophagus show beside lilies, sweet peas and roses the “ eye of God ” surrounded by putti heads , who watches over the dead , as well as torch and hourglass as allegories of the transience of human life.

Presumably, the six sarcophagus graves were filled in after the cemetery was flooded by the adjacent Schönhauser Landwehrgraben in 1829 in order to be able to raise this cemetery area. At the same time, the directly neighboring tombs are likely to have been raised and reinforced. This applies to the Diezelsky, Rohdich and Reineck monuments, for example. It is unclear why Daembke's tomb, unlike those of his successors Diezelsky and Reineck, did not appear worth preserving during this redesign.

The six sarcophagus graves were restored until 1999 after their rediscovery and, with careful conservation of the vaults below, raised to the level of the surrounding graves. The six grave monuments are among the oldest representative tombs in Berlin that have been preserved in the open air at the original burial site. Up until 1794, the nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie were usually buried in churches and attached tombs. Because of the fragility of the sandstone, the six sarcophagus tombs are protected by massive wooden covers in the winter months and can only be viewed in the warmer half of the year.

Commander's graves / grave pedestals

Diezelsky grave monument with portrait medallion
Reineck grave monument; behind the
farm yard with lapidary

One of the preserved monuments from the first decades of the Invalidenfriedhof is the artistically significant grave pedestal for the Colonel and Commander of the Invalidenhaus Michael Ludwig von Diezelsky (1708–1779). The draft for the early classical monument comes from the painter Bernhard Rode . It's nearly three and a half meters high. The altar-like sandstone pedestal shows on one side a medallion entwined with laurel festoon with a portrait of the dead person and inscriptions on the other sides. It is crowned by a shield, armor and helmet with a plume in an antique shape. The monument, which was damaged in World War II, has since been restored, and missing parts have been reconstructed.

The type of monument made of a pedestal with an attached decorative crown, mostly in the form of an urn, enjoyed great popularity in the early days of the Invalidenfriedhof. An impressive example is the late Baroque monument to the Invalidenhaus commandant Colonel Ernst Otto von Reineck (1729–1791) in grave field A. An urn is placed on the fluted column stump on a high substructure, surrounded by the heads of two slaves as well as coats of arms and one Dedication to the dead in relief. On one side of the column there are signs of fame wrapped in laurel, such as helmets, plumes, shields and swords, also worked as a relief. During a restoration between 2000 and 2003, missing parts of the monument such as the urn lid were reconstructed. In this context, a rock foundation was uncovered again, with which the grave monument was probably raised after 1829.

The grave of General and Prussian Minister of War Friedrich Wilhelm von Rohdich (1719–1796), also in Grabfeld A, has a decorative urn. The multi-tiered sandstone base fluted in a pontic bears inscriptions on the front and back. Its head is surmounted by the sweeping urn, which has another inscription below the cupa. A massive iron enclosure surrounds the tomb. It may not have emerged until the 20th century. The memorial was originally financed by the Rohdich'schen Legatenfonds , a foundation that has existed again since 1993 and goes back to the deceased. In 1998 she also commissioned the laborious reconstruction of the heavily damaged original.

The monument to Colonel Curth Paulino Gottlieb Heinrich von Arnim (1735–1800), Reineck's successor in the Invalidenhaus Kommandantur, located in Grabfeld A, is less elaborately designed than the three aforementioned pedestal monuments and an example of the early classicist plait style . This can be seen in the laurel garlands at the head of the sandstone plinth, which appear static, and in the urn, on which the sweeping forms of the Baroque have been reduced. On the front there is a calligraphic dedication for the dead with the dates of his life. The heavily damaged original base is now in the cemetery lapidarium. During the restoration, it was copied true to the original, and the lost urn was reconstructed from old photos.

With the grave monument for the Prussian Colonel Johann Friedrich von Pelkowsky (1737-1803) the tradition of the pedestal graves in grave field A continued in the early 19th century. However, the decorative urn here is already in the style of the French Empire of the Napoleon period. It has a slender, oval shape, which is further emphasized by the attached volute handles . The urn rests on a square, stepped base, which bears the dedication inscription on the front. Its upper end is drawn in and shows a leaf frieze. The monument is a recent reconstruction. The old base was too badly weathered to be restored; it is in the lapidary today. The lost jewelry urn could be recreated on the basis of old photos.

The cemetery in the 19th century

Development of the entire system

Historical cemetery plan with grave fields and prominent grave complexes (1925), arrow points approximately NNE

Until the beginning of the 19th century, the "Invalidenhaus-Gemeinde" (or "Military Community"), whose members were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof, grew continuously. In addition to the residents of the Invalidenhaus and their families, it also increasingly included civilians who worked for the Invalidenhaus or who had settled on its extensive grounds. Among them were mainly representatives of lower classes such as craftsmen, traders, innkeepers, and later also industrial workers from the nearby " Tierra del Fuego ". 1806 was established for civilians formally separate church that parochial but still belonged to the Invalides. The members of the new evangelical "Invalidenhaus civil parish" lived in the vicinity of the Invalidenhaus in what is now the Berlin districts of Mitte and Moabit .

The church services of this congregation took place in the evangelical chapel of the Invalidenhaus, but were separate from the military services. Most of the members of the new congregation, which was to grow to 5,000 members by the middle of the century, were still buried in the Invalidenfriedhof. In the same way, a small Catholic civil parish was established that was connected to the Invalidenhaus. Until 1816, civilians were buried in the same grave fields as those of the military and their families. It was then separated so that today's grave fields A and B were mainly used by the invalids' house, while today's grave field D was used by the two civil parishes. Existing death lists show that by the middle of the 19th century, significantly more civilians than the military or their family members found their final resting place in the Invalidenfriedhof, in 1850, for example, 236 civilians compared to only 20 members of the military community.

1824 determined a cabinet order from King Friedrich Wilhelm III. that a large part of the land in the handicapped house should go up for sale. At the same time, a passage stipulated that the invalids' cemetery was an indivisible piece of land and should be preserved in its entirety. In addition, a special field (today's grave field C) should be shown in the cemetery, which should be reserved for the “armed forces” who were to be buried here “on higher orders”, that is, by order of the king. The background was long-term efforts by artists such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Peter Joseph Lenné to create a cemetery of honor (campo santo) for those who died in the wars of liberation against Napoleon . However, these ambitious plans failed because of practical obstacles, including the fact that many of these military men were buried in the family crypts.

Schinkel's design for the Köckritz grave, which has not been preserved (around 1822)

As a substitute, at least individual graves should be decorated by the military in the Invalidenfriedhof. This was especially true for the planned tomb of General Gerhard von Scharnhorst (1755–1813), whose friends had the deceased transported from his original burial site in Prague to Berlin in 1826 . In addition to the impressive Scharnhorst monument, which was erected until 1834, Schinkel was also responsible for the graves of Lieutenant General Karl Leopold von Köckritz (1744–1821), General Friedrich Bogislav Emanuel Tauentzien von Wittenberg (1760–1824), from the brothers, by royal order General Otto Carl Lorenz von Pirch (1765–1824) and Lieutenant General Georg Dubislaw Ludwig von Pirch (1763–1838) and Lieutenant General Job von Witzleben (1783–1837). Of these, only the Köckritz tomb has not survived.

Tomb of Kessel (1827) in the cross of the main roads

As requested by Schinkel and others, the reputation of the Invalidenfriedhof rose through these graves. In 1835 the cemetery was completely redesigned by creating a cross-shaped path system. At the same time, the division into alphabetically ordered grave fields was introduced, which is still used today. Linden avenues now crisscrossed the area, which was laterally bordered by bushes. The unfavorably located grave of Gustav Friedrich von Kessel (1760–1827), who had been buried a few years earlier as the first Invalidenhaus commandant outside of the previously preferred area of ​​the “commanders' graves”, had to be integrated into the center of the cross at the front. The unpopular deceased wanted to be buried in the middle of the Way of the Cross, "because he did not avoid anyone during his lifetime".

Other representatives of the Wars of Liberation such as the educationalist Karl Friedrich Friesen (1784–1814), the General and Minister of War Gustav von Rauch (1774–1841) and the General Field Marshal and Minister of War Hermann von Boyen (1771–1848) were buried here in the 1840s. However, the Invalidenfriedhof never achieved the status of a central memorial for the Prussian or later the Reich German military. Up until the 20th century, many soldiers were buried here mainly because they had a relationship with the house for the disabled or because this was the traditional burial place of their families. Among the soldiers of the Wars of Liberation who found their grave in the Invalidenfriedhof, those who did not own land in Prussia and who therefore had to be buried in a public cemetery dominate. The historian Laurenz Demps sees the transformation of the invalids' cemetery into the burial place of important military personnel as a "spontaneous development", which only later experienced a propaganda exaggeration in the late imperial era and after the First World War.

Visitors to the cemetery under the "Königslinde" dedicated to Friedrich II on the canal (1897)
Memorial to those killed in the war of 1866 (1925)

In the 1840s, the facility of the Invalidenpark designed by Lenné on the agricultural land of the Invalidenhaus that was no longer needed added additional value to the surroundings of the Invalidenfriedhof. Lenné's further plans to include the cemetery in an urban and horticultural redesign of the entire area were not implemented. After an objection from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, the same applied to the proposal of the Berlin Police President to build roads on both sides of the same road from 1848 when the Schönhauser Landwehrgraben was expanded into the Berlin-Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal . This would have curtailed the possible western expansion areas of the cemetery.

There are indications that the growth of civil parishes led to a lack of space in the cemetery as early as the 1830s. In 1835 a part of the Protestant civil parish was separated for the first time and assigned to the new parish of St. Johannis in Moabit. Further divisions of the community followed. Grave leveling is documented for the 1840s, which only affected the civil parishes due to the expiry of the waiting period (the members of the Invalidenhaus community did not have to pay for the grave sites). In the 1860s, the cemetery was finally extended to the west as far as the canal and today's grave fields E, F, G and H were designated, as well as an area on Scharnhorststrasse that is no longer part of the cemetery as grave field I.

On March 24, 1848, the soldiers who died in the barricade battles of the March Revolution were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof . In their honor, a 44-meter-high, cast-iron memorial column (" Invaliden Column ") was erected in the neighboring Invalidenpark by 1852 . For the civilian victims of 1848, however, the cemetery of the March fallen in Friedrichshain was established. 49 Prussian, 32 Austrian and 3 Saxon soldiers killed in the German War were buried in a mass grave in Grave Field I, which has not been preserved, in 1866. A memorial was erected for them at the same place.

From the second half of the 19th century, personalities who had no connection to the Invalidenhaus or the civil parishes, including well-known state officials, theologians, writers and entrepreneurs, were allowed to be buried in the Invalidenfriedhof. They included the director of the Berlin-Hamburg railway company and architect of the nearby Hamburg train station Friedrich Neuhaus (1797–1876), the mechanical engineering and iron foundry entrepreneur Johann Friedrich Ludwig Wöhlert (1797–1877), the engineer and hydraulic engineer Gotthilf Hagen (1797 –1884) and the construction technician and inventor Carl Rabitz (1823–1891). Of these graves, however, only that of Hagen in grave field C has been preserved. Neuhaus' grave has been marked by a restitution stone since 1994 .

Grave complex for the sisters of the Augusta Hospital (rebuilt in 1995)

In 1868 the Augusta Hospital opened on Scharnhorststrasse, opposite the Invalidenfriedhof . Some doctors from this hospital were later buried in the Invalidenfriedhof. Empress Augusta , the namesake of the hospital, acquired a common grave site for the hospital sisters in Grabfeld B in 1886, so that “the sisters should also be united in their eternal rest, just as they were united in life in serious work”. The care of the grave was incumbent on the respective superior of the hospital. After 1990, 21 (mostly aristocratic) sisters could be identified, who were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof between 1870 and 1946. A grave slab with their names was laid in 1995 at the historical site.

In 1860 the Catholic civil parish broke away from the Invalidenhaus and merged into the new St. Sebastian parish , whose members were no longer buried in the Invalidenfriedhof. Most of the members of the surviving Protestant civil parish also had to look for other burial sites from 1870 onwards. However, wealthy parishioners could continue to secure a grave site at the Invalidenfriedhof by paying increased fees, especially if they could refer to a corresponding family tradition. Nevertheless, from the imperial era onwards, the Invalidenfriedhof was only perceived as a cemetery for the burial of deserving soldiers. The inauguration of the new Kaiserin Augusta Church (also known as "Gnadenkirche" ) on the grounds of the Invalidenpark marked the final separation of the Protestant civil parish from the Invalidenhaus and its cemetery in 1895.

19th century grave monuments

As a result of the Napoleonic Wars , in the first two decades of the 19th century there were hardly any representative tombs like those created in the 18th century with the sarcophagus and pedestal graves. This only changed in the 1820s, when efforts to honor the soldiers of the Wars of Liberation began to produce high-quality works of art in the Invalidenfriedhof. It was thanks to important architects and sculptors such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Friedrich August Stüler , Christian Daniel Rauch and Christian Friedrich Tieck that the following era became the artistically outstanding section of the cemetery history up to the middle of the 19th century . Most of the grave monuments they created or influenced in the Invalidenfriedhof could be restored after the destruction of the 20th century since 1990. The same applies to the tomb of Karl Friedrich Friesen, which appears to be particularly worthy of protection not because of its artistic design, but as a historical monument.

Tombs of the von Pirch brothers

Tombs of the Pirch brothers

The oldest surviving tomb, designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Invalidenfriedhof, was commissioned by the siblings of Lieutenant General Otto Carl Lorenz von Pirch (1765–1824), a participant in the Wars of Liberation and, since 1819, chief director of the Prussian War Academy and the Cadet Corps. Schinkel had to design a cast-iron tomb, which was to be produced in the Royal Prussian iron foundry .

In the base area, Schinkel's design largely corresponded to the grave monument that he had designed for General Friedrich Otto von Diericke , who was buried in the Alt-Schöneberg cemetery in 1819 . At Pirch, however, Schinkel chose military insignia instead of the more conventional decorative crowning with urns . It is possible that he was formally based on the Diezelsky grave monument located near Pirch's grave site in today's grave field A. The cast individual components such as base and writing plates were put together, and smaller decorative elements were partially attached with dowels.

The tombs in 1897 (oldest known photo of the Invalidenfriedhof)

The three-tier pedestal has a square floor plan. The zippus-shaped main base, which bears the inscriptions in Fraktur letters and the family crest of the deceased, rests on a lower base. It is closed at the top by an applied ornamental frieze band with central rosettes . An antique helmet with a plume, a wreath of laurel and oak leaves and a sword sit on the cover plate. The funerary monument was covered with green paint reminiscent of bronze.

Georg Dubislaw von Pirch (1763–1838), also a Prussian lieutenant general, who was buried next to his brother, was later given a similar memorial. The jewelry helmet was aligned mirror-inverted so that a symmetrical impression is created. Georg von Pirch's honor wreath is only made of stylized oak leaves. It is possible that both grave monuments were temporarily surrounded by an iron grille, which was removed before 1897.

The endangered grave monuments were dismantled in 1990 for safety and stored. During the restoration carried out in 1997 and financed by the Deutsche Klassenlotterie Foundation, numerous defects in the welding process were removed. The original slabs of Georg von Pirch's tomb were in such poor condition that they had to be replaced with new castings. The same applied to lost and damaged parts of the crowning of both grave monuments. Instead of the original screw connection using iron angles, a specially constructed stainless steel frame was chosen. The subsequent painting was done with a special paint that corresponds in color to the original version.

Grave of the von Scharnhorst family

Scharnhorst tomb, general view
Schinkel's perspective design for the Scharnhorst tomb

The most striking and important monument in the cemetery can be found in grave field C in the grave complex for General Gerhard von Scharnhorst and his family. Scharnhorst, army reformer and former minister of war , died in Prague in 1813 as a result of an injury sustained in the battle of Großgörschen during the wars of liberation.

In 1820 a commission chaired by August Neidhardt von Gneisenau commissioned Karl Friedrich Schinkel to design a chapel for Scharnhorst's grave in Prague. However, Schinkel's original draft was not approved. Schinkel then developed the unusual proposal for a free-standing high sarcophagus in several stages, for which the tomb of the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca in Arquà Petrarca could have served as a model. After Scharnhorst was reburied in the Invalidenfriedhof in 1826, the grave monument was also erected there.

Scharnhorst tomb, partial view with resting lion and frieze

In the center of the monument, based on Schinkel's design, stood the sarcophagus made of white Carrara marble with an inscribed capstone, resting on two columns . The relief around the sarcophagus was designed by Friedrich Tieck and shows scenes from the life of the general in an antique form. Theodor Kalide modeled the bronze sculpture of a sleeping lion resting on the capstone in the workshop of Christian Daniel Rauch ; It is considered the first independent animal sculpture of the Berlin sculpture school of the 19th century and was cast in 1828 in the Royal Prussian iron foundry near the cemetery from the metal of captured artillery.

The inauguration of the tomb, including the simple iron grille designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel , did not take place until 1834. The collaboration of the artists resulted in a striking masterpiece of classicist tomb art of the 19th century.

In addition to Gerhard von Scharnhorst, his sons August (1795–1826) and Wilhelm von Scharnhorst (1786–1854), his daughter Juliane (1788–1827), her husband Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten (1784–1859) rest on the enclosed grounds. as well as two sons of Wilhelm. The writer Theodor Fontane dedicated a separate chapter to the burial site of the Scharnhorst family in his walks through the Mark Brandenburg (Volume IV, Spreeland → Gröben and Siethen), in which the grave monuments of the named people are described in detail.

From 1990 onwards, the entire system was spanned by a protective plastic roof to secure the vulnerable marble in particular. However, since this had a strong impact on the visual impression, the Berlin State Monuments Office decided in 1995 to undertake a comprehensive restoration in which the marble sarcophagus and ceilings were replaced with artificial stone copies. The original Tieck relief is now kept in the sculpture collection of the Berlin National Gallery . The heavily corroded iron grille had already been restored in 1993. The tomb of Gerhard von Scharnhorst is designated as an honorary grave of the state of Berlin.

Grave of Friedrich Graf Tauentzien von Wittenberg

Gravestone Graf Tauentzien von Wittenberg with a cast-iron grave slab
Unrealized design by Schinkel (1835)

The very simple tomb of the Prussian general Friedrich Bogislav Emanuel Graf Tauentzien von Wittenberg (1760–1824) honors one of the most successful military men of the wars against Napoleon. Like the tombs of the Pirch brothers, it is not located in honorary grave field C, but in grave field A, near the "commanders' graves". Karl Friedrich Schinkel had advocated creating a more impressive memorial for the general with several designs that took up ancient and medieval forms. The plan failed, however, due to the widow's limited financial resources and the thrift of King Friedrich Wilhelm III.

Schinkel's design from 1835 is based on sarcophagus models, although a bronze-colored cover plate made of cast iron rests on the sandstone substructure. It was probably also made in the Royal Prussian Iron Foundry. Because of the importance that iron had during the rise of Prussia to industrial and military power, it was also appreciated as a material for works of art in the 19th century. Instead of the symbolic ornamentation of the Baroque, the focus is on the carefully crafted, seemingly raised, gilded inscription on the cover plate; the plate is otherwise only decorated with brass rosettes at the corners.

Similarly simple and artistically successful grave monuments with ornate metal cover plates on stone foundations can still be found at the Invalidenfriedhof on the graves of Lieutenant General Gustav von Kessel (1760–1827), General August Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen (1772–1856) and General Carl von Reyher (1786-1857).

The grave monument of Count Tauentzien von Wittenberg was extensively restored in 1998.

Tomb Job von Witzleben

Job von Witzleben's tomb; in the background remains of the Berlin Wall from the GDR era

The last grave monument designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Invalidenfriedhof adorns the resting place of Ernst Job Wilhelm von Witzleben (1783–1837), a royal Prussian lieutenant general, adjutant general and minister of war from 1834 until the year he died. Witzleben had also participated in several battles in the wars against Napoleon. The order to design a grave memorial for grave field C of the Invalidenfriedhof came in 1840 from King Friedrich Wilhelm III., Who had known Witzleben since his youth.

According to detailed instructions from the king, Schinkel oriented himself at the Köckritz tomb, which he had also designed on behalf of Friedrich Wilhelm almost 20 years earlier. The top of this monument, with the classic base, was influenced by Gothic design language. This corresponded with the appearance of numerous German monuments that had been erected in memory of the Napoleonic Wars and for which medieval models were also used. Schinkel himself created the most famous of these monuments with the national monument on Berlin's Kreuzberg .

Inscription, family coat of arms and commanders baton on the zippus

At the Witzleben monument, the three-part cast-iron base stands on a square substructure, the high zippus of which, raised and artfully executed, bears an inscription, family coat of arms and a commander's baton wrapped in laurel as a badge of honor. A high canopy rises on the cover plate, protecting a fully plastic Victoria with a laurel wreath and palm fronds. It is supported by bundle pillars and has eyelash-like networks under the four gable tips , which are bordered by pointed and round arches. Pinnacles and four Prussian eagles with spread wings protrude above the canopy , the latter perched on the tips of the gables decorated with crab strips. The Viktoria probably designed Friedrich Tieck.

Due to war damage and rust damage that had not been repaired for decades, the Witzleben memorial collapsed in 1984. The fragments were stored in the Nature and Green Space Office Mitte. However, many individual parts were lost, such as the right arm, laurel wreath and palm fronds of Victoria. This incident encouraged East Berlin's monument protection authorities and private individuals to take stronger initiatives to preserve other grave monuments in the Invalidenfriedhof. For the first time, the inventory was photographed in detail.

Before the monument was re-erected in 1998, the missing parts had to be refilled on the basis of historical photos. As with the Pirch tombs, instead of the original riveting of the base plates, a load-bearing steel frame was fitted. The painting was done with a special green paint. The original brick foundation that was preserved was removed down to the level of the vault and replaced with a reinforced concrete substructure.

Karl Friedrich Friesen's tomb

Friesen tomb, front right the honor grave plaque
Back of the grave cross

Karl Friedrich Friesen (1784–1814), educator and co-founder of the German gymnastics movement, had participated in the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon as a member of the Lützow Freikorps . He was killed in a scuffle with French farmers in the village of La Lobbe in the Ardennes in 1814 , and then buried there. His friend Captain August Freiherr von Vietinghoff , known as "Scheel", had the man who was honored as a freedom fighter exhumed in 1816 , as he and Friesen had promised to take care of each other's burial in Prussia if necessary. However, as a result of the Karlsbad resolutions, plans by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn ("Turnvater Jahn ") to bury Frisians in the Berlin Hasenheide , the place of common sporting activity, in a grave mound ("Friesenhügel"), which were specially created, could not be implemented would have. That is why Vietinghoff kept his friend's bones for a quarter of a century in a suitcase coffin, which he took with him to his various military locations.

After he left the military, Vietinghoff settled in Berlin in 1841. In 1842 he applied to the Prussian minister of education, Johann Albrecht Friedrich von Eichhorn , to be allowed to lay Frisians to rest in Berlin. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV agreed to a burial in the honorary grave field of the Invalidenfriedhof. However, he also decreed that the burial should take place "avoiding any excitement", apparently because Vietinghoff could not provide any evidence that the bones were really Frisian and that the Prussian state was embarrassed by the macabre circumstances of the reburial. The skeleton of Friesen was carefully put together and placed in the coffin with a laurel wreath on the skull. The burial took place on March 15, 1843, without Vietinghoff's presence.

The cast-iron grave cross on a sandstone base, financed by the war ministry at the king's behest, is kept in plain black with gold Gothic ornaments and detailed inscriptions. Cast iron grave crosses were often used in the Invalidenfriedhof, but the Frisian cross is the only surviving example. The obverse informs the viewer about the circumstances of Friesen's burial: “The remains of the same were brought here at his earlier request”. On the back of the cross it says: "Formerly as a teacher an ardent enthusiast of the youth for the liberation of the fatherland from the enemy yoke, he fell as a fighter among the fatherland defenders."

The tomb was restored by the Berlin gymnastics club in 1872 and 1931/1934. On the second occasion the grave was surrounded by a chain barrier, which however disappeared again after 1961. In 1938 the National Socialists declared the grave to be a "state grave".

In 1990, the grave cross had to be stored in the Sports Museum Berlin as a safeguard because, in the absence of a base, it was stuck directly in the ground and threatened to rust or be stolen. During its restoration, a correction of Friesen's life data with brass numerals that was only provisional in the 1930s was made permanent. The cross, which was re-erected on May 17, 1991 without a chain barrier, marked one of the first reconstructed graves of the Invalidenfriedhof.

The tomb is now designated as an honorary grave for the State of Berlin.

Burial place of the von Boyen family

Boyen grave with a perspective of the Scharnhorst tomb

Field Marshal General Hermann von Boyen was 1814-1819 (as well as 1841-1847) Prussian Minister of State and War. He is regarded as a reformer of the Prussian army and was responsible for the introduction of conscription in the country. He is another representative of the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon, who was buried with great honors on royal orders in grave field C of the Invalidenfriedhof. A personal bond with the site resulted from the fact that Boyen was temporarily governor of the Invalidenhaus at the end of his life.

Friedrich August Stüler designed a complex that is dominated by two tall, slender sandstone columns with an Ionic capital , the latter decorated with owls, dates and palmettes . On the plinths stand two Victorias with large wings, each holding a wreath upwards. Like the capitals, they were made of bronze, possibly by Christian Daniel Rauch. The pillars rest on the corner posts of a sandstone wall, which has five rectangular fields on the front, on which the names and life dates of the members of the Boyen family buried here are written, with Hermann von Boyen in the middle. The grave complex is enclosed at the front by a simple iron grille that encloses a central bed and a gravel path; a door is let into the front.

Stüler worked on the basis of a personal draft sketch of the king, which showed a grave pedestal with a helmet and sword and four surrounding columns. Perhaps this design was greatly modified because otherwise the perspective of the Scharnhorst monument would have been impaired. Due to Stüler's conception, the same is only framed by the pillars of the Boyen grave and thereby emphasized. Both tombs together form the artistic and optical highlight of the Invalidenfriedhof.

During the elaborate but successful reconstruction, which was carried out from 1993 to 2003, it was decided, after lengthy discussions, to undo numerous changes to the grave complex from the 20th century. The pillars, Victoria and the grid were dismantled after damage in the war in 1952 and were lost. The grave wall was moved in 1963 to make room for declarations of honor by the National People's Army at the Scharnhorst grave. Columns and Victorias - these by the sculptor Harald Haacke - have since been reconstructed from old photos, with the lattice this could be done on the basis of remains. The grave wall was moved to its original location and damage was repaired. In the grave field, two linden trees were placed again in accordance with the historical appearance.

The grave of Hermann von Boyens is designated as an honor grave of the State of Berlin.

Burial place of the von Rauch family

Grave site of the von Rauch family (overall picture)
Back of the Stülerer memorial for the von Rauch family, with war damage (below)

The contract to erect the tomb for Lieutenant General Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1790–1850) and his family goes back to King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, whose Adjutant General Rauch had been. Perhaps on the basis of a drawing by the king himself, Friedrich August Stüler erected a late Classical grave monument made of sandstone with a broad base wall on which an aedicule with a round arch sits. Stüler probably also oriented himself on the tomb that Schinkel, also on behalf of Friedrich Wilhelm (at that time still Crown Prince), had designed for the historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr in the old cemetery in Bonn . In contrast to Schinkel, however, Stüler left the aedicule, which has an altar-like attachment and putti on both sides in the gable ridge, open. The base bears a dedication by the king: "To the loyal friend and brave warrior - Friedrich Wilhelm IV. 1850". The tomb is surrounded by a heavy iron grating with mighty posts, which was also designed by Stüler.

Presumably, according to Stüler's ideas, there was originally a statue in the aedicula, but this was lost and was replaced by Rauch's simple grave cross made of white marble, which had been preserved before 1925. Although this represents a stylistic and material break in style , it results in an impressive communication with other marble crosses that were erected in front of the Stülerer monument between 1850 and 1950 for members of the von Rauch family from four generations and which are partly on the original grave complex, partly upstream of this. (This family is most strongly represented in a list of burials in the Invalidenfriedhof created after 1945.)

During the renovation work in 1998/1999, the remains of an old painting in light ocher were discovered on the tomb, which had probably been applied early to give the different sandstones a harmonious overall appearance. This was taken up again during the restoration. The Stülersche lattice frame was reconstructed on the basis of old photos. The back of the tomb in particular shows traces of the fighting that took place in the Invalidenfriedhof at the end of the Second World War; this damage was deliberately retained during the reconstruction.

Hans Karl von Winterfeldt's tomb

Winterfeldt tomb, front side
Back of the tomb

The tomb for Hans Karl von Winterfeldt (1707–1757) was erected in 1857 in grave field C. The occasion was the 100th anniversary of the death of the Prussian general, who was fatally wounded at the Battle of Moys in the Seven Years' War . The descendants had agreed to transfer the remains from the family grave in the Silesian Pilgramsdorf to the Invalidenfriedhof. The complex combines classicist elements such as the lattice frame taken over from the Scharnhorst tomb with the late Baroque feature of the grave pedestal including the decorative crowning.

The multi-level plinth of the Winterfeldt monument made of reddish-brown granite has gold-colored inscriptions. In addition to the dead man's name on the front, his date of birth on the right and a quote from King Friedrich II about Winterfeldt on the back: "He was a good person, a soul-man, HE WAS MY FRIEND." a bronze relief showing a Victoria with war attributes, including a sign with another quote from Friedrich II. ("Against the multitude of my enemies, I hope to find life-saving equipment, but I will not find a WINTERFELD again.") . In the front of the pedestal is a medallion-like bronze bust of the dead man. A large bronze attachment rises from the base. Weapons and trophies in antique form and a comprehensive flag with a royal monogram and a richly designed Prussian eagle on the back are integrated into it. All of the bronze jewelry on the monument was made by the sculptor and Lieutenant General Heinrich von Ledebur , who was also buried in the Invalidenfriedhof in 1912. His grave in field A has not been preserved, but has been marked by a restitution stone since 2005.

In addition to the Winterfeldt grave complex, there are other members of this family who died between 1940 and 1954.

August Ferdinand von Witzleben's tomb

August Ferdinand von Witzleben's tomb

Pedestal tombs were still very popular in the Invalidenfriedhof in the middle of the 19th century. Another example that has survived is the monument to August Ferdinand von Witzleben (1800-1859), a royal Prussian lieutenant general , erected near the Winterfeldt grave in field C.

The stele, designed as a pedestal and tapering towards the top, is made of dark granite. It has a square floor plan. The upper ends are provided with acroteries following the example of ancient sacred works . The crowning bronze jewelry consists of a Prussian officer's helmet with a plume, which is surrounded by a laurel wreath. The sculptor August Kiss designed the round, almost fully three-dimensional portrait of the chest, which is embedded in the front. It shows Witzleben's body in an antique, idealizing nudity, while the head area is formulated in a naturalistic way. A tondo also embedded in the back and the grating originally surrounding the tomb have not survived.

The chest portrait was stolen in 1990, but could later be found at a collector. Since the restoration of the tomb in 2003, a copy has taken its place.

The cemetery between 1900 and 1945

First World War and consequences

The cemetery in 1925

In the first half of the 20th century, the disabled house gradually lost its importance. Fewer and fewer former soldiers lived in it, and more and more property had to be given up. In order to meet the requirements of the Versailles Treaty , the Invalidenhaus was declared a foundation after the First World War , which was no longer subordinate to the army, but to various Reich ministries. However, since the foundation's assets were insufficient to bear the running costs of maintaining the institution, the fees for graves at the Invalidenfriedhof became an increasingly important source of income. The connection between the burial site at the Invalidenfriedhof and direct or family ties of the deceased to the Invalidenhaus or the Gnadenkirchen community continued to decrease. After 1936 the "Invalidenhaus Foundation" had to give up its traditional seat on Scharnhorststrasse to the military and move to Berlin-Frohnau . The Invalidenfriedhof remained in their possession. After the end of the Second World War, the foundation was then dissolved.

Grave monument for Major Harry von Coler, fallen in 1915 (grave field B)
Grave monument for Lieutenant Werner John, fallen in 1918 (grave field B), designed by Emil Cauer

119 soldiers who died at the front or who died in Berlin hospitals were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof during the First World War, mostly in Grabfeld B. There were also simple soldiers, but mostly lower and middle officer ranks were represented. Several fighter pilots who died in aerial combat were also buried in the Invalidenfriedhof, for example - in preserved graves - Erich Bahr (1893–1918), Hans Joachim Buddecke (1890–1918) and Olivier Freiherr von Beaulieu-Marconnay (1898–1918). One of the few officers of the general rank who were buried here during the war was the Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Kiev, Field Marshal General Hermann von Eichhorn , who was assassinated in Kiev in July 1918 (grave area C). The memorials on the approximately 25 preserved grave sites of those who died in war vividly document the different ways in which relatives dealt with the loss.

Two developments in 1925 were decisive for the further history of the Invalidenfriedhof and for its public perception until today as a "military cemetery", "celebrity cemetery" or even "Nazi cemetery":

In 1925, long-time cemetery inspector Karl Friedrich Treuwerth highlighted the people buried here who had a military background in a cemetery guide with the programmatic title The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin - A Place of Prussian-German Fame . It counted 22 commanders and governors of the Invalidenhaus, eleven field marshals and colonels general, seven Prussian ministers of war, nine admirals, 67 generals of the various branches of service, 104 lieutenants general and 93 major generals. In addition, Treuwerth declared that the Invalidenfriedhof and the neighboring Invalidenpark, also described in the book (whose memorial column celebrated the suppression of the revolution of 1848), “cannot be separated”. In doing so, he placed the cemetery in a purely military and an anti-democratic tradition. Treuwerth himself was buried in the Invalidenfriedhof in 1930. The grave that has not been preserved has been marked by a restitution stone since 2011, which was financed with funds from the Rohdich'schen Legatenfonds .

At the instigation of Reichswehr Minister Otto Geßler , the remains of the highly decorated fighter pilot Rittmeister Manfred von Richthofen (1892–1918), known as "The Red Baron", were reburied in the Invalidenfriedhof in November 1925 . Richthofen was shot down in an aerial battle near Vaux-sur-Somme in France on April 21, 1918 and was reburied in a military cemetery on the Somme in 1923 . The imperial government under Chancellor Hans Luther, as well as the state-supporting political parties up to the opposition SPD , apparently saw the transfer to Germany and the construction of a representative grave site in the capital Berlin as a possibility to protect the military elites and national circles after the defeat in the war with the Weimar Republic to reconcile.

Manfred von Richthofen's grave in 1931

After an act of mourning in the neighboring Gnadenkirche, Richthofen was buried on November 20, 1925 in the form of a state act in the presence of President Paul von Hindenburg and numerous invited guests in grave field F. The ceremony was decidedly military, and the guests were forbidden to wear political badges. The German Reich, the Land of Prussia and the Berlin magistrate contributed to the cost of the burial. At the consecration of this grave on October 28, 1926, Reich Chancellor Wilhelm Marx had himself represented because the organizing “Ring der Flieger e. V. “Reichswehr Minister Geßler had not invited to the small-scale ceremony. The grave was redesigned in 1937 to intensify the hero cult and abuse of Manfred von Richthofen. Behind the grave slab from 1926 there was a monumental tombstone bearing only Richthofen's name in capital letters.

Despite the importance of the cemetery, numerous graves were to be leveled from 1925 when the 30-year waiting period had expired and no fees were charged for an extension. Half of the grave sites in the cemetery were affected. Apparently in order to save the stock, Treuwerth tried to persuade the Reich government, with reference to the Richthofen reburial, to have the entire Invalidenfriedhof designated as a central memorial "for the heroes from the world war", but failed in this effort. The number of grave sites halved from 6,000 to 3,000 by 1941. The graves of civilians were just as affected as those of the military up to the rank of general. Official efforts to protect the cemetery from a “site of Prussian-German fame” in the sense of the Treuwerth formula cannot be proven.

The on the pedestals of the 18./19. 19th century memorial memorial for Ludwig von Falkenhausen (1936)

At the same time, burials continued to take place in the cemetery, albeit to a far lesser extent than in the 19th century. The increased reputation of the cemetery in national circles, especially as a result of Richthofen's reburial, led to a growing number of representatives of the old imperial elites and the army trying to find a resting place for themselves or their relatives. Field Marshal Karl von Bülow (1846–1921), Colonel General Hans von Beseler (1850–1921), and General Max Hoffmann (1869 ) are among the best-known military personnel and participants in the First World War, who were buried here until August 1939 and whose graves have been preserved –1927), Major General Richard Schürmann (1881–1931), Admiral Ludwig von Schröder (1854–1933), Colonel General Ludwig von Falkenhausen (1844–1936), General Theodor Michelis (1872–1936), the former Chief of Army Command, Colonel General Hans von Seeckt (1866–1936), General of the Infantry Adolf von Oven (1855–1937) and General Friedrich Wilhelm Magnus von Eberhardt (1855–1939).

Nazi rule and World War II

The attitude of the National Socialists to the Invalidenfriedhof was contradictory. On the one hand, there were efforts during the National Socialist era to politically co-opt the site or even to reinterpret it as a "national shrine", where a continuity between the military history of the Prussian and imperial era and the Third Reich should become clear. In February 1933, for example, the Charlottenburg SA leader Hans Maikowski was buried in grave field F, near the Richthofen grave, with a large number of party cadres. As Gauleiter of Berlin, Joseph Goebbels gave the funeral oration. Maikowski was killed under unexplained circumstances on January 30, 1933, the day Adolf Hitler came to power . He was later stylized as the “ martyr of the movement ”. At the state funeral of Admiral Ludwig von Schröder in July 1933, Hitler himself took part alongside President Hindenburg.

On the other hand, the abstract project of redesigning the cemetery and highlighting individual graves according to ideological considerations only led to a few concrete measures. The designation of the Friesen grave as a "state grave" in 1938 remained an exception. In the course of the plans for the redesign of Berlin to the “ World Capital Germania ” by the General Building Inspector for the Reich capital , Albert Speer , the cemetery was even put up for disposal. Since it was located near a central north-south axis designed by Speer , it would have had to give way to the eastern edge of a 1200 × 400 meter basin that was to be built north of the Spreebogen . In the area north of Invalidenstrasse, for example, a monumental new building was planned for the high command of the Navy . Other Berlin cemeteries were also threatened. Therefore, plans matured to transfer grave monuments of individual personalities from different cemeteries in a large "soldiers hall". It should be built according to plans by the architect Wilhelm Kreis . Ernst von Harnack , Speer's “Graves Commissioner”, presented a list of suggestions for the cemetery for the disabled in a memorandum drawn up from 1940 to 1943. According to Harnack's idea, the grave monuments were to be re-erected in the courtyard of the invalids' house.

Grave site of Wolfgang Fürstner, restitution stone from 2002

In 1936, Wolfgang Fürstner (1896–1936), Deputy Commander of the Olympic Village at the Berlin Games , was buried in Grave Field F. Fürstner had learned that he was classified as a Jew based on the Nuremberg Laws and that he was to be dismissed from the Wehrmacht. He shot himself on August 19, 1936 - three days after the Olympic Games ended. In order to avert damage to Germany's international reputation, the death was portrayed as an accident and the deceased was buried in the Invalidenfriedhof. The grave was also included in the cemetery guide Der Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin - A Grove of Honor for Prussian-German History , which appeared in several editions between 1936 and 1940.

The roughly 30, usually very simple, soldier graves from the Second World War that have been preserved in the Invalidenfriedhof document the entire period of the war. The commander of the 66th Artillery Regiment, Major Wilhelm Kleinau (1896–1939), buried in Grabfeld A, fell on September 1, 1939, the first day of the war. Major Friedrich Dziobek (1878–1945), buried in Grabfeld B, died on April 28, 1945 in the fighting in Berlin. Some grave sites remind of missing soldiers, for example the mention of the military doctor Dr. Martin Schlegel (1898–1943?) In grave field B on the grave stone of his father, Field Bishop Erich Schlegel . Schlegel probably died in the Battle of Stalingrad in early 1943. The exact number of soldiers' graves laid between 1939 and 1945 has not yet been determined.

The most famous military men who died in the war and who were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof include the former Commander in Chief of the Army, Colonel General Werner von Fritsch (1880–1939), Commander of Kampfgeschwader 77 , Major General of the Air Force Wolff von Stutterheim (1893–1940), the commander of the 18th Infantry Division, Lieutenant General Friedrich-Carl Cranz (1886–1941), the Naval Commander in Western France, Vice Admiral Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (1886–1941), the Commander in Chief of Army Group South, Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau (1884– 1942) and the squadron leader in the “Udet” fighter squadron, Lieutenant in the Air Force Hans Fuss (1920–1942). Their grave sites have been preserved. The site of the razed grave of Hitler's chief adjutant, Lieutenant General Rudolf Schmundt (1896–1944), who died as a result of his injuries sustained in the assassination attempt on July 20, 1944 , is now marked by a restitution stone. Hitler also took part in the state ceremony for the general of the artillery and head of the Heereswaffenamt Karl Becker (1879–1940) with subsequent burial in the Invalidenfriedhof. Becker shot himself after being held responsible for ammunition shortages. His tomb has not been preserved.

The gravestones of Ernst Udet (top left), Werner Mölders (top right) and Wolff von Stutterheim (front)

In November 1941, Hitler ordered an elaborate state funeral in the Invalidenfriedhof for Colonel General Ernst Udet (1896–1941), the general aviation master and head of the air force planning office in the Reich Aviation Ministry. As with Wolfgang Fürstner and Karl Becker, the fact that Udet (" Des Teufels General "), after Richthofen the most famous German aviator of the First World War, had committed suicide should be concealed . The fighter pilot Werner Mölders (1913-1941), who had been ordered to attend the funeral, died on November 22, 1941 in Breslau when his plane crashed on the way to Berlin. Udet and Mölders were buried in the immediate vicinity of Richthofen and Stutterheim in Grabfeld F. Their neighboring graves, which were cleared during the times of the Wall, were rebuilt in the 1990s.

In 1942, two leading representatives of the Nazi regime were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof with great honors. The Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition and General Inspector for German Roads, Fritz Todt (1891–1942), was killed in a plane crash near Hitler's “Wolfsschanze” headquarters in February . The head of the Reich Security Main Office and the person in charge of carrying out the Holocaust , SS Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich (1904–1942), succumbed to an assassination attempt by Czech resistance fighters in Prague at the beginning of June . Both received only a simple grave decoration made of wood, because Hitler wanted them to be reburied in a monumental frame later, Todt in a "huge tomb" near Irschenberg on the Reichsautobahn Munich - Chiemsee, Heydrich in the planned "soldiers' hall". The historian Laurenz Demps assesses that above all "Heydrich's funeral, whose remains were not removed, was a particularly heavy burden" that lies in the Invalidenfriedhof. Both grave sites are no longer marked today.

Wilhelm Staehle's tomb

Two grave sites of murdered members of the military resistance against National Socialism are commemorated in the Invalidenfriedhof . A plaque on a family grave in Field D commemorates Lieutenant Colonel Fritz von der Lancken (1890–1944), who was resting in an unknown location . He had made his apartment available to Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg for meetings and kept the explosives destined for the July 20 assassination attempt. Von der Lancken was sentenced to death by the People's Court on September 29, 1944 and executed on the same day in the Plötzensee prison. Colonel of the Luftwaffe Wilhelm Staehle (1877-1945), who was shot as a member of the resistance on April 23, 1945 by the Gestapo , is buried in Grabfeld A. Since he was the last in command of the Invalidenhaus, his widow was able to obtain a burial in the Invalidenfriedhof.

In the last days of the war there was fighting in the Invalidenfriedhof. Damage occurred to many grave sites, some of which can still be seen today, such as the back wall of Stüler's grave memorial for Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch and graves in field A. 31 dead were buried in a mass grave, presumably civilian victims of the war had died in several hospitals in the area.

Funerary monuments from the first half of the 20th century

Julius Nolte tomb with marble angel (1908)

The preserved grave monuments from the 20th century do not match the important monuments of the Schinkel and Stüler era. In most cases it is standardized grave decoration that does not reveal any individual artistic design. The material chosen (marble, granite, shell limestone) and the size are particularly emphasized. Baroque or classicist forms are reminiscent of a bygone era. The elaborately crafted grave grids, which had previously been laid out around many grave sites, were slowly replaced in the first half of the century by more conventional post-chain combinations. Both variants almost completely disappeared from the Invalidenfriedhof after 1939. They were dismantled for metal procurement during the war, or they were later destroyed or stolen.

Grave column Hans Joachim Buddecke (1918)

The neo-classical mausoleum of the Voigts-Rhetz family can be seen as a later representative of the lavish funerary art of the 19th century. It was built at the beginning of the 20th century in field A. However, the last preserved mausoleum of the Invalidenfriedhof presents itself as an overall sober building. In it stands a very successful marble angel attributed to Art Nouveau , kneeling with hands clasped in prayer. The angel used to belong to the grave of the Prussian general and war minister Julius von Verdy du Vernois (1832–1910) in field F. This grave was cleared in the 1960s. The jewelry of some other graves from the early 20th century is also committed to Art Nouveau. Reference should be made here to another marble angel. In field C it adorns the mighty grave cross of Eduard Julius Ludwig Nolte (1859–1908), a general director of the "Neue Gas AG".

The grave of the fighter pilot Hans Joachim Buddecke, who was killed in World War I, in field B has a modernist design. This is unusual for the invalids' cemetery. The expressionist-influenced grave monument was designed by the Jena artist and art educator Christoph Natter . A long stele ends here in a stylized bird of prey. This is to be understood as an allusion to Buddecke's honorary name "El Schahin" ("The Hunting Falcon"), which was given to him when he was stationed in Turkey in 1915/1916.

Boulder on the grave of Marga von Etzdorf (1933)

Boulders have enjoyed increasing popularity as gravestones since the beginning of the 20th century . In addition to the names and dates of the dead, they only showed very cautious lettering or design features. The memorial stone for the aviator Marga von Etzdorf (1907–1933), who committed suicide in Syria in May 1933, is striking . The stone bears an inscription of her own choosing: "The flight is worth life".

The boulder on the grave of the aviator Joachim von Schröder (1885–1929), who died in an accident in 1929, bears the inscription on the front: "He died an aviator death in the service of his people". There is also an iron cross and the famous crane signet of the early Lufthansa . A rectangular plaque commemorates Ludwig von Schröder , who was buried next to his son in 1933. The metal decorations are copies that were made during the restoration of the tombstone after 2011. The reconstruction of a large bronze eagle, which was once applied to the tip of the boulder, was, however, omitted. Metal jewelry on the graves of the Invalidenfriedhof was often stolen or disappeared in other ways after 1945.

Another mighty boulder on the grave of the theologian Ernst Troeltsch (1865–1923) was completely lost after 1945. The grave site in field B is marked today by a restitution stone.

Mock sarcophagus on the grave of Werner von Fritsch (1939)

In addition to boulders, heavy stone or marble slabs were also chosen, which partly covered the tombs like a sarcophagus. You can still see them, for example, on the graves of Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen (1833–1913), namesake of the " Schlieffen Plan ", Werner von Fritsch , Wolff von Stutterheim, Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière and the aviation pioneer Carl August von Gablenz (1893-1942). The plate on Gablenz's grave is also decorated with a subtle version of the crane symbol from Lufthansa, which he co-founded.

The voluminous high sarcophagus of Hans von Seeckts and the shell limestone pedestal for Ludwig von Falkenhausen, which was unusual for the time, both to be found on graves laid out in 1936, are located near the Schinkel and Stüler works in field C. Both grave monuments were made by the sculptor Hans Dammann and Heinrich Rochlitz . They manifest the expectation of the viewer to see the dead in the tradition of the Prussian generals honored here.

With the decline in the use of such representative grave decorations in the 20th century, material hardship as a result of two lost world wars also played a role. During such times, older monuments were also used in Berlin cemeteries. One example is the grave of Eleonore von Bibow (1923–1945) in Field A, who was bombed in the last days of the war. The brother of the dead had dismantled the small marble stele with putti heads from a family grave elsewhere and rebuilt it in the Invalidenfriedhof.

The grave sites that have been laid out since 1945 are almost without exception decorated inconspicuously. But even tombs from the early 20th century, which reveal even greater expenditure, are mostly of interest primarily due to the historical and cultural background and the biography of the dead they documented, not as individual works of art.

Tomb of Julius von Gross

Grave of Julius von Gross

A notable grave monument from the early 20th century is that of the Royal Prussian Major General Karl Julius von Gross, called von Schwarzhoff (1850–1901), in Grabfeld D. During the Boxer Uprising in China, he was Chief of the General Staff at the Army Commander served in East Asia, Count von Waldersee . He died on April 17, 1901, during a fire in the Imperial Winter Palace in Beijing , the headquarters of the German expeditionary troops. Gross had tried to save files from the flames.

The stele made of gray granite, reflecting the eclecticism of Art Nouveau , contains a bronze sculpture on the front in a round arched niche. It was designed by the Baden sculptor Otto Feist in a late classicistic-naturalistic manner and shows the fight of the Archangel Michael against the dragon as an allegory of the fight of the western powers against the Chinese. The archangel's right arm and spear were lost to metal theft after 1945. The back of the monument names the "lonely mother u. Sister “of the dead as donor. The biblical saying "I want to bless you and you should be a blessing" (Genesis 12.2), which can also be read there, is surrounded by the heraldic figures of those eleven places that were particularly connected to the biography of the dead, including a bear for Berlin and a kite for Beijing.

No photos have survived that document the original appearance of the grave monument. For this reason, during the restoration carried out in 2002, the archangel's lost arm and the spear were not reconstructed.

Tomb of Max Hoffmann

Max Hoffmann tomb with sculpture by Arnold Rechberg (1906/1929)

The tomb of Major General Max Hoffmann (1869-1927), Chief of the General Staff Upper East in World War I and head of the German delegation at the armistice negotiations in Brest-Litovsk , was designed by his friend Arnold Rechberg . It is dominated by a monumental sculpture on top of a pedestal cube, which shows an almost naked youth sitting on a rock. Rechberg had submitted the work, influenced by Auguste Rodin , to the Paris Salon in 1906 as a plaster model under the title "Resignation Humaine". The bronze cast was made on the tomb in 1929. On the back of the cube, battle sites from Hoffmann's military career ( Tannenberg , Masurian Lakes , Lyck and Augustow ) as well as his honorary citizenship in the home town of Homberg an der Efze are named. The grave field is surrounded by a parapet made of shell limestone.

Rechberg had acquired a grave site for himself and his friend on grave field E on the western edge of the cemetery and signed a lease agreement with the cemetery administration until 2100. His application from 1942 to be buried there was rejected by the National Socialists because of unpleasant political activities by Rechberg (he was temporarily interned in the Dachau concentration camp ). Rechberg died in 1947 and was buried in Hersfeld .

Presumably when the Berlin Wall was built in 1961, Hoffmann's tomb was moved to grave field C, and a dedication inscription by Rechberg was removed at the same time. Since the original location could be identified from the remains of the foundation, the tomb was moved back to grave field E after restoration in 2002.

Hans von Seeckt's tomb

The high sarcophagus by Hans von Seeckt
Stylized eagle on the corner of the sarcophagus

In field C is the representative tomb of Colonel General Hans von Seeckt (1866–1936), from 1920 to 1926 chief of the army command of the Reichswehr and most recently a military advisor in China . It shows the change in meaning to the “national shrine” that the Invalidenfriedhof underwent in the first half of the 20th century.

The sculptors Hans Dammann and Heinrich Rochlitz designed a sloping high sarcophagus made of polished granite with a mighty bronze cover plate. The Seeckt family coat of arms, decorations and the martial inscription “Via graves forward” are found on it. When decorating the tomb, the artists resorted to national insignia such as the iron cross , oak leaf frieze and eagle. The wings of the birds of prey positioned at the rear corners of the sarcophagus are curved in such a way that they seem to support the cover plate. Its design is influenced by the stylized emblematic art of the Weimar Republic. At the same time, they are reminiscent of ancient Egyptian symbols of death.

The grave monument was extensively reconstructed in 1997. The granite sarcophagus was only partially preserved, the cover plate was missing. The restoration was carried out on the basis of fragments of the sarcophagus body and photographs of the cover plate. The work was partly funded by surviving members of the 67th Infantry Regiment that Seeckt had once commanded.

The cemetery between 1945 and 1990

Developments until 1961

The cleared grave field F in 1925

As the property of a dissolved foundation, the Invalidenfriedhof was initially subordinated to the “Groß-Berliner Grundstücksverwaltung AG” after the end of the war. This paid employees as well as the management of the site and collected fees for continuing burials. There is no evidence of efforts to systematically eliminate war damage. The wooden cross on Reinhard Heydrich's grave was removed; there is no evidence that / whether this was done at the behest of official or allied orders. An Allied Control Council resolution of May 17, 1946, which demanded the removal of all “militarist and National Socialist monuments” from cemeteries, apparently had no major consequences for the cemetery for the disabled. For example, the tombs of Hans Maikowski and Fritz Todt were preserved until the 1950s.

In 1950 the Invalidenfriedhof became part of the administration of the Berlin-Mitte district office. The Berlin magistrate decided not to allow any further burials from May 1, 1951. This decision was probably made because of the supposedly militaristic character of the cemetery and because it was used less and less. Another reason could have been the increasingly poor condition of the facility, for the maintenance of which the district office did not want to pay. The decision was modified in 1952 based on a submission by the respected gynecologist Walter Stoeckel , who wanted to be buried next to his wife, who died in 1946, in the Invalidenfriedhof. In individual cases, spouses were allowed to continue to be buried in existing family graves in the following years. Stoeckel's own burial in February 1961 is one of the last that can be verified for the Invalidenfriedhof. Even after the wall was built (August 1961) there were still individual burials.

Damaged grave sites or those that had expired (before 1926 for adults and before 1936 for children under the age of 12) were cleared from 1951 and lawns were created in their place. At the same time, there were internal debates between representatives of the cemetery administration, the “Institute for Monument Preservation”, SED party offices and the Museum of German History , which graves should be preserved and cared for due to the historical importance of those buried there. Because no final decisions were made in this regard (there was only agreement on the desire to preserve the Scharnhorst tomb), the maintenance of such graves in the following years was unregulated and on the initiative of the cemetery administration and private individuals.

Destruction as a result of the construction of the wall

The largely leveled south-western part of the cemetery (grave fields B, F and E); in the background the Berlin Central Station

The actual destruction of the Invalidenfriedhof began with the construction of the Berlin Wall by the GDR in 1961. The border between East and West Berlin ran along the west bank of the Berlin-Spandau shipping canal . From November 1961, therefore, there were restrictions on entering the cemetery; Visitors had to apply for authorization tokens from the cemetery administration.

The more the border installations were expanded, the more the destruction of the Invalidenfriedhof increased. The old brick cemetery wall from 1902, on which a fence was placed, served as the front border wall. The gap in the middle of the wall was removed, the "Königslinde" standing there (named after King Friedrich II, who is said to have stopped at the place in question when visiting the invalid's house) was felled. In the area in front of it, boats guarded the shipping canal belonging to East Berlin. A death strip with watch towers, control strips, a light path and a walkway for watch dogs as well as a concrete path ("Kolonnenweg") was laid out on grave fields E, F and G. Annoying gravestones on the border strip were cleared and initially placed in other parts of the cemetery, later removed entirely. One of the few properly relocated tombs was that of Max Hoffmann (1869–1927), which was moved from Grabfeld E to Grabfeld C. The border strip was separated from the rest of the cemetery by a "hinterland security" consisting of barbed wire fence and, from 1975, concrete slabs.

The Rabitz Mausoleum, destroyed in the 1970s (1925)

In 1967 about a third of the cemetery was leveled, including tombs that were behind the actual exclusion zone . Valuable grave grids were dismantled and reused elsewhere. Sporadic objections from the preservationists could not prevail against the demands of the border security troops for a clear view of the area and for freedom from shooting. In 1971 the GDR Council of Ministers decided to build a garage with 40 parking spaces and a wash hall in Grabfeld I, north of Grabfelder A and B. The grave field was completely leveled; it no longer belongs to the cemetery grounds. In the years 1972–1975, other grave sites were laid down or relocated anonymously. The late Classicist mausoleum of the building technician Carl Rabitz in field E, built by the architects Wilhelm Böckmann and Hermann Ende , was also destroyed. The neighboring grave of Manfred von Richthofen , whose remains were reburied in Wiesbaden at the request of his family, was also destroyed . The remaining vegetation in the border strip was removed.

Journalists from the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung who visited the Invalidenfriedhof in 1978 made the following observations:

“The cemetery looks neglected, dry grass overgrown grave slabs, only a few graves are still preserved, very few are tended. More care was devoted to the 'border security systems' than to the graves. A line runs right through the part of the cemetery that is still in existence, on which boards announce: 'Border area / no entry or driving prohibited!' Behind this line - inaccessible to us if we don't want to get into trouble - a number of remarkable grave monuments. Behind it a panel wall. In front of the wall there is a so-called dog run. [...] A stone's throw away from us, but inaccessible in the restricted area, Scharnhorst's mighty tomb, enclosed with a metal fence. [...] Only a back wall remains of the grave of Field Marshal Hermann von Boyen (1771–1848). The large cast iron monument that Schinkel created for Friedrich Wilhelm III's confidante, Lieutenant General Job von Witzleben (1783–1837), is rusting away. "

- FAZ : “The Scharnhorst grave in no man's land”, November 25, 1978

Only the graves of representatives of the wars of freedom such as Scharnhorst, who was succeeded by the GDR National People's Army , and Friesians presumably prevented the cemetery from being completely destroyed. This explains the resistance of the East Berlin monument conservationists to the proposal, which has been made several times since the 1960s, to move the Scharnhorst tomb from the Invalidenfriedhof to a public square. After the enactment of a new law on the preservation of monuments in 1975 and the collapse of the Witzleben memorial in 1984, renewed efforts were made to protect the remaining graves; For the first time, the resulting damage was documented photographically. Nevertheless, until 1989 the resistance of the border security troops prevented comprehensive measures to protect the population from being taken.

Of the 3,000 grave sites that still existed in 1961, only about 230 remained in 1989.

Dead at the border section Invalidenfriedhof

Remnants of the Berlin Wall (“Hinterland Wall”) between grave fields G and H, with display boards

In the 1960s, there were several serious incidents at the Invalidenfriedhof border section in which at least four people died ( wall deaths ) - two West Berliners, a refugee and a GDR border post:

Peter Goering

The most dramatic border incident at the Berlin Wall to date occurred on May 23, 1962. GDR border guards shot 14-year-old student Wilfried Tew who was swimming in the canal and wanted to flee to the West. When West Berlin police returned fire, a ricochet fatally hit the private of the border troops Peter Göring . Tews was rescued by West Berlin police officers, but suffered permanent damage. The GDR celebrated Goering as a martyr ; Streets, schools and barracks were named after him.

Walter Heike

On June 22, 1964, a GDR border soldier shot and killed the 29-year-old refugee Walter Heike in the Invalidenfriedhof , who pulled himself up to the canal after crossing the cemetery , despite being shot by a state security employee . Heike died of a bullet in the stomach.

Paul Stretz

On April 29, 1966, GDR border guards shot and killed Paul Stretz from West Berlin . The 31-year-old employee of a freight forwarding company on the western side of the Berlin-Spandau shipping canal celebrated payday with colleagues in the afternoon . In sunny weather he wanted to refresh himself in the canal water. The warning from a West Berlin customs officer that the canal belongs to East Berlin came too late. Stretz, bathing in the water of the canal, was fatally hit by the watchtower in the Invalidenfriedhof.

Heinz Schmidt

On August 29, 1966, GDR border guards shot and killed Heinz Schmidt from West Berlin, who was swimming in the canal . The 46-year-old Schmidt lived in a homeless shelter and was under state custody due to mental ailments. He had stepped into the water at the northern harbor and swam from there into the Berlin-Spandau shipping canal to the south . He ignored warnings from anglers and summoned West Berlin police officers. Because of the shots fired at him by the GDR border guards, Schmidt took cover on the eastern bank. West Berlin police told him to remain calm and called on the border guards to stop shooting at the man who, in their opinion, was drunk. Schmidt got back into the water to swim back to the north harbor. He was shot several times by the border guards at the level of the invalids' cemetery. Schmidt was found on the western bank of the canal; Shortly afterwards, his death was determined in the nearby Virchow Hospital .

Preservation and reconstruction since 1990

The reconstructed cemetery wall with the newly planted "Königslinde"
The empty grave field G with the restored Friedhofsweg (left) and "Kolonnenweg" as part of the " Berlin Wall Trail "

Even before German reunification , the cemetery with the preserved tombs and remains of the Berlin Wall was placed under monument protection in 1990 . Since then, various institutions, voluntary helpers and private donors have been involved in restoring what was already there and taking care of monument conservation. The declared aim is to get closer to the original appearance without denying the destruction of the 20th century. By mid-2012, 124 graves could be restored or reconstructed.

The main roads paved with brownish gravel were restored in 1992/1993 and 2000, also in the area of ​​the former border strip, where there are hardly any grave sites today. In addition, some side paths have also been reconstructed, especially in grave field C. The paths have been lined with linden trees since then. The irregular distance between the trees, which can be seen in the stumps that have been preserved, was observed. The cemetery wall was reconstructed in its original form, and a new "royal linden tree" was planted in the exposed central area.

The preserved sections of the interior wall were carefully restored in 2003. However, the typical painting on the side facing away from the border strip (white rectangles with a gray frame) was also transferred to the border side (which was continuously white at the time of the Wall in the Invalidenfriedhof). The "Kolonnenweg", which was laid out in 1975 in the border area, first concreted and later paved, was retained or expanded. Via (non-historical) cemetery entrances in the north and south, it is connected to the footpath and bike path along the Berlin-Spandauer-Schifffahrtskanal. The material and color contrast between the “old” and “new” path systems can be observed in the grave area E, F and G. The cleared grave fields were planted with new lawns.

The “Kolonnenweg” on the Invalidenfriedhof is now part of the Berlin Wall Trail , which was laid out between 2002 and 2006 under the responsibility of the Senate Administration and which marks the 160 kilometers of the former border between West Berlin and East Berlin or the GDR. It can also be used in the cemetery area by bike. Its new asphalting in the Invalidenfriedhof section aroused criticism in 2008 because "original traces of the Berlin Wall" would disappear. In the vicinity of the Invalidenfriedhof, a plaque on the Berlin Wall History Mile commemorates a failed escape attempt in 1963 near the Sandkrug Bridge, another on the Alexanderufer of the shot Günter Litfin .

Restitution stone for Karl Emil Berendt from 2001 with a plaque on the side

One problem after 1989 was the desire of families to decorate the graves of their ancestors and relatives, most of which were no longer marked, in a dignified manner, but to fall back on current, not historical forms of design, such as gravestones. This applies, for example, to the grave of Werner Mölders, where since 1990 a heavy granite slab has replaced the simple wooden cross that was removed in the 1950s and originally marked the grave site.

Fearing that the Invalidenfriedhof could become a center of attraction for nationalist and right-wing extremist groups who wanted to highlight individual graves, the "Invaliden Cemetery Discussion Group", consisting of representatives of the Berlin Senate, experts and family members, decided in 1991 that completely lost gravestones and memorials should not be reconstructed. Instead, it is allowed to place uniformly designed memorial stones (“pillow stones” or “ restitution stones ”) measuring 60 × 60 cm on identified grave sites. In cases in which no relatives are available to finance a pillow stone, but expulsion of the grave site seems necessary due to the importance of the dead, the Invalidenfriedhof Friends' Association endeavors to find donors. The grave of Wolfgang Fürstner in Grabfeld F, which has not been preserved, is also marked by such a stone; it was inaugurated in 2002 by NOK President Walther Tröger .

Plaques attached to the side of the cushion stones indicate the year of restitution and some of the donors. By mid-2012, 83 grave sites had been restituted in this way. Stones lying directly on the ground have proven to be susceptible to lichen and moss, especially on surfaces that have not been smoothed. The lettering on some of the pillow stones placed after 1991 is therefore difficult to decipher. In restitution stones laid after 2000, increasingly smooth surfaces can be found; In addition, the stones are now often surrounded by slabs in order to contain the plant infestation.

Restitution stone on Fritz Todt's grave in October 2004
The same area without a restitution stone in December 2007

Since leading representatives of the Nazi regime were to remain exempt from the regulation of being allowed to place pillow stones on graves razed between 1945 and 1990, the district office of Berlin-Mitte rejected a request from Ilsebill Todt regarding the grave of her father, Reich Minister, in 2002 Fritz Todt, exit. This decision was approved by the State Monuments Office and the Invalidenfriedhof association. After Todt's lawyer Thor von Waldstein filed a lawsuit at the Berlin Administrative Court , the district office relented in 2004. The reason given was that Todt had been posthumously denazified by the Allies. The pillow stone that was then laid has, however, been removed again (see photo comparison).

In some cases the principle of not reconstructing lost graves has been deviated from. This applies in particular to the grave site of the Hülsen-Haeseler family, an originally two-part complex, which was re-established at the historical site in 1998, now as a grave site that belongs together. Located directly on the border strip, the graves were cleared in 1974. Only the artistically crafted grave grille remained and was stored. Between 1987 and 1995 it was misused as a beer garden fence in Berlin's Nikolaiviertel , but returned to its original function during the reconstruction of the Hülsen-Haeseler tomb. The tombstone for Georg von Hülsen-Haeseler (1858–1922), former General Director of the Royal Theater in Berlin, is a replica based on a historical photograph. The grave of the sisters at the Augusta Hospital, also located near the border and destroyed in the 1970s, is also a complete reconstruction. It was held in 1995 on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the opening of the Invalidenfriedhof.

Since 2008, grave field F in the former death strip has received greater attention during restoration work. For example, Wolff von Stutterheim's grave, which was moved to grave field A during the times of the Wall, was moved back to the original site, next to the graves of Werner Mölders and Ernst Udet. From 2008 to 2009 an elaborate reconstruction of the tomb of Colonel General Hans von Beseler took place. The inauguration of a memorial stone at the historical location of Manfred von Richthofen's grave also took place in 2009; In 2017, the 1935 memorial stone was moved back from Wittmund to the Invalidenfriedhof. In 2012, the tomb of General of the Infantry and Prussian State and War Minister Julius von Verdy du Vernois was reconstructed.

In 2011, on the way between grave fields E and F, near the historic cemetery wall, the only remaining bell of the former Gnadenkirche , which can look back on an eventful history, was erected. The bell donated by Empress Auguste Viktoria and cast by the Bochum Association was rescued after the church ruins were blown up in 1967 and had stood on the site of the Kreuzkirche in Bochum 's Leithe district since 1990 . In the summer of 2013 the bell was hung again in a specially built bell tower.

The Invaliden Cemetery in Literature

In Rolf Hochhuth's novella Die Berliner Antigone (1963), the young protagonist kidnaps the body of her executed brother, a Stalingrad veteran, from the anatomy in order to bury him in the cemetery for invalids. The judge general, father of her fiancé, tries to protect her at the trial, but she too is ultimately executed by the National Socialists.

In August 2008, the novel Halbschatten by Uwe Timm was published , in which the life and death of the aviator Marga von Etzdorf, who was buried in the Invalidenfriedhof, are treated in a fictionalized form. As a framework, the author chose a dialogue between the narrator and a city guide ("the gray one") while walking together through the Invalidenfriedhof. The two of them also hear the voices of those buried there who tell their own stories or briefly comment on what has been told. In addition to Marga von Etzdorf himself, these include Ernst Udet, Reinhard Heydrich, Hans Maikowski, Karl Friedrich Friesen, Rudolf Berthold , Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg , Werner Mölders, Alfred von Schlieffen and Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. J. and anonymous dead from the last days of the Second World War buried in mass graves. The city guide characterizes the scene in a passage as follows:

“Is it a coincidence that the last fighting took place in this place, the Invalidenfriedhof, where all the military are located? That it was destroyed and later separated by the wall? Everything has gathered here, the battle leaders, the heroes of the air, the resistance fighters, reactionaries and reformers, democrats and Nazis. [...] A hero's cemetery, that was called earlier. Many lying here have been killed, and if you look up the language game, which is a bit obvious, some have killed themselves. A place of violence. And in this place she lies, the woman, the aviator, a little lonely among all the men, isn't she. "

- Uwe Timm, penumbra

The “ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung ” described Timm's literary treatment of the place on August 25, 2008 as a “masterful kaleidoscope of Prussian-German military history”.

Known people who were buried in the Invalidenfriedhof

person Year of death / reburial Grabfeld (originally) Grave site preserved / rebuilt Restitution tombstone Image of the tomb
Daembke, Georg Christoph von
Oberstleutnant, Commandant of the Invalidenhaus
1775 A. Yes Berlin Invalidenfriedhof Gravestone of Georg Chrisoph von Daembke.jpg
Diezelsky, Michael Ludwig von
Oberst, Commandant of the Invalidenhaus
1779 A. Yes Invalienfriedhof, Diezelsky grave monument.jpg
Rohdich, Friedrich Wilhelm von
General, Minister of War
1796 A. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Rohdich.jpg
Köckritz, Karl Leopold von
Lieutenant General
1821 No Schinkel draft for von Kökritz-Grabmal.jpg
Tauentzien, Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von
1824 A. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Tauentzien Tomb of Wittenberg.jpg
Scharnhorst, Gerhard von
Lieutenant General, Minister of War
1813/1826 C. Yes

Honorary grave State of Berlin

Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Scharnhorst, general view.jpg
Witzleben, job of
lieutenant general, minister of war
1837 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Job von Witzleben tomb.jpg
Pirch, Georg Dubislaw Ludwig von
Lieutenant General
1838 A. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Pirch, Georg Dubislaw Ludwig.jpg
Rauch, Gustav von
General, Minister of War
1841 C. Yes

Honorary grave State of Berlin

Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Rauch, Gustav.jpg
Held, Hans von
Zollrat, publicist, poet
1842 No
Friesen, Karl Friedrich
pedagogue, co-founder of the German gymnastics movement
1814/1843 C. Yes

Honorary grave State of Berlin

Invalidenfriedhof, Friesen grave.jpg
Wolzog, Ludwig von
General, diplomat
1845 C. No
Wiebel, Johann Wilhelm von
General Staff Doctor, Chief of Military Medical Services
1847 C. No 2014
Boyen, Hermann von
Generalfeldmarschall, Minister of War
1848 C. Yes

Honorary grave State of Berlin

Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Boyen.jpg
Scharnhorst, Wilhelm von
1854 C. Yes
Hiller von Gaertringen, August
1856 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Gärtringen.jpg
Reyher, Karl von
General der Kavallerie, Minister of War
1857 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Reyher.jpg
Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von
Lieutenant General
1757/1857 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Winterfeldt.jpg
Dohna-Schlobitten, Karl Friedrich Emil to
Field Marshal General
1859 C. Yes
Witzleben, August Ferdinand von
Lieutenant General
1859 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb Ferdinand August von Witzleben.jpg
Stockhausen, August von
Lieutenant General, Minister of War
1861 C. No
Schmückert, Gottlieb Heinrich
General Post Director
1862 C. No
Raven, Edward von
1864 C. No
Brandt, Heinrich von
General, military writer
1868 C. No
Berneck, Karl Gustav von
Major, writer
1871 C. No
Hindersin, Gustav Eduard von
General, General Inspector of the Artillery
1872 D. No Gustav Eduard von Hindersin.jpg
Zastrow, Heinrich Adolf von
1875 C. Yes Zastrow.JPG
Budritzki, Rudolph Otto von
1876 F. No
Neuhaus, Friedrich
Railway entrepreneur
1876 B. No 1994 Neuhaus, 1994.jpg
Wöhlert, Johann Friedrich Ludwig
Mechanical engineering and iron industry entrepreneur
1877 D. No
Barnim, Therese von , b. Elßler
dancer, morganatic wife of Prince Adalbert of Prussia
1878 C. No Yes Therese von Barnim.jpg
Witzleben, Gerhard August von
Lieutenant General, military writer
1880 C. No
Great, Julius von
1881 A. No
Hagen, Gotthilf
engineer, hydraulic engineering technician
1884 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Tomb Hagen.jpg
Ollech, Karl Rudolf von
General, military historian
1884 E. No
Boyen, Leopold Hermann von
General der Infanterie
1886 C. Yes Herrmann von Boyen.jpg
Hülsen, Botho from
General Director of the Berlin Court Theater
1886 B. No
Brandenstein, Karl von
Lieutenant General
1886 C. No
Willisen, Karl Georg Gustav Freiherr von
General, Governor of Berlin
1886 C. No
Stein, Heinrich Freiherr von
philosopher, educator, publicist
1887 No
Rabitz, Karl
inventor, construction technician
1891 E. No Invalidenfriedhof, Rabitz Mausoleum, 1925.jpg
Credé, Carl Siegmund Franz
Gynecologist, Senior of the Medical Faculty Leipzig
1892 No
Hülsen, Helene von
1892 B. No
Pape, Alexander von
Colonel General
1895 B. No
Meerscheidt-Hüllessem, Oskar von
General of the Infantry
1895 A. No
Wickede, Wilhelm von
Vice Admiral
1895 B. No
Kaltenborn-Stachau, Hans Karl Georg von
General, Minister of War
1898 F. No
Boehn, Oktavio Philipp von
1899 A. No
Zychlinski, Franz von
General of the Infantry
1900 No 2002
Rauch, Alfred Bonaventure of
General of the Cavalry, Adjutant General of the Emperor
1900 C. Yes Alfred von Rauch.JPG
Coler, Alwin Gustav von
General Staff Doctor, Chief of the Medical Corps
1901 F. No Alwin von Coler.JPG
Schele, Friedrich von
General, Governor of German East Africa
1904 E. No 2002 From Schele, 2002.jpg
Zastrow, Wilhelm Alexander Franz von
Lieutenant General
1906 C. Yes Zastrow.JPG
Werder, Bernhard von
General, Ambassador to Russia
1907 F. No 2003 From Werder-2, 2003.jpg
Hänisch, Karl von
General of the Cavalry
1908 B. Yes 1992 Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Hänisch.jpg
Hülsen-Haeseler, Dietrich von
1908 B. Yes 1998 Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Hülsen-Haeseler, Dietrich.jpg
Claer, Otto von
Lieutenant General
1909 No Yes Otto von Claer.JPG
Holstein, Friedrich August von
Diplomat, "Eminence Gray" in the Foreign Office
1909 E. No 2009 Friedrich von Holstein.jpg
Verdy du Vernois, Julius von
General, Minister of War, writer
1910 F. Yes 2012 Julius Verdy du Vernois.JPG
Burg, Ernst von der
General of the Infantry, Military Attaché
1910 Yes Ernst von der Burg.jpg
Liebermann von Sonnenberg, Max
politician, anti-Semitic publicist
1911 I. No
Schlieffen, Alfred von
Generalfeldmarschall, Chief of Staff, author of the "Schlieffen Plan"
1913 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Schlieffen.jpg
Frenzel, Karl
writer, theater critic
1914 B. No
Winterfeld, Hans von
General of the Infantry
1914 No Yes Hans von Winterfeld.JPG
Moltke, Helmuth von , d. J.
Colonel General, Chief of Staff
1916 B. No 2007 Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Moltke.jpg
Prittwitz and Gaffron, Maximilian von
1917 B. No
Bissing, Moritz von
Colonel General
1917 B. No Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Bissing, 1925.jpg
Buddecke, Hans Joachim
Oberleutnant, fighter pilot
1918 B. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Buddecke Tomb 02.jpg
Gillhaußen, Guido Pankratius Hermann
Major, military writer, composer
1918 B. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Gillhausen 01.jpg
Eichhorn, Hermann von
1918 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Eichhorn, Hermann.jpg
Below, Fritz von
1918 E. No 2001 By Below - 2001R.jpg
Beaulieu-Marconnay, Olivier von
Leutnant, fighter pilot
1918 B. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Beaulieu-Marconnay.jpg
Klüber, Robert von
1919 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Klüber.jpg
Berthold, Rudolf
Jagdflieger, Freikorps leader
1920 C. No 2003 BertholdStein.jpg
Baudissin, Friedrich Graf von
1921 D. Yes Yes Friedrich von Baudissin.JPG
Boehn, Max von
1921 D. No
Bülow, Karl von
1921 F. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Bülow, Karl.jpg
Beseler, Hans von
Generaloberst, politician
1921 F. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Beseler tomb 01.jpg
Prittwitz and Gaffron, Curt von
1922 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Prittwitz and Gaffron.jpg
Puttkamer, Hans von
1922 Yes Hans von Puttkamer.JPG
Hülsen-Haeseler, Georg von
Prussian court official, theater director
1922 B. Yes 1998 Georg von Hülsen-Haeseler 1.JPG
Troeltsch, Ernst
theologian, professor of philosophy and the history of religion, politician
1923 B. No 1991 Invalidenfriedhof, Troeltsch grave.jpg
Richthofen, Manfred von
1918/1925 F. No

(Reburied in 1975; memorial stone from 2009)

Federal archive picture 183-2007-0330-500, Berlin, grave Manfred v.  Richthofen.jpg
Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm von
Theologe, Rector of the Berlin University
1926 D. Yes 1997 Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm.jpg
Heeringen, Josias von
Colonel General, Minister of War
1926 No
Hoffmann, Max
Major General, Chief of Staff Ober Ost
1927 E. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Max Hoffmann.jpg
Neckel, Ulrich
Fighter pilot
1928 No
Dewitz, Curt von
Lieutenant General, Artillery Inspector
1929 No Yes Curt von Dewitz.JPG
Cranach, Hans von
Oberburghauptmann of the Wartburg
1929 No
Wolfing, Max
1930 No
Küster, Ernst
surgeon, general doctor
1930 No
François, Curt von
Major, Governor of German South West Africa, founder of Windhoek
1931 B. Yes 2018 Curt von François grave at the Invalidenfriedhof Berlin.jpg
Etzdorf, Ulrich von
General of the Infantry
1931 F. Yes 2015 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2008-0280, Berlin, Marga von Etzdorf tomb.jpg
Maikowski, Hans
SA leader
1933 F. No
Frankenberg and Proschlitz, Werner von
Major General
1933 B. Yes Werner von Frankenberg-Proschwitz.JPG
Etzdorf, Marga von
1933 F. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, grave of Etzdorf.jpg
Schröder, Ludwig von
1933 B. Yes Joachim & Ludwig von Schröder 1.JPG
Willisen, Friedrich-Wilhelm Freiherr von
Oberstleutnant, President of the German Protection Association, head of the aviation schools
1933 No
Horn, Rudolf von
General der Artillerie, President of the Kyffhäuserbund
1934 No
Solf, Wilhelm Heinrich
Diplomat, politician
1936 B. No 2001 Invalidenfriedhof, Grave Solf.jpg
Michelis, Theodor
Major General, Chief of the Army Peace Commission
1936 B. Yes Theodor Michelis.JPG
Falkenhausen, Ludwig von
Colonel General
1936 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Falkenhausen.jpg
Fürstner, Wolfgang
Hauptmann, sports functionary, deputy commandant of the Olympic Village in 1936
1936 F. No 2002 Invalidenfriedhof, Restitution Stone Fürstner.jpg
Seeckt, Hans von
Generaloberst, Chief of the Army Command of the Reichswehr
1936 C. Yes Hans von Seeckt Grabplatte.jpg
Oven, Adolf von
General der Infanterie
1937 Yes Adolf von Oven.jpg
Schlegel, Erich
Evangelical Field Bishop
1938 B. Yes Schlegel.JPG
Eberhardt, Friedrich Wilhelm Magnus from
General of the Infantry
1939 C. Yes Magnus von Eberhardt.jpg
Stephani, Franz von
Freikorpsführer, federal governor of the "Stahlhelm"
1939 No
Watter, Oskar von
Lieutenant General
1939 F. No
Fritsch, Werner von
Generaloberst, Commander in Chief of the Army
1939 C. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Fritsch.jpg
Becker, Karl
General, military scientist
1940 No
Winterfeldt, Detlof von
Officer, Diplomat
1940 C. Yes
Stutterheim, Wolff from
Major General of the Air Force
1940 F. Yes Stutterheim.jpg
Saint Paul-Illaire, Walter von
Colonial Administrator
1940 No
Arnauld de la Perière, Lothar von
Vice-Admiral, submarine commander
1941 C. Yes Invalids Cemetery, tomb of Arnauld de la Periere.jpg
Udet, Ernst
Generaloberst, fighter pilot, general air master
1941 F. Yes 1993 Udet Grab.jpg
Mölders, Werner
Colonel of the Air Force, fighter pilot
1941 F. Yes 1990 Moelders.jpg
Reichenau, Walter von
Generalfeldmarschall, Commander in Chief Army Group South
1942 A (F) Yes
Todt, Fritz
Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition, General Inspector for Roads
1942 C. No 2004

(removed again)

Heydrich, Reinhard
SS-Obergruppenführer, head of the Reich Security Main Office
1942 A. No
Haupt, Hans-Joachim
Major General
1942 No Yes Hans-Joachim Haupt.JPG
Gablenz, Carl August von
Major General of the Air Force, aviation pioneer
1942 A. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, tomb of Gablenz, Carl August.jpg
Lieth-Thomsen, Hermann from the
General of the Air Force
1942 F. No 2000 Invalidenfriedhof, restitution stone from Lieth-Thomsen.jpg
Hasse, Otto
General of the Infantry, Chief of the Troop Office
1942 Yes Otto Hasse.jpg
Kosch, Robert
General of the Infantry
1942 No
Haase, Curt
Colonel General
1943 No
Selchow, Bogislav von
Writer, Freikorps Leader
1943 No
Hube, Hans-Valentin
Colonel General
1944 E. No 2000 Hube, 2000.jpg
Oesau, Walter
fighter pilot
1944 No
Schmundt, Rudolf
General, Adolf Hitler's chief adjutant
1944 B. No Yes Schmundt, 1944.jpg
Staehle, Wilhelm
Colonel of the Air Force, member of the resistance
1945 A. Yes GrabStaehle.jpg
Claer, Eberhard von
General der Infanterie
1945 No Yes Eberhard von Claer.JPG
Hoetzsch, Otto
historian, politician
1946 B. Yes Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Hoetzsch tomb.jpg
Kabisch, Ernst
Lieutenant General, military writer
1951 B. Yes Invalidenfriedhof, Kabisch tomb.jpg
Below, Ernst von
General of the Infantry
1955 No 2001 Ernst von Below.JPG
Stoeckel, Walter
Gynecologist, Director of the University Women's Clinic
1961 A. Yes Berlin, Mitte, Invalidenfriedhof, field A, grave Walter Stoeckel.jpg



historical :

  • Günter Hintze: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. A grove of honor for Prussian-German history . Bernard & Graefe, Berlin 1936. 4., ext. Edition: Bernard & Graefe, Berlin 1942.
  • Karl Treuwerth: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. A place of Prussian-German fame . Brunnen-Verlag K. Winckler, Berlin 1925.

modern :

  • Laurenz Demps : Between Mars and Minerva. Signpost for the Invalidenfriedhof. A list of the grave monuments still existing on the Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin . Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-345-00659-6 .
  • Laurenz Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. A monument to Prussian-German history in Berlin . Brandenburgisches Verlags-Haus, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-89488-093-7 .
  • Laurenz Demps, Christian Scheer, Hans-Jürgen Mende : Invalidenfriedhof. A cemetery guide . 2., ext. and revised Edition. Simon, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-936242-08-9 .
  • Wolfgang Gottschalk: The garrison cemetery and the invalid cemetery in Berlin . Nishen, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88940-062-0 .
  • Azemina Bruch, Jörg Kuhn, Detlev Pietzsch (edit.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Rescue of a national monument . Ed .: Klaus von Krosigk. L-und-H-Verlag, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-928119-83-4 .
  • Klaus von Krosigk, Jörg Kuhn: Scharnhorststrasse, Invalidenfriedhof . In: Jörg Haspel, Klaus von Krosigk (Ed.): Garden monuments in Berlin. Cemeteries (=  contributions to the preservation of monuments in Berlin ). No. 27 . Imhof, Petersberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-86568-293-2 , p. 154-161 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Mende : Invalidenfriedhof . In: Hans-Jürgen Mende (Hrsg.): Lexicon of the Berlin tombs . Haude & Spener, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-7759-0476-X , p. 34-40 .
  • Robert Thoms: Invalidenfriedhof Berlin. His story in the biographies of those buried there . Self-published, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-89811-048-6 .


Web links

Commons : Invalidenfriedhof  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Klaus von Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Rescue of a national monument. L-und-H-Verl., Hamburg 2003, pp. 11-12. Laurenz Demps : The Invalidenfriedhof. A monument to Prussian-German history in Berlin . Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus, Berlin 1996, pp. 13-22.
  2. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 11-12. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . P. 45.
  3. a b Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 12. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof . P. 51.
  4. ^ Jörg Kuhn: A regained, late baroque monument ensemble on the Invalidenfriedhof . In: Communications from the Association for the History of Berlin 1/2002. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 12-13.
  5. a b c Kuhn: Monument Ensemble .
  6. Landesdenkmalamt Berlin (Ed.): Monuments in Berlin. Mitte district. Mitte district. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2003, p. 635. Krosigk (Ed.): Der Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 28-30.
  7. Monuments in Berlin. Mitte district. Mitte district . S. 635. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 28-31.
  8. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 37-38.
  9. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 31-35.
  10. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 26-28.
  11. Horst Helas: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. The dead of the civil parish in 1846 . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 2, 2000, ISSN  0944-5560 , p. 23-36 ( ). Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 35-36.
  12. Horst Helas: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. The dead of the civil parish in 1846 . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 2, 2000, ISSN  0944-5560 , p. 23-36 ( ). Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . S. 15. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 62-63.
  13. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 14-15. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 45-48.
  14. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 14-15. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 46-47.
  15. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 12-14, 73-74. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . P. 51.
  16. Harald Vocke : Albrecht von Kessel. As a diplomat for reconciliation with Eastern Europe. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2001, ISBN 3-451-20248-4 , p. 318.
  17. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 14-15, 66-69, 70-73. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 47-50, 59-65, citation p. 50.
  18. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 14.
  19. Demps : The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 53-6. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Signpost for the Invalidenfriedhof . Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1998, pp. 35–36.
  20. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 38-44, 64.
  21. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Pp. 100-101, 116.
  22. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. S. 38. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 52-53, quotation p. 53.
  23. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 31, 53-57.
  24. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 42.
  25. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 64-65. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva . Pp. 109-110, 129-131.
  26. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 39-40, 62, 73-74, 76, 99.
  27. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 65-66, 96-98. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . P. 92 (photo of the collapsed monument), 102–103.
  28. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 67-69. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 48-50. Jürgen Lüttke: Friesen's grave cross on the Invalidenfriedhof. In: Sports Museum Berlin (Hrsg.): Sports city of Berlin in the past and present . Sportmuseum, Berlin 1993, pp. 9-17.
  29. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 70-73. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 49-50.
  30. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 16, 67-69. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 74-76. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . P. 48.
  31. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 60-62.
  32. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Pp. 138-139. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 62-63. Jörg Kuhn: Ferdinand August von Witzleben's grave. In: Jörg Haspel, Klaus von Krosigk (Ed.): Garden monuments in Berlin. Cemeteries . Imhof, Petersberg 2008, p. 161.
  33. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 32-34, 85.
  34. ^ Karl Treuwerth: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. A place of Prussian-German fame. Brunnen-Verlag, Berlin 1925, pp. 101-105. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . P. 65. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva . Pp. 69, 91–92, 111. Demps mentions the wrong number of 199 buried victims of the First World War several times.
  35. ^ Treuwerth: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. P. 13 (citation), 91-100. Demps: The Invaliden Cemetery . Pp. 9-10, 65, 71-73. Hans-Jürgen Mende: Lexicon of the Berlin tombs . Haude & Spener, Berlin 2005, p. 40 (entry Treuwerth). Chronicle 2011. ( Memento of the original from September 29, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Website of the Association of Invalids Cemetery @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  36. a b Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 67-72.
  37. Joachim Castan: The Red Baron. The whole story of Manfred von Richthofen. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-608-94461-7 , p. 285.
  38. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 72-73.
  39. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 72-75. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva . Pp. 110-112, 118, 122, 133-134, 160, 163-164. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 45-46, 55-56, 58-60, 66, 76-77.
  40. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 78-82. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 16-17.
  41. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 72-74. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 16-17, 69; Hans J. Reichhardt, Wolfgang Schächen: From Berlin to Germania. About the destruction of the "Imperial Capital" by Albert Speer's redesign plans . Landesarchiv, Berlin 1984, pp. 58–59.
  42. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Pp. 46-7. Guenter Hintze: The Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin. A grove of honor for Prussian-German history . 4th, exp. Edition. Bernard & Graefe, Berlin 1940, p. 57.
  43. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. P. 47, 76, 93, 102. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 79-84.
  44. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. P. 72, 82-83, 85-86, 106, 113-114, 147. Demps: Der Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 80-84.
  45. ^ Burghard Ciesla : The Heereswaffenamt and the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in the Third Reich. The military research relationships between 1918 and 1945 . In: Helmut Maier (ed.): Community research, authorized representatives and knowledge transfer. The role of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in the system of war-relevant research under National Socialism . Wallstein, Göttingen 2007, pp. 32–76, here pp. 65–66.
  46. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Pp. 167-168, 170-171. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 54-55.
  47. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 80–83, citations p. 82 and p. 81.
  48. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva. Pp. 45-46, 84, 155; Fritz von der Lancken (June 21, 1890– September 29, 1944). Short biography of the German Resistance Memorial Center .
  49. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 84.
  50. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 26-83, passim.
  51. a b Korsigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 81.
  52. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 58-60.
  53. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 76-77. Demps: Between Mars and Minerva . Pp. 133-134.
  54. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 79, 85.
  55. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 85-89. Among the surviving graves are three that were laid out after the wall was built. Alice Wallis (1895–1968) was buried in the family grave in grave field D, where a plaque commemorates her brother Fritz von der Lancken (1890–1944), who was executed by the National Socialists . Johanna Jenny von Jagow-Laberwisch (1890–1972) was buried in grave field C. In December 1989 Gotthard von Wallenberg Pachaly was buried next to his wife Sigrid, who had died in 1949, in grave field B. See: Demps: Between Mars and Minerva . Pp. 104, 119, 161.
  56. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 89-97.
  57. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 98.
  58. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 98-99. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . P. 17–18, 60. Polly Feversham, Leo Schmidt : The Berlin Wall today. The Berlin Wall Today . Verlag Bauwesen, Berlin 1999, p. 83. Berlin Wall. Invalid Cemetery . ( Memento of the original from February 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  59. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 98-102. Berlin wall. Invalid Cemetery . ( Memento of the original from February 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  60. "The Scharnhorst Tomb in No Man's Land". In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , November 25, 1978, p. 7.
  61. Demps: The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 99-103. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof . Pp. 18-20.
  62. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 17-23.
  63. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. S. 5, 84. Website of the Invalidenfriedhof support association. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
  64. Berlin Wall Trail .
  65. Patrol path disappears in the Invalidenfriedhof . In: Der Tagesspiegel , May 7, 2008.
  66. Berlin Wall Trail - From Nordbahnhof to Potsdamer Platz .; accessed on September 3, 2018
  67. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. P. 55.
  68. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 5-6, 20-23.
  69. ^ Website of the Invalidenfriedhof support association. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
  70. Thomas Loy: Excitement about tombstones for Nazi leaders. Resting place so far anonymously in the Invalidenfriedhof . In: Der Tagesspiegel , September 1, 2004. Eva Dorothée Schmid: Invalidenfriedhof recalls the history of the city. New stone for the grave of a Nazi minister . In: Berliner Zeitung , September 4, 2004.
  71. Krosigk (Ed.): The Invalidenfriedhof. Pp. 23, 52-54.
  72. ^ Website of the Invalidenfriedhof support association. ( Memento of the original from September 29, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. under the corresponding dates and tombs; Retrieved April 14, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  73. ^ Website of the Invalidenfriedhof Friends' Association, accessed on April 14, 2012.
  74. Glocke Auguste returns from Bochum-Leithe to Berlin . In: WAZ , February 10, 2011; Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  75. Detlef Brennecke: Rolf Hochhuth's novella 'Die Berliner Antigone'. In: Rolf Hochhuth. Work and effect . Edited by Rudolf Wolff. Bouvier, Bonn 1987, pp. 47-62.
  76. Uwe Timm: penumbra. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, no location 2008, ISBN 978-3-462-04043-2 , pp. 73-74.
  77. Uwe Timm on Marga von Etzdorf. In: FAZ. August 25, 2008, p. 7.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on July 7, 2008 in this version .

Coordinates: 52 ° 31 ′ 55 ″  N , 13 ° 22 ′ 16 ″  E