Eberhard von Claer (General)

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Eberhard von Claer around 1915

Eberhard Gabriel Laurenz von Claer (* 9. August 1856 in Lubin ; † 28. April 1945 in Langensalza ) was a Prussian general of the infantry in the First World War .



He originally came from the Huguenot noble family de Clair and was the son of the later Prussian Lieutenant General Otto de Claer (1827-1909) and his wife Maria, née Spitz (born December 26, 1834 in Bonn, † November 2, 1895 in Berlin). She was the daughter of the court councilor and treasurer at the University of Bonn Joseph Andreas Spitz.

With the approval of April 28, 1882, the family received permission to use the name of Claer instead of de Claer as before .

Military career

Claer joined the Guard Fusilier Regiment of the Prussian Army in Berlin on April 19, 1873 , coming from the cadet corps as a second lieutenant and received his patent on August 9 . From June 2, 1877 to August 1, 1879 he was a battalion adjutant. He attended the War Academy from October 1, 1879 to July 16, 1882. During this period he was from July 1 to September 30, 1880 for service with the Dragoon Regiment No. 4 in Lüben , from July 23 to September 30, 1880 Commanded September 1881 with the 1st Pomeranian Field Artillery Regiment No. 2 in Stettin and was promoted to Premier Lieutenant on May 13, 1882 . On April 15, he was commanded from May 1, 1884 to serve initially for one year with the Great General Staff and then extended to another year. Claer was released from the command on April 17, 1886, and on February 22, 1887, as an adjutant to the 3rd Guard Infantry Brigade in Berlin, à la suite of his regiment . With his promotion to captain on June 22, 1888, he was released from his command, reassigned to his regiment and appointed company commander. Claer was ordered to serve at the War Ministry on February 26, 1891. In position à la suite of his regiment and left in his command, he was appointed adjutant of the General Command of the Guard Corps on March 22, 1891 . Released from this command and transferred to the War Ministry, he was promoted to major on March 25, 1893 and December 19 of the same year .

Lübeck barracks

Appointed commander of the 4th (half) battalion in the 2nd Hanseatic Infantry Regiment No. 76 , he was transferred to Hamburg on August 18, 1894 . The command of the III. Battalion in Lübeck was transferred to him on June 18, 1895. He was transferred to the 3rd Hanseatic Infantry Regiment No. 162 , which was newly formed on April 1, 1897, on the occasion of the increase in the army, on March 22, 1897, and was appointed commander of the 2nd Battalion. The Lübeck battalion of the 76ers was converted into one of the 162s. The regiment now stationed only in Hamburg received its new III at the same time. Battalion from the amalgamation of his 4th half battalion with that of the 1st Hanseatic Infantry Regiment No. 75 from Bremen .

LJB9 - Major v Claer (retouched) .jpg

After Ratzeburg , Claer was appointed on April 21, 1898 as commander of the Lauenburg Jäger Battalion No. 9, the highest-ranking person in the town. He was transferred to the staff of the Queen Elisabeth Guards Grenadier Regiment No. 3 in Charlottenburg on June 30 and promoted to lieutenant colonel on July 22, 1900 . From June 24 to August 8, 1901, he was assigned to the 79th Infantry Brigade's evacuation business to Paderborn . Promoted to colonel in 1902 , he was appointed commander of the Guard Grenadier Regiment No. 5 in Spandau the following year.

On February 26, 1907, he was promoted to command of the 11th Infantry Brigade in Brandenburg and the following month, on March 22, he was promoted to major general. On March 22, 1910 he received the rank of Lieutenant General and replaced General Karl von Plettenberg on April 12 as commander of the 22nd Division in Kassel . Finally, on June 13, 1911, he replaced General von Oertzen as commander of the 11th Division in Breslau . On January 4, 1913, he was appointed chief of the engineer and engineer corps and inspector general of the fortresses , followed by a promotion to general of the infantry on March 22, 1914.

With the mobilization of the First World War , Claer went to the Great Headquarters as a general of engineers and pioneers . On August 25, 1914, he was entrusted with the management of the newly established XXIV Reserve Corps , before he was appointed Commanding General of the VII Army Corps (also Westphalian Corps) on September 12, 1914 . At that time it was fighting on the right wing of the 2nd Army on the heights east of the Aisne-Marne Canal . In early October, it fought at Arras in the Association of the 6th Army of the Bavarian Crown Prince . During the spring battle at La Bassée and Arras , Claer was recalled on June 29, 1915, to return to his first position at the headquarters.

At the same time, Emperor Wilhelm II awarded him the order Pour le Mérite in recognition of his services . The task assigned to him at the GHQ prompted him to submit his resignation letter . This was complied with on July 3, 1916 and Claer à la suite of the Guard Grenadier Regiment No. 5 was provided.


Restitution gravestone for Eberhard and Magdalena von Claer at the Invalidenfriedhof Berlin (status 2013)

Claer had married Magdalena von Heyden (born December 10, 1865 in Plötz ; † August 1, 1944 Bielitz ). Her son, Bernhard von Claer (* December 7, 1888 in Berlin ; † March 29, 1953) had a military career. Bernhard von Claer was among other things Oberfeldkommandant (from June 1943 to September 1944) of Oberfeldkommandantur 589 in Liège during the Second World War . After the war, he was indicted by the war council in Brussels along with Alexander von Falkenhausen and two other officers ( Eggert Reeder and Georg Bertram), among other things because of his involvement in hostage shootings. On March 9, 1951, von Claer was acquitted by the council of war.

It is not known whether Eberhard von Claer's marriage to Magdalena von Heyden resulted in further children.

Eberhard von Clear was buried at the side of his wife in the Invalidenfriedhof Berlin . The grave, which was destroyed after the war, was marked with a restitution stone after 1989 .



  • Hanns Möller: The history of the knights of the order “pour le merite” in World War 1914–1918. Volume 1: A-L. Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Berlin 1935, pp. 195–197.
  • Harry von Rège : Officer list of the Infantry Regiment No. 76. 1902, p. 165.
  • Karl-Friedrich Hildebrand, Christian Zweng: The knights of the order Pour le Mérite of the First World War. Volume 1: AG. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1999, ISBN 3-7648-2505-7 , pp. 263-264.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Kurt von Priesdorff : Soldatisches Führertum . Volume 9, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt Hamburg, undated [Hamburg], undated [1941], DNB 986919780 , p. 422, no. 2985.
  2. a b c d e f Ranking list of the Royal Prussian Army and the XIII. (Royal Württemberg) Army Corps for 1914. Ed .: War Ministry . ES Mittler & Sohn . Berlin 1914. p. 118.