The rank of captain is an officer rank in the Federal Armed Forces , the Federal Armed Forces , the Swiss Army and other current and former armed forces. In Austria , the rank of captain is also used for assignments in the Austrian federal police and justice station and was also a rank of the fire brigade . In many other armed forces and civil organizations there are comparable ranks and positions .
Concept and history
In the armies of the late Middle Ages and early modern times , the field captain was generally the leader (the head), who was either elected by the men of the association or, as a military entrepreneur, had set up the troops himself. The size of the association could vary widely. The captains were called in Latin capitaneus ("leader", derived from caput , "main"), from which the rank designation of captain , which is still used today in the Roman, Slavic and Anglo-Saxon-speaking regions of the land forces , comes.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the use of the French designation was captain in the German-speaking area in use since the French language at that time the lingua franca in military circles in Europe was and enjoyed the French army being high reputation.
As Staff Captain was referred to the then army an officer in the context of the company management does not own company could afford and therefore served as a deputy to the company owner. Usually the companies of the three staff officers of a regiment ( major , lieutenant colonel , colonel ), who were prevented from directing their company by other tasks, were commanded by such staff captains. They ranked ahead of the lieutenants , but behind the “real” captains and received less pay than them. This led to the graduation of two captains' ranks (e.g. captains / captains "1st and 2nd class"), which was still common in some German armies (e.g. in Bavaria ) in the 19th century. With the reintroduction of the service level staff captain in 1993 in Germany this dichotomy was revived the captain rank.
|NATO rank code||OF-2|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Captain|
|Marine rank||Lieutenant captain|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Hptm (H)|
|Grade||A 11-12 according to BBesO|
The rank of captain was determined by the Federal President with the order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers on the basis of the Soldiers Act .
Authority and positions
In the Bundeswehr, the captain is an officer rank who, according to the Central Service Regulation (ZDv) A-1420/24 "Ranks and Rank Groups", belongs to the rank group of the captains . Because they belong to the rank of captain, soldiers in the rank of captain can issue orders to soldiers in the rank groups of crews , non-commissioned officers with and without porters and lieutenants on the basis of Section 4 ("Superiors' relationship based on the rank") of the Superiors Ordinance within the limits set there .
Captains in the raceways of troops service are often among the troops as military leaders in the associations of their branch of service used. Typical is the use of company commander , but also as platoon leader I. Zug , company operations officer , deputy company commander or aircraft commander . Experienced captains are also deployed on staff posts in the staffs of the units from battalion level , at troop schools , in command authorities as subject matter officers or in the ministry . There they often support staff officers, for example, in personnel and material planning , strategy development , operational planning or in military intelligence . A few, specially qualified and experienced captains are already serving as an officer in the general staff service . Professional soldiers in the troop service are trained in various courses for their work as staff officers in the rank of captain. Of particular note are the compulsory basic staff officer course at the command academy of the Bundeswehr and the general staff service / admiral staff course there, which is also held there for particularly outstanding captains. Military service officers in agencies such as (higher) command authorities, in offices or in military engineering agencies usually lead specialist departments or specialist sub- departments that deal with specialist issues relating to armaments , logistics and personnel planning , material testing , material maintenance or air traffic control . In the ministry they are employed as clerks. Military music officers with the rank of captain usually serve as the second music officer and deputy chief in one of the Bundeswehr music corps . On the basis of this and similar positions, soldiers with the rank of captain can issue orders to all soldiers who are officially or professionally subordinate in the cases listed in the superior ordinance. As unit commanders, company commanders are the disciplinary superior of the soldiers who are subordinate to them in accordance with the military disciplinary code .
Appointment, salary and age limit
The decisive legal basis for the appointment as captain is the Soldier Career Ordinance (SLV) and, in addition, the Central Service Regulation (ZDv) A-1420/7. Temporary soldiers , professional soldiers and assigned reservists can be appointed to the rank of captain . The prerequisite is membership of the officers' career group . The rank can be achieved at the earliest five and a half years (for flight personnel, personnel used in the KSK for special operations and combat swimmers after five years) after being appointed lieutenant. If the hiring rank was first lieutenant , promotion can take place after four and a half years in rank first lieutenant. A setting with the rank Captain is provided with a the use possible also corresponding qualification. A prerequisite for the promotion of military music officer candidates to captain is the Kapellmeister exam .
Equivalent, subordinate and superior ranks
Only army and air force uniform wearers carry the rank of captain . Navy uniform wearers (except medical officers ) of the same rank hold the rank of lieutenant commander . The ranking same medical officer ranks are after approval direction differently denominated Ranks medical officer , staff pharmacists and staff veterinarian . In the armed forces of NATO the captain to all ranks with is NATO rank code OF-2 equivalent.
According to ZDv A-1420/7, the captain is one rank above the lower-ranking first lieutenant or first lieutenant in the sea and below the higher-ranking staff captain or staff captain (first rank for army and air force uniforms; second rank for naval uniforms). On the other hand, in the order of promotion to be regularly followed according to the Soldiers' Career Ordinance and ZDv A-1420/7, the rank preceding the captain for military music officers is generally the lieutenant and the rank following for all captains (except for officers in the military service ) is the major .
|Lower rank||Higher rank|
Oberleutnant zur See
Staff Captain Staff
Rank group : Teams-NCOs-NCO-NCOs-Lieutenant-Captains-Staff officers-Generals
Use as a collective term
The ranks captain, captain lieutenant, medical officer, staff pharmacist, staff captain lieutenant and staff captain form the rank group referred to as captains according to ZDv 14/5 . Consequently, “captains” is an official collective name for these ranks. Sometimes “captains” refer to several soldiers with the rank of captain, depending on the context. Rarely does "captains" informally denote the similar ranks of captain and staff captain, as opposed to the inhomogeneously designated other ranks of the rank group. The plural form "captains", which is possible according to Duden , but also rare in civil usage , is rarely used in the military usage of the Bundeswehr and even then mostly only for several soldiers in the rank of captain and not for the officially different rank group.
Federal army and guards
- Captain -
Suit 75/03 | Skirt collar | Plate cap
|NATO rank code||OF-2|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Captain|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Hptm|
The rank of captain is also used as a designation by the Austrian police and the armed forces . The holder of the rank of captain usually holds the function of a company commander or a member of the staff of a small or large unit (battalion or regiment). Higher service academics on foreign assignments, even without officer training, are usually given the title captain. In Austria, the rank of Rittmeister , which did not revive in Germany after the Second World War , continued until 1978.
In addition, the term captain is used for officers of the guard body of the Federal Police and the justice guard , who are organized according to a military model. As with all executive ranks, the rank can be held in female form.
Lower rank of first
Classification: recruits - batches - NCOs - officers All ranks at a glance: Army ranks
- Captain -
|NATO rank code||OF-2|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Captain|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Hptm|
A captain ( French: capitaine , Italian: capitano ) is employed in the Swiss Army either in the function of a company commander or in a staff function (from battalion level and higher). In foreign missions it corresponds to the NATO rank code OF-2. The army chaplain also has the degree of captain. The rank badge shows three 3 mm wide stripes.
Lower grade first
Officer degree captain
Classification: crews - NCOs - higher NCOs - subaltern officers - captains - staff officers - higher staff officers - commander in chief of the army
All degrees at a glance: degrees of the Swiss Army
Brazilian Armed Forces
Captain of the
In Brazil , the rank of "Capitão" corresponds to the rank of captain in the army and air force.
United States Armed Forces and Police
In the US Army , the equivalent of "captain" is the captain . It has the NATO rank code OF-2. This is not to be confused with the maritime captain ( sea captain ) of the US Navy , whose equivalent is the Colonel ( colonel ). The corresponding rank in the US Navy is the lieutenant .
In the USA , the Police Departments (not the Sheriff's Departments ) have a captain or a higher rank of district manager. But captains can also use high-ranking investigators in the American police structure. B. be in the Internal Affairs Division.
British Armed Forces and Police
In the British Army , the equivalent of "captain" is the captain . It has the NATO rank code OF-2. This is not to be confused with the maritime captain ( sea captain ) of the Royal Navy or the group captain of the Royal Air Force , whose Army equivalent is the Colonel ( colonel ).
The corresponding rank in the Royal Air Force is the flight lieutenant .
In the English police force , district managers or comparable leadership ranks of the criminal police are also often referred to as "captains". This rank is roughly comparable to a German police / criminal superintendent or a first police / criminal superintendent.
Other current armed forces
The Swiss Guard also knows the rank of captain through its close ties to the Swiss Army.
The majority of the rank designation corresponding to a German “captain” is also in other languages such as “captain” in English, e.g. B .: French Capitaine , Spanish Capitán , Italian Capitano , Portuguese Capitão , ndl. Captain , dan. Kaptajn , Swedish Kapten , Norwegian Kaptein , Finnish Kapteeni , Russian and Polish Kapitan (Капитан) .
In the Turkish army , the corresponding rank is traditionally Yüzbaşı , a term that translates something like "Lord of hundreds" or " hundred leaders " (analogous to the Roman centurion ) means and the German reading public in the eindeutschenden spelling Jüsbaschi from various books of Karl May known is.
National Peoples Army
Based on the Soviet armed forces and the other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact, the armed organs of the GDR provided for the rank of sub-lieutenant , whose rank badge with a rank star corresponded to that of the first lieutenant in the older German armed forces. As in other armies, the captain was the next higher officer rank to the first lieutenant , but in contrast to the NATO armed forces, four officer stars were affixed to his shoulder piece. The arrangement of the stars corresponded to that of the current Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr. In the People's Navy , the equivalent rank to captain was captain lieutenant . For officers of the NVA, the standard standing time for promotion from first lieutenant / first lieutenant to the sea (OF1) to captain / lieutenant (OF2) was four years.
Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht
In the Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht the captain was an independent officer in the rank group of captains. The equivalent of the cavalry and of drawn troops (e.g. artillery) was the Rittmeister . In the Nazi ranks , this rank corresponded to the captain lieutenant of the navy or the SS-Hauptsturmführer or SA-Hauptsturmführer .
- Left: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for army uniform wearers of the army reconnaissance troops . Right: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for Air Force uniform wearers.
- Lieutenants and captains are therefore also referred to as troop officers, as long as they do not take on any posts in staff departments "far from the troops" intended for staff officers .
- The traditional use as a company commander has generally not been part of the officer's career since 2013 and will therefore possibly be very rare in the future, cf. Army press and information center . Strategic Communication Unit (Ed.): Information on the realignment. Army . No. 11 . Bonn July 2013, individual use planning required, p. 2 ( deutschesheer.de [PDF; 314 kB ; accessed on May 9, 2014]).
- Then add the rank addition “i. G."
- prerequisite for most careers is a university degree that is relevant to the intended use and at least two years of professional experience. For military music officer candidates, the Kapellmeister examination or an equivalent university examination is required.
- ZDv A-1420/7 on the basis of Careers Ordinance ( Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Careers Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002, Section 44 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014 ] Revised by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Article 2, Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730). ) the Soldiers '
- The age limits were redefined with the Service Law Reform Act 2009, cf. especially changes regarding BGBl . Part 1, G 5702 . tape 2009 , no. 7 . Bonn February 11, 2009, p. 160–275 ( Federal Law Gazette 2009 I No. 7 [accessed on November 14, 2014]). SG and transitional provisions according to SG. See Act on the Reorganization and Modernization of Federal Service Law (Service Law Reform Act - DNeuG) . In: Bundesanzeiger Verlag (Hrsg.):
- For reasons of space, shortened captions. What is meant are army uniform wearers and air force uniform wearers . The hunter-green flat braid shown next to the slip-on loop for army uniforms indicates a soldier in the armored infantry troops , infantry or special forces . In addition to the slip-on loops for the field blouse in the five-color camouflage pattern shown here on the shoulder flaps, there are a number of other types of rank insignia, which are described in more detail in the article → "Rank insignia of the Bundeswehr" .
- Only officers of the military technical service are appointed as staff captain or staff captain lieutenant (first rank designation for army and air force uniforms; second rank designation for naval uniforms)
- Hartmut Bagger , Command Staff of the Armed Forces I 3, Federal Ministry of Defense (Ed.): ZDv 37/10. Suit regulations for soldiers in the Bundeswehr . Bonn July 16, 2008, 4 labels, p. 539 ( dmb-lv-westfalen.de [PDF; 3.5 MB ] Reprint October 2008 replaces first edition from July 1996). dmb-lv-westfalen.de ( Memento from September 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, rankings in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Law) ).
- Agreed English texts. STANAG 2116. NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) . NATO codes for grades of military personnel . 5th edition. 1992 (English, rankmaven.tripod.com [accessed March 25, 2014]).
- The Federal President (Ed.): Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers . BPresUnifAnO . July 14, 1978 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF] Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and uniforms of soldiers from July 14, 1978 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1067 ), last amended by Article 1 of the order of 31. May 1996 ( BGBl. I p. 746 ) has been changed).
- Federal Minister of Defense ; Command Staff of the Armed Forces IV 1 (Ed.): Abbreviations for use in the Bundeswehr - German Abbreviations - ZDv 64/10 . Bonn January 19, 1979 ( pingwins.ucoz.de [PDF] as of September 17, 1999).
- Appendix I (to § 20, paragraph 2, sentence 1) Bundesbesoldungsgesetz orders of A and B . ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Federal Pay Regulations (BBesO) only apply to professional and temporary soldiers and are an annex to the Federal Pay Act (BBesG)).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 4 para. 3 (2) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, The Superiors Ordinance, p. A 12 1 (not to be confused with the Ordinance on the Regulation of Military Superiors (Superiors Ordinance - VorgV) ).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956, § 4 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Military disciplinary code (WDO). In: Laws on the Internet. Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection , August 16, 2001, accessed on November 5, 2014 (from August 16, 2001 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 2093 ), last amended by Article 7 of the Act of August 28, 2013 ( Federal Law Gazette I p . 3386 ) has been changed).
- Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Careers Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- Note also:
- The Federal Minister of Defense ; Personnel, Social and Central Affairs Department (Ed.): ZDv A-1420/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers . Bonn March 27, 2002, Art. 635 ( PDF ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on March 26, 2014] DSK AP210100187, reprint January 2008). [[Central Service Regulation | ZDv]] A-1420/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Ministry of Justice and for Consumer Protection , juris GmbH (Ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 45 Paragraph 2 (3) - ( PDF [accessed on November 10, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art. 1 G of April 8 2013 I 730).
- The equivalent, higher and lower ranks are given in accordance with ZDv 14/5 B 185, cf. The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Act) . The order of the ranks shown in the info box does not necessarily correspond to one of the regular rank sequences provided for in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , nor does it necessarily correspond to the rank hierarchy described in the Superiors Ordinance a managerial relationship ).
- Captain, the. In: Duden . Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, 2013, accessed on November 9, 2014 .
- Salary table of the Swiss Army ( Memento from September 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )