Reserve (Bundeswehr)

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The reserve of the Bundeswehr includes the personnel, organizational, material and infrastructural measures that enable growth. Reservists in Germany are all former soldiers of the Bundeswehr who have not lost their rank (these are also "veterans"), as well as persons who are called upon to perform military service under the fourth section of the Soldiers Act (SG) due to an obligation entered into with the federal government can ( § 1 ResG ). Reservists are reservists who do military service in the Bundeswehr as soldiers according to the fourth and fifth sections ( official events ) of the Soldiers Act.


The Bundeswehr reserve is an indispensable part of the Bundeswehr for national and alliance defense (LV / BV), for homeland security (HSch) and for deployments in the context of international crisis management. It ensures growth, increases operational readiness and increases the stamina in the entire range of tasks of the Bundeswehr, especially for the task of national and alliance defense. In addition, the reserve promotes the connection to society.

Homeland security encompasses the tasks that are to be performed by the Bundeswehr outside of a state of tension and defense within the framework of the national security provision to protect Germany and its citizens located on German territory.


Categories of reserve

According to their training and availability, reservists are deployed across the entire spectrum of tasks in the Bundeswehr. The reserve consists of the categories of troop reserve, territorial reserve and general reserve.

Troop reserve

The troop reserve provides personal support in all organizational areas of the Bundeswehr. It includes supplementary troop units (ErgTrT) and field replacement troop units (FErsTrT) as well as individual service posts in the reinforcement reserve (VstkgRes) and the personnel reserve (PersRes).

Supplementary units serve to strengthen the active units and large units in the entire range of tasks and are basically structured and equipped like comparable active units. They thus form a basis for the short-term growth of skills. In the organizational basis, they are elements of the respective structural level that have been planned out, whose posts are usually filled with reservists. Supplementary troops are activated when required and thus form the basis for the ability to grow.

Field reserve units keep reservists ready in an organized manner for rapid personnel expansion. They are non-active organizational elements that are attached to active or non-active units and keep reservists ready in an organized manner for rapid staff expansion. In essence, they only have hand weapons and means of transport.

Territorial Reserve

The Territorial Reserve (TerrRes) is part of the Armed Forces Base (SKB) and is used for territorial liaison, security and support tasks. They consist of regional security and support forces (RSUKr) who are set up according to regional criteria and take regional circumstances into account. They are troops on duty by the respective Land Command performed (LKdo) and are intended to relieve the active force in protection and safety tasks in homeland security as well as for tasks in disaster relief and in the Host Nation Support (HNS). In addition, the territorial reserve consists of the liaison organization ( district liaison commandos (BVK), district liaison commandos (KVK), liaison commands to the interior ministries of the federal states) and the support points (Stp) internal aid. The territorial network with its liaison commands forms a comprehensive network of contact and coordination points that is aligned with the municipal structure of Germany and that advise, support and inform the municipal authorities, the interior ministries of the federal states and authorities in neighboring countries. Only reservists are used in the liaison commands for this purpose.

Assistance centers in the interior are properties selected nationwide at which the troops and departments stationed there have special skills that are suitable for carrying out subsidiary tasks in the context of domestic assistance in addition to carrying out the original military mission. Partially or inactive parts can be provided to strengthen / increase the sustainability of the bases, assistance inside.

General reserve

The general reserve (AllgRes) comprises all reservists who have not been assigned. The proportion of reservists in the General Reserve available under military law represents the Bundeswehr's long-term growth potential. She has no material.

Order types

Types of orders from the reserve

An appointment is the scheduling of a reservist on a post in the reinforcement reserve or an appointment option in the personnel reserve.

The reinforcement reserve (VstkgRes) comprises the entirety of all those assigned to structure-related posts . It serves to establish the full operational readiness of the organizational areas (growth).

The personnel reserve (PersRes) comprises the entirety of all those assigned to non-structure-bound assignment options (mirror service posts). It is a planning provision to compensate for a lack of staff and, above all, to cover a temporarily increased need and to maintain or increase staff availability.

Reservist responsibility

Organization KompZResAngelBw

Reservist affairs (ResAngel) are all tasks of management, deployment, information, support, participation, training, further development, service and resource planning, insofar as they relate to reservists. Reservist work (ResArb) is the perception of activities in dealing with reservists.

To support them in the performance of their duties, all department heads down to the battalion level appoint an officer for reservist matters (BResAngel). The Deputy Inspector General of the Bundeswehr (StvGenInsp) is the Bundeswehr officer for reservist matters (BResAngelBw). In a “directive for reservist work”, which is to be published regularly, it sets out the specifications and priorities for reservist work in the Bundeswehr and the work of the Association of Reservists of the German Bundeswehr e. V. (VdRBw) and the advisory board for reservist work.

In the Armed Forces Office (SKA) Center of Excellence for matters reserve the Armed Forces (KompZResAngelBw) is arranged. As the technically competent body, it organizes the Bundeswehr's reservist matters centrally from a single source and ensures a uniform, joint armed forces approach to training the reserve inside and outside the Bundeswehr.

The technically competent departments of the Personnel Department in the Federal Ministry of Defense are responsible for the legally regulated reservist matters , the personnel management of the reservists, the recruitment of personnel and the replacement of the military . Her subordinate departments in the Federal Office for Personnel Management of the Bundeswehr (BAPersBw) are responsible for the personnel management and development of the reservists as well as the financial services for reservists. In addition, there is also specialist responsibility for military replacement in the career centers of the Bundeswehr , whose tasks include , in addition to service and military monitoring, in particular the administrative handling of recruiting and assignments to reservists.

Reservist work independent of assignment

The reservist work independent of assignment (bu ResArb) is aimed at all reservists in the Bundeswehr as well as underserved soldiers who are willing to work for the Bundeswehr on the basis of a voluntary written obligation. The primary target group are the members of the General Reserve who are available under military law. Within the Bundeswehr, reservist work that is independent of assignment is carried out by the armed forces base. This is supplemented and supported by the associations and associations active in reservist work. The aim of reservist work independent of assignment is to inform and educate reservists as well as interested underservers and to motivate and enable them to act as an intermediary between the armed forces and society.

The staff officers for reservist matters and sergeants for reservists, who are organizationally located at the state commandos, are responsible for reservist work independent of assignment, which is aimed equally at assigned and non-assigned reservists, within the framework of the technical competence of the Bundeswehr Competence Center for reservist matters.

Basic order

Basic order (GBO) - basic principle

In order to ensure a complete coverage of the needs of the troop reserve and the territorial reserve, a basic order is introduced. It is the basic planning (appointment in the supplementary scope of the Bundeswehr) of all soldiers of the Bundeswehr who are fit for military service and who are leaving active service in the reserve for a period of six years. The aim of the GBO is to create the personal basis for rapid growth in a possible standby, tension or defense situation. In the case of consultations outside of a state of readiness, tension or defense, the principle of voluntary service is adhered to.


Training supplementary troops u. RSU forces

The training is basically divided into training / practicing in peace and crisis training. Training and maintaining the reserve are prerequisites for the fulfillment of orders at home and abroad.

Training in the army

The aim of the training is to enable the Army Reservists to independently meet the requirements of the respective dispatch service post. As a result, the training of reservists largely corresponds to that of active soldiers. The special concerns of the reservists and their employers (availability, location, structure and methodology) are included in the implementation - wherever possible - through the modular structure and use of modern training technology. In addition, existing civilian qualifications are increasingly being used as an equivalent substitute for correspondingly comparable specialist military training.

In the first step, training as a reserve officer leads to qualification as a reserve officer in the army, analogous to active soldiers. The courses required for this, such as the career test, are carried out at the Army Officers School . The same applies mutatis mutandis to training to become a reserve sergeant at the Army Sergeant's School . In the second step, there is training specific to the type of service at the respective training facilities of the Army. The aim is to carry out the required training with mass during the active service period ( SaZ 02, FWD ) of the candidates. In contrast, reserve officer candidates are trained in this way in corresponding course modules.

Community training takes place primarily in the supplementary units. The aim of training and maintaining the army's 17 supplementary troops - five of them in locations called ZMZ -Stützpunkt - is to establish and maintain the operational readiness for the implementation of probable missions in Germany. The training and exercise activities required for this are the responsibility of the respective brigade . Intent is in troops military exercises as a full field exercises (duration 12 to 14 days), the first unit layer and finally the Association form. The leadership, specialist and functional staff of the association are additionally qualified in military exercises as staff framework exercises (duration: seven days). The implementation of the military exercises is planned with the main focus using the central training facilities of the army.

The training approach was initially tested in the years 2010 to 2012.

Reservist service

Reservist service is military service according to the fourth and fifth sections of the Soldiers Act (SG).

General reservist service is the service of reservists according to § 61 Paragraph 1 and 2 SG (exercises), according to § 63b SG (military service for the temporary improvement of operational readiness) as well as business events (DVag) according to § 81 SG.

Military service for the temporary improvement of operational readiness serves to maintain or restore the functionality of organizational units in the event of vacancies that cannot be averted in any other way or to cushion order peaks that cannot be dealt with in a timely manner.

Official events are official projects in the business area of the Federal Ministry of Defense, in particular for military training, to which reservists can generally be called upon with their consent.

Special reservist service is all services that go beyond the general reservist service and are defined in the fourth section of the Soldiers Act or in the Conscription Act (WPflG). These include special assignments abroad ( Section 62 SG), domestic assistance ( Section 63 SG) and abroad ( Section 63a SG) as well as unlimited military service in the event of tension or defense ( Section 60 No. 5 SG; also Section 4 Paragraph 1 No. 7 WPflG ).

Recruitment for a special assignment abroad takes place on a voluntary basis if no or not enough active personnel are available to carry out the assignment. A reference for a repeated special foreign use should in principle only take place after an appropriate period of time.

Aid in the interior are uses of the forces within the framework of assistance ( Art. 35 , para. 1 GG ), a natural disaster or a particularly severe accident ( Art. 35 , para. 2 p 2 u., Para. 3 S. 1 GG ). It is generally permitted for a maximum of three months a year.

Aid abroad is used by the armed forces in the context of humanitarian aid operations. They are granted with the support of existing forces, resources and facilities. It is also generally permitted for a maximum of three months a year.

The federal government can order open-ended exercises as standby duty ( Section 61 (3) SG). In the event of tension or defense, reservists can be called up for permanent military service.

Reservists' rights and obligations

During reservist service, reservists are soldiers of the Bundeswehr with all associated rights and obligations.

Completion of military service must not result in any disadvantage in the exercise of the profession for dependent employees. The employment relationship is suspended during a service or military exercise . Self-employed people may be indispensable. The Workplace Protection Act contains further protective provisions.

The military practitioner receives military pay according to the military pay law . In addition, the military practitioner receives benefits according to §§ 13 ff. Of the Maintenance Security Act (USG) - as a rule, the net income lost due to the military exercise (up to a certain maximum), but if there is little or no regular income, at least benefits according to Annex 1 USG (" Minimum performance table ").


Major's shoulder flap d. R. with former "reservist cord"

During military service, reservists wear the uniform of the Bundeswehr without any special identification. Outside of military service, reservists can be granted a uniform wearing permit in accordance with the Uniform Ordinance. With the amendment of this ordinance of August 4, 2019, the special marking of the uniform of reservists outside of a military service was abolished. It was in the form of a black, red and gold cord as a pull-over loop on the epaulets between the sleeve insert and the rank badge or a gold-colored letter "R" in connection with the rank badge ( Navy ). The change had a great symbolic character, as many reservists felt they were second-class soldiers by marking them.


Former soldiers may use the rank they acquired in the Bundeswehr with the addition of “the reserve” or “d. R. "if their rank has not only been granted provisionally or temporarily and they are not entitled as a former professional soldier to change their rank with the addition" out of service "or" a. D. “to lead. If reservists are appointed to military service , they use their rank during the military service without these additions ( Section 2 ResG ).


A reserve career is assigned to each career in the Bundeswehr. These are in detail ( Annex (to Section 3) Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV):


Former soldiers can also remain active in the military without being assigned if they wish, in so-called voluntary reservist work outside the Bundeswehr that is independent of assignment . To this end, they are looked after on the one hand by their regional command and the staff officer for reservist affairs (StOffzResAngel) and his sergeant for reservist affairs (FwRes) , and on the other hand by the state-mandated reservist association (VdRBw eV) . It has around 110,000 members nationwide, who are organized in around 3,000 local reservist comradeships and working groups. The work of the association includes security policy work as well as the promotion of military skills and support. The association also offers support services for the Bundeswehr.

The reservists are trained as part of

The Bund Deutscher EinsatzVeteranen eV takes care of the concerns of veterans .

The Bavarian Soldiers' Union Bavarian Soldiers' Union 1874 eV (BSB) represents Bavarian soldiers and warriors' associations as well as reservist comradeships.

With retirement from active service, the responsibility of the military pastoral care for the soldier ends . She lives again for the duration of a military exercise.


Right from the start, the Bundeswehr distinguished several types of reserves. In the early years of the Bundeswehr there were stages

  • Reserve I : reservists who are scheduled for a V-STAN post and who are called up for unlimited military service in the event of tension or defense (so-called " mob- scheduled reservists")
  • Reserve II : all trained, but not planned reservists,
  • Ersatzreserve I : all suitable patterned conscripts
  • Replacement reserve II : all conscripts who have not yet been drafted.

This classification was later replaced by

  • Alarm reserve : all reservists scheduled for mob,
(Reservists alarm Reserve were in possession of such a marked call-up papers and had to after the announcement of the defense case immediately to their military unit report.)
(If these reservists were in possession of a draft notice with a keyword, they did not have to report to their unit until the federal government announced the keyword in the mass media .)

and after the beginning of the dissolution of the non-active units at the beginning of the 1990s supplemented by

  • Assignment reserve: Personnel whose previous assignment (= scheduling to a duty post for reservists) had ceased to exist and who were ready for a new assignment.

During the Cold War, the Bundeswehr could have resorted to 2.3 million reservists. On October 3, 1990, it had a defensive scope of 1.3 million soldiers, of whom about 800,000 were reservists assigned to mobs.

With a new "Concept for reservists in the Bundeswehr 2003 (KResBw 2003)", the 2003 reserve was completely reorganized into a reinforcement reserve , a personnel reserve and a general reserve .
This structuring was fundamentally adopted and further developed in 2012 with the “Reserve Concept (KdR)”.

In 2020, Birgit Czernotzky became the first woman to be appointed Colonel of the Reserve to achieve this rank due to participating in military exercises.

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Specialized strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 36 ( [PDF]).
  2. Central Directive A2-1300 / 0-0-2 - The reserve. (PDF) In: September 7, 2018, accessed on October 19, 2019 (No. 1001).
  3. Order of the day on the concept of veterans. Retrieved October 20, 2019 .
  4. a b c d Specialized Strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the Reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 37 ( [PDF]).
  5. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 4 ( [PDF]).
  6. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 6 ( [PDF]).
  7. a b c Specialized strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 35 ( [PDF]).
  8. a b c d e f g Specialized strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 13 ff . ( [PDF]).
  9. a b c Specialized strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 33 ( [PDF]).
  10. a b c d Specialized Strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the Reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 16 f . ( [PDF]).
  11. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 19 ff . ( [PDF]).
  12. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 25 ff . ( [PDF]).
  13. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 38 ( [PDF]).
  14. pronged strategy K-10/5 - Strategy of the reserve . Version 1 edition. October 18, 2019, p. 6 ( [PDF]).
  15. Central Directive A2-1300 / 0-0-2 - The reserve. (PDF) In: September 7, 2018, accessed October 19, 2019 (p. 240).
  16. Ronald Nitschke: reservist cord will be abolished. In: . June 7, 2019, accessed on October 15, 2019 (With a photo of a black, red and gold cord as a former license plate).
  17. Sophie Düsing: Your great professional dream has come true. Federal Ministry of Defense, May 4, 2020, accessed on May 11, 2020 .