History and description
Originally aedicula is a diminutive of aedes , which denotes a house or a temple in particular, accordingly aedicula is a small house or "little temple". Aedicula are especially the small replicas of temples that were used to decorate a sacellum , an enclosed sanctuary, as is typical of the oldest Roman cults. These aediculae were then mostly small structures with a niche in which the cult image of the deity was located.
In this reduced form, aedicules appear as an architectural element: a small wall structure that looked like a temple front and in which a statue was located. Later, each column structure , which consisted of columns , pillars or pilasters and a triangular or segmented arch gable and framed a niche , was called aedicula. This style element can be found in the Hellenistic and Roman architectural styles as well as in the architectural styles linked to antiquity, Renaissance , Baroque and Classicism . The aedicula was mostly used to structure large wall surfaces. It can often be found on large gates , city gates or triumphal arches and on large buildings such as thermal baths and palaces . In the Middle Ages , a small private chapel (usually a burial chapel) was also called this.
The following possible meanings of aedicula are to be distinguished:
- Shrine in the sense of a lararium
- Tomb or part of a tomb with the urn or a portrait of the deceased.
- small ancient temple
- small structure to preserve a still image
- Framing of niches or of windows with columns or with a small roof and gable (house motif - triangular gable).
There are forms of the aedicula that are not directly based on ancient models. These occur in modern architecture, including in public areas.
In Roman wall painting , especially Antonine wall painting , the aedicule is a frequent motif for creating an illusionistic architecture. This motif with the same purpose already exists in the second style of Pompeiian wall painting .
In the Greek cultural area the aedicula corresponds to the naiskos .
Naiskos : Greek grave stele, around 430–400 BC
Tomb for Julius Wilhelm Brühl in the Heidelberg Bergfriedhof, 19th century.
- Paul Habel : Aedicula . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume 1, Stuttgart 1893ff., Col. 445 f.
- Henner von Hesberg : Elements of early imperial aedicula architecture. In: Annual books of the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Vol. 53, 1981/1982, , pp. 43-86, pp. 43, 86.
- Peter Noelke : Ara et Aedicula - Two types of votive monuments in the Germanic provinces. In: Bonner Jahrbücher . Vol. 190, 1990, pp. 79-124.
- Wolfgang Herrmann: Aedicula . In: Otto Schmitt (Ed.): Reallexikon zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte . Volume 1: A - Construction. Metzler, Stuttgart 1937, Col. 167-172.