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As Amok (of Malay amuk "angry," "furious") tateinheitliche and apparently indiscriminate attacks are at risk of being killed themselves, at least accepted are referred to several people in the intent to kill.

The corresponding process is called amok or Amoktat referred to the perpetrators as a gunman or Amoktäter - or even as a gunman when he used a firearm. If the perpetrator uses a vehicle, one speaks of a gunman . Based on this, the term flight rampage is also used with a vague meaning in the media .


Culture-Linked Syndrome

Both the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 run amok among the culture-bound syndromes . The DSM-IV defines Amok as a mental disorder in its own right : "A dissociative episode characterized by a period of brooding, followed by an outbreak of violent, aggressive or human-endangering behavior directed at people and objects". In contrast to the DSM-IV, the ICD-10 recommends classifying Amok in the existing system under personality and behavioral disorders in Chapter 6 (F68.8). Amok is listed in Appendix II to ICD-10 (Research and Practice) for Indonesia and Malaysia and is described as follows: “An arbitrary, apparently unprovoked episode of murderous or severely destructive behavior, followed by amnesia or exhaustion. Many episodes culminate in suicide ”(p. 207).

The consideration of the phenomenon Amok as a culture-bound syndrome is controversial, because acts can be observed worldwide that have similar triggers, processes and victim constellations. In addition, in the more recent literature, amok itself is not understood as a mental disorder, but other mental disorders are mentioned that may promote such an act.

Planned deeds

It is now considered empirically proven that a large number of the crimes do not take place impulsively, but were often even planned in detail by the perpetrators over several years. In the current scientific literature, amoktats are therefore defined as follows: "A rampage is the (attempted) killing of several people by a single perpetrator physically present at the act with (potentially) lethal weapons within a crime without a cooling-off period takes place at least partially in public space. "

Police rampage

The common police service regulation of the German states (PDV 100 No. states under the keyword amoklage :

"An amok case in the tactical police sense exists when a perpetrator

  • apparently indiscriminately or deliberately
  • in particular by means of weapons, explosives, dangerous tools or the extraordinary use of force,
  • has injured or killed a number of people that is usually not determinable at first, or if this is to be expected and
  • he can continue to influence people.

An amok case in the tactical police sense already exists when there are indications that such perpetrator behavior can be expected immediately. "

- PDV 100 No.

This “pragmatic definition” is based on the recognizable dangerous situation so that the police can react quickly and appropriately. Whether the crime was planned or what the perpetrator's motive was is not a criterion in the service regulations, since the perpetrator's motivation is often not immediately recognizable and can only be determined later.

Rampage and terrorism

Shootings and terrorist actions (as far as they can be summarized) have a common public awareness. Gunmen and terrorists also have something in common in that there is no clear “ personality of the perpetrator”, which makes it difficult to predict potential acts. Equating terrorism and rampage is still inappropriate.

While terrorists ultimately want to make political demands, the targets of gunmen are more to be sought on a personal level. The US State Department defines terrorism as “planned, politically motivated violence against non-military targets by subnational groups or covert agents - usually with the aim of influencing the public.” According to criminology professor Adam Lankford, there is no (non-terrorist) murder from the University of Alabama the religious or political motive evident in suicide terrorist attacks. There are also differences in the choice of victims. Most people who run amok limit themselves to an environment that is close to them in a certain way, in order to impress them with the acts as a rule. In contrast to terrorists, it is also impossible to assume that most of the people who run amok are rational in the sense of a suitable choice of means to achieve these (or other) goals.

The crime of the gunman is the excessive expression of the need for recognition, while the terrorist assassin is interested in the recognition of an ideal. According to the media scientist Christer Petersen, shooting amok is an idiosyncratic , egocentric and apolitical act of violence. Rampages are (re) constructed and spread in the mass media as personally and therefore not politically motivated acts of violence by a mentally disturbed perpetrator, whereas terrorists see themselves as freedom fighters .

Nevertheless, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between terror and murder, and the transitions are fluid. Psychologist Jens Hoffmann says: "It is not always easy to decide which came first: the thought that I want to be a terrorist or I want to get rid of my frustration." The case of the attack on a regional train near Würzburg was z. B. set up by Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière "in the border area between rampage and terror". The term “amok” is often wrongly spoken of, although terrorists differ from mere amok offenders who seem to act for pathological reasons in terms of their political motivation. In contrast to other criminals, terrorists are politically-ideologically or politically-religiously motivated, members of an organization or a conspiratorial cell, or at least feel connected to one. Perpetrators, who are described as shooters, are usually severely mentally disturbed, sometimes insane. Since these perpetrators are usually killed, such investigations are not frequent and the data situation is thin. However, there are indications that many people running amok suffered from disorders such as narcissism , paranoia or borderline .

There are e.g. B. There are indications that in the West especially frustrated young people with serious problems, such as finding their identity, are susceptible to the propaganda of the “ Islamic State ” (IS) and other terrorist organizations. In contrast to the actually ideologically motivated terrorists, with whom the world had to deal in the past, some of them resemble such. For example, the attack in Nice today is apparently more likely to run amok, who justify their act with an additional ideology. The IS is likely to be particularly attractive for unstable personalities who want to turn their perceived screwed up life around for a big cause and let it lead to a heroic end. A rampage without an ideological background would no longer attract as much attention as an Islamist terrorist attack . According to the suicide prevention expert Armin Schmidtke from the University of Würzburg , 10% of cases of rampages that have occurred internationally are politically motivated.

In studies of individual perpetrators such as In the case of the murder attack at Frankfurt Airport , for example , Hoffmann found that they were often in a mental crisis or were even mentally ill. Their lifestyle is more aggressive than religious. They see radicalization as an opportunity to give their life meaning, to generate publicity, to finally be someone - and depending on the cultural offerings or by chance, they turn to the Islamists or the right-wing or left-wing radicals.

Concept history

Original meaning

The word amok is derived from the war cries of the so-called Amucos. These elite warriors in Hindu India committed themselves ritually to their king to fight unconditionally to the death. Opponents therefore avoided killing or injuring the king in order not to fall victim to the unconditional revenge of the Amucos. The reputation and power of a king depended on the number of such fighters. Malay and Javanese warriors adopted the Indian term and the intimidating war cry “Amok! Amok!". In the course of the Islamization of the Malay-Indonesian cultural area in the 14th century, the rampage against "infidels" became an act of religious fanaticism and the death found in this way, in contrast to the suicide forbidden by Muslims, was considered pleasing to Allah. A similar type of fight was already widespread among the assassins or berserkers .

Around the same time as the amok as a military strategy, individual rampages also occurred in the Malay-Indonesian culture. For example, insolvent debtors attempted to evade their inevitable enslavement by killing until they were killed themselves. This was also a form of social protest, because the threat of a rampage in the event of gross injustice kept the abuse of power by rulers and rich people within certain limits.

In the period from the 17th to the 19th century, the term reached the western cultural area . This happened in particular through European reporters, for example through Captain Cook , but was still associated with the Malay- Indonesian culture.

At the beginning of the 20th century it was still believed that people who ran amok would only commit their deed when drunk. In Meyers Konversations-Lexikon from 1888 it says:

"Amucklaufen (amok from javan. , A amoak word kill) barbaric custom among several Malay tribes, for example, Java, is that by consumption of opium to distraction intoxicated with a Kris (dagger) arms, to overthrow the streets and wound or kill everyone they meet until they themselves are killed or at least overwhelmed. "

Today's understanding

The term rampage experienced a change in meaning, as it is now also used for acts that by no means take place spontaneously, but can be planned and occasionally announced through so-called leaks . The classic gunman restricts his actions to a relatively small area. In contrast to a serial killer , the acts of gunmen are limited to a rather short period of time and are rarely subject to sexual pathological motives. A distinction is also made between purely foreign-directed aggression and extended suicide .

In modern western parlance, the meaning expanded and can meanwhile stand for any kind of blind aggression with or without fatalities. With a dramatic sound, the word is used as a heading in many cases where there is actually no rampage.

A rampage is typically the act of a single perpetrator. Therefore, the usual definitions refer to “a perpetrator” or even explicitly to “a single perpetrator”. In actual parlance, however, the term rampage is now also applied to jointly committed acts if they correspond to a rampage in the other characteristics. One example is the Columbine High School rampage , which involved two perpetrators.

Similar terms


The term rampage is also used inconsistently; On the one hand, it describes an act in which the perpetrator uses a vehicle as a weapon and, on the other hand, an act in which the perpetrator only uses the vehicle to be mobile while the offense is committed (such as the rampage in Karlsruhe or the rampage in Münster) and the act thus occurred in a much larger area. For examples, see the list of rampage drives .


Cases of pilot suicide as well as flights on an illegal route and unintentional driverless flights were described as "flying amok" in the media .

School shooting

In many scientific publications, the term school shooting has established itself for rampage in schools , although not all crimes with firearms or all shootings can be traced back to amoctides. This term is used to describe killing and attempted killing in a school facility by young people that are committed in direct relation to this facility. This reference can be expressed in the choice of the victims, in particular also according to their function in the corresponding educational institution. Shootings or mass murders in schools and serious, targeted acts of violence in schools are often used synonymously, but a qualitative distinction must be made.

School massacres are also often mentioned in the media .

Going postal

After a series of rampages by American postal workers from the mid-1980s onwards, the term going postal was created for irrational and often violent acts that are triggered by stress at work. Although the term can be translated generally as “freaking out” or “freaking out”, it is synonymous with workplace rampage, especially in the United States.

Killing spree

In the US American criminology there are further linguistic distinctions, such as the so-called spree killer (derived from killing spree - translated into German about killing in a frenzy ). In contrast to a gunman, the perpetrator known as a spree killer can expand his sphere of activity very far.


Monocausal explanatory approaches , which attribute amoctates to a single cause, failed to explain the phenomenon. Rather, the prerequisites of the social environment interact with the prerequisites in the personality of the killer. While a rampage was previously seen as a direct result of an individual mental disorder, this explanation is now considered refuted. An advanced psychosocial uprooting of the perpetrator, the loss of professional integration due to unemployment, demotion or transfer, increasingly experienced injuries and partnership conflicts are considered to be the trigger for a rampage . Usually several factors play a role before a rampage. These are not immediately prior to the event, but can have existed for a long time.

The empirical evidence on amoctures is currently mostly rated as insufficient, as there is a low prevalence and considerable differences in the case constellations emerge. In addition, there is no uniform definition, and the intercultural transferability of empirical findings is doubtful. Last but not least, obtaining information is often made more difficult by the death of the perpetrator due to suicide or the intervention of the police. Most cases show a subsequent suicide (attempt) immediately after the crime. Therefore, homicide suicide is also spoken of. It is assumed that the suicide is not a spontaneous reaction, but rather a planned element of crime. In addition, it is assumed that perpetrators who have slipped into a “secondary reality” (a very restricted state of consciousness) suicide in order to avoid a return to the “main reality” after the crime.

There is a conflict in research about finding binding definitions and delimitations for the phenomenon of amoctate. Most empirical findings are not based on the classification of amok in the sense of the ICD-10 , but on our own inclusion criteria.

In the scientific literature, the predominant type of perpetrator of the killing man are mostly men with pronounced aggressive and conflict-inhibited personality traits. It is typical that rampaging amok is not about acts of affect (relatively spontaneous acts based on strong feelings that the perpetrator cannot control), but rather a consequence of the gradual development of violent thoughts and fantasies.

Diagram for the study by Adler et al. (1993)
Mental illness percent
Personality disorder
Affect disorder
Delusional disease

So far, empirical research has produced very heterogeneous (different) findings on amokauts
. B. Adler et al. From press reports on 196 cases, most of the perpetrators found a mental illness in the form of a psychosis , a severe personality disorder , an intoxication , an affect disorder or a delusional illness . The rate of mentally ill people or clients with a psychiatric past is around 55%, 40% of the violent criminals were without permanent employment, and gun freaks, police officers, soldiers and loners living with their mother that were inappropriate for their age were overrepresented.

In 1999, Hempel, Meloy & Richards evaluated 30 North American rampages from a perpetrator percentage of 40 to 67 percent with psychotic symptoms, most of which suffered from paranoid delusions.

In contrast, A. Schmidtke, S. Schaller, I. Müller, D. Lester and S. Stack came to a completely different result after they had statistically evaluated newspaper reports of 143 events from 1993 to 2001: only seven percent of the perpetrators reported then a psychiatric history, the motive was mostly revenge (61 percent).


The publicist and writer Ines Geipel (It 's enough for today. Amok in Erfurt , 2004; The Amok complex or the school of killing , 2012) asked in a radio interview after the attack in Munich in 2016 to think about possible Offers and the re-integration of potential perpetrators who are “in search of ideality”, who “were looking for docking systems, believed, wanted to love”, were “lost sons”, “were looking for a reference to the symbolic, social father”: “which models of sublimation one were looking for this type of men can offer. ”Geipel points out how perpetrators and society each learned from previous rampages. In connection with the attack in Munich in 2016, the author also highlighted parallels to earlier rampages: She considers the distinction between amokauts and terrorists in the sense of a distinction between private and political motivation to be "ineffective". Rather, it is important that the perpetrators are mostly young men who have no place in their environment. With their act they would always refer to a known pattern.

The criminal psychologist Jens Hoffmann also highlighted similarities in the motives of terrorists and gunmen: "It is not always easy to decide which came first: the thought, I want to be a terrorist or I want to get rid of my frustration." According to him, amok researchers and advised Radicalization researchers to pixelate the faces in media reports and not to name names, since the reporting attracts potential perpetrators and encourages imitators.

The criminologist Britta Bannenberg emphasized that hints of an act should be taken seriously by the school, parents and neighbors.

See also prevention under rampage at a school

Technical measures

Emergency and hazard response systems (NGRS) in accordance with DIN VDE V 0827 are used to trigger amok alarms and alert assistants . These systems are primarily for use in public buildings such as educational institutions (e.g. schools, universities) ), Authorities, kindergartens and similar institutions. However, they can also be used in non-public buildings with a similar risk and need for protection. Emergency and hazard detectors (NGRS detectors) according to DIN VDE V 0827-1 or emergency and danger intercom systems (NGS) according to DIN VDE are used to manually trigger an alarm message in the event of an acute emergency or danger (e.g. amok) V 0827-2.

The alarm is forwarded via remote alarm systems to an auxiliary point (e.g. an emergency call and service control center). In justified cases, the NGRS can also be connected directly to the police in coordination with the police . This must be carried out analogously to the ÜEA guideline . In this case, the police must be involved in planning the NGRS at an early stage.

Treatment in the literature

In his novella Der Amokläufer, Stefan Zweig describes the behavior of a doctor in a psychological borderline situation as an amok-like state; Also one of the classics of literature dealing with rampages is the short story-like study Bahnwärter Thiel by Gerhart Hauptmann (1888).

In his 2002 novel I shoot you off! Morton Rhue writes about a fictional rampage at an American high school. By describing it from the point of view of the two gunmen, Rhue tried to make the motivation behind such an act tangible.

In 2005, the author Manfred Theisen put a German school gunman at the center of a novel for the first time in his novel Amok . He leaned on the rampage in Erfurt and told the story from the perpetrator's first-person perspective.

In 2009 Jodi Picoult wrote the novel Nineteen Minutes , which deals with a rampage by a bullied boy, but above all with the consequences of the rampage.

In his novel Head Shot from 2011, Oliver Dreyer depicts a first-person shooter as the relevant driver of an imaginary school rampage . Partly told from the perspective of a computer game character who creates the protagonist's identity, he blurs the boundaries between virtuality and reality.

In Martin's diary (2012), Patrick Maak describes the nine-year career of a gunman in the form of a hundred diary entries. Also in 2012 was the novel Under the Wings of Angels , which tells the story of 16-year-old David who survived a rampage at his school: the author Patrick-Philippe Christian Seifert is himself a survivor of the rampage in Winnenden .


Factual texts

  • Lothar Adler: Amok in the spectrum of homicidal-suicidal acts . Suizidprophylaxe 37.1 (2010), ISSN  0173-458X , pp. 8-14 ( PDF; 61 kB )
  • Richard Albrecht : Just a "gunman"? - Social psychological time diagnosis according to "Erfurt" . In: Recht und Politik, 38 (2002) 3, 143–152
  • Mark Ames: Going Postal. Rage, Murder and Rebellion in America , Softskull Press New York 2006, Snowbooks London 2007; Review:, Deutschlandfunk, Büchermarkt , March 27, 2009, Uli Hufen: rampage as a sign of rebellion (November 2, 2010)
  • Britta Bannenberg : AMOK recognizing causes - understanding warning signals - preventing disasters . Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2010, ISBN 978-3-579-06873-2
  • Nils Böckler, Thorsten Seeger: Schulamokläufer: An analysis of media portrayals of perpetrators and their appropriation by young recipients . Juventa, Weinheim and Munich, 2010
  • Heidrun Bründel : Amok and suicide - an ominous alliance. Publishing house for police science, Frankfurt / M. 2011, ISBN 978-3-86676-156-8
  • Heiko Christians: Amok. History of a spread. Aisthesis Verlag 2008, 301 pp., ISBN 978-3-89528-671-1
  • Götz Eisenberg : So that nobody forgets me: why amok and violence are no coincidence . Pattloch, Munich 2010
  • Adolf Gallwitz : Amok - going under grandiose without lending a hand. In: Polizei heute , 6 (2001), 170–175
  • Ines Geipel : The amok complex or the school of killing. Klett-Cotta, 2012. ISBN 978-3-608-94627-7
  • Freerk Huisken : z. B. Erfurt. What bourgeois education and imagination can do . VSA, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-87975-878-6
  • Elsa Pollmann: School crime scene. When teenagers run amok . Tectum Verlag, Marburg 2008
  • Frank Robertz, Ruben Wickenhäuser : The crack in the board. Rampage and heavy violence at school . Springer, Heidelberg 2007
  • Jasmin Seiwert: The stage of the gunmen. Media self-portrayal of the perpetrators on the Internet and TV . Marburg, 2010, 136 pp.
  • Manfred Theisen : Amok . cbt, Munich 2005
  • Harald Tondern : Completely guilty? The story of a rampage . cbt, Munich 2005
  • Bryan Vossekuil: Final Report And Findings Of The Safe School Initiative: Implications For The Prevention Of School Attacks In The US , Diane Pub Co, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7567-3980-5
  • Arnold Wieczorek: Student assassinations in German schools. Myths, Facts, and Conclusions for Police Practice . Kriminalistik, 64th year 2010, p. 153 ff.
  • Manfred Wolfersdorf, Hans Wedler (ed.): Terrorist suicides and amok . Regensburg 2002
  • Patrick Maak: Martin's diary . Darmstadt 2012, ISBN 978-1480261624

Web links

Wiktionary: Amok  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Duden online: Amok
  2. Lothar Adler, Amok - history and results from a psychiatric perspective. In: Ralf Junkerjürgen and Isabella von Treskow (eds.): Amok and school massacre: cultural and media studies approaches . transcript Verlag, 2015. p. 26
  3. Amok in the glossary of the professional association of German psychologists ,, accessed on October 5, 2017.
  4. Duden online: gunman , gunman , gunman
  5. Gisela Mayer, Andreas Unger: Encounter with suffering. 2017, p. 41 , accessed on November 21, 2019 .
  6. a b Scheithauer, Bondü: rampage and school shooting p. 20
  7. Scheithauer, Bondü: Amoklauf and School Shooting p. 50
  8. WHO (2004): International Classification of Mental Disorders : ICD-10 Chapter V (F).
  9. ^ Diagnostic criteria for research and practice . Hans Huber, Bern.
  10. Lothar Adler, Amok from a psychiatric perspective , in Amok und Schulmassaker: Kultur- und Medienwissenschaftliche Approachungen , editors: Ralf Junkerjürgen, Isabella von Treskow, transcript Verlag, 2015, ISBN 3839427886 , pp. 24-25
  11. Scheithauer, Bondü: rampage and school shooting p. 51
  12. Lothar Adler, Amok from a psychiatric perspective , p. 24
  13. Herbert Scheithauer , Rebecca BONDUE: rampage and School Shooting. Significance, background and prevention. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011, ISBN 3525404352 , p. 15; PDF .
  14. Criminology Lexicon online: Amok
  15. Christoph Seidler: Difficult definition: What is terror? What is amok? Spiegel online, July 23, 2016
  16. a b c Torsten Preuss: Terrorism and internal security. An examination of the political reactions in Germany to the attacks of September 11, 2001 . on Qucosa , p. 42, dissertation at the University of Leipzig 2012 with Andreas Anter and Felix Ekardt
  17. Frank J. Robertz, Robert Kahr: The media staging of amok and terrorism: On the media psychological effects of journalism in the case of excessive violence Springer-Verlag, 2016 ISBN 9783658121365 ( limited preview )
  18. ^ Adam Lankford: A comparative analysis of suicide terrorists and rampage, workplace, and school shooters in the United States from 1990 to 2010 . In: Homicide Studies: An Interdisciplinary & International Journal , Vol 17, Issue 3, 2013. pp. 255-274 doi : 10.1177 / 1088767912462033
  19. ^ Christian Buder : On the deadly strategy of the suicide bomber . In: Sic et Non . 10 2008
  20. Christer Petersen: Terror and Propaganda: Prolegomena to an Analytical Media Studies transcript Verlag , 2016 ISBN 9783839422434 ( limited preview )
  21. a b Markus C. Schulte von Drach : What distinguishes a terrorist attack from a rampage In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . July 25, 2016
  22. ^ A b c Nils Böckler, Jens Hoffmann , Andreas Zick : The Frankfurt airport attack: A case study on the radicalization of a lone-actor terrorist. In: Journal of Threat Assessment and Management . 2015 2. 153-163. doi : 10.1037 / tam0000045
  23. ^ " Between rampage and terror" In: Handelsblatt . 20th July 2016
  24. Michael König: Poetics of Terror: Politically Motivated Violence in Contemporary German Literature transcript Verlag , 2015 p. 9 Dissertation at the University of Münster with Moritz Baßler ISBN 9783839429877 ( limited preview )
  25. Herbert Scheithauer , Rebecca Bondü: Amoklauf and School Shooting: Meaning, Background and Prevention Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2011 p. 60 ISBN 9783647404356 ( limited preview )
  26. a b Lothar Adler, History and Overview. In: Jens Hoffmann, Karoline Roshdi (Ed.), Amok and other forms of severe violence: Risk analysis - Threat management - Prevention concepts , Schattauer Verlag, 2015, ISBN 3794528816 , p. 52
  27. a b Wolfgang Georg Jilek, Louise Jilek-Aall, Culture-specific psychological disorders. In: Hanfried Helmchen, F. Henn, H. Lauter, N. Sartorius (eds.), Psychiatry special life situations, Volume 3 of Psychiatry of the Present, Springer-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 3642596258 , pp. 406–407
  28. a b c Volker Faust: Psychosocial health
  29. ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon , Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna, 4th edition, 1885–1892 on
  30. Werner Stangl: Amok - a perpetrator without a profile
  31. ^ Hans von Hentig : Contributions to crime studies . Archive for Comparative Cultural Studies , Volume 9, Meisenheim 1973, p. 3
  32. When searching the Internet with the search terms Amoklauf and Columbine you will find a lot of texts. For example on Columbine rampage , rampage at Columbine High School , rampage at Columbine High School .
  33. A rampage with a hijacked machine , Kronen Zeitung, July 18, 2014
  34. An oyster went rampage. In: Hamburger Abendblatt . August 30, 1955, accessed on May 26, 2015 .
  35. Chaos Pilot flew for love. In: Saxon newspaper . January 7, 2003, accessed May 26, 2015 (Paywall).
  36. Nils Böckler, Thorsten Seeger: Schulamokläufer: An analysis of self-portrayals of perpetrators in the media and their appropriation by young recipients . Juventa, 2010, p. 16ff.
  37. Frank Robertz, Ruben Wickenhäuser: The crack in the blackboard - rampage and serious acts of violence in the school: rampage and severe violence in the school . Springer, 2007, p. 10
  38. ^ All of the Words of the Year, 1990 to Present at, accessed September 26, 2013
  39. ^ Going Postal Goes Abroad at, accessed September 26, 2013
  40. Amoktaten - research overview with special attention to juvenile offenders in the school context . ( Memento of April 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) State Criminal Police Office NRW: Criminalistic-Criminological Research Center Analyzes, 3/2007
  41. Critically on the other hand Richard Albrecht : Just a “gunman”? - Social psychological time diagnosis according to "Erfurt" . In: Recht und Politik, 38 (2002) 3, 143–152 ( PDF ); and Peter Mühlbauer : Eight rampages later , Telepolis, September 22, 2010.
  42. ^ Afp : Keyword rampage ( memento from December 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ),, April 16, 2007
  43. a b L. Adler, K. Lehmann, K. Wheels, KF Schünemann: "Amokläufer" - content analysis of 196 press releases from industrialized countries. Literature Fortschr Neurol Psychiat 1993, Volume 61, pp. 424-433. See also Thomas Knecht: Amok and Quasi-Amok. (PDF)
  44. Hoffmann, 2007 in LKA NRW, 2007, or Schmidtke et al., 2002
  45. ^ AG Hempel, JR Meloy, TC Richards: Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of mass murderers. In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Volume 27, Number 2, 1999, pp. 213-225, PMID 10400430 .
  46. a b , Interview , July 24, 2016: Violence prevention: differentiation between terror and amok ineffective
  47. Parvin Sadigh: Terror or Amok? Die Zeit, July 19, 2016, accessed on July 24, 2016 .
  48. Monika Dittrich, Marcus Heumann, Ursula Welter: Amok run in Munich: perpetrators, victims, media. Deutschlandfunk, July 23, 2016, accessed on July 24, 2016 .
  49. Britta Bannenberg in conversation with Jonas Reese: "You can possibly prevent such an act". Deutschlandfunk, July 23, 2016, accessed on July 24, 2016 .
  50. Winnenden: Flying after the rampage, October 28, 2014
  51. Excerpt (PDF; 325 kB)