A phenomenon (in educational language also Phenomenon , Plural Phenomenon or Phenomena; from ancient Greek φαινόμενον fainómenon , German ` ` something that shows itself, something that appears '' ) is, in epistemology, a delimitable unit of experience that can be perceived with the senses , for example an event , an object or a Natural phenomenon . Deviating from this, sometimes it is not what is perceived but a perception itself that is referred to as a phenomenon. The corresponding German word is apparition .
In common parlance , exceptions are mainly referred to as phenomena.
The term was used for any type of publication , originally used only for air phenomena, but by representatives of the skepticism on the metaphysics transferred and used there for what appears to the senses, in contrast to the concept and the actual object .
History of ideas
Immanuel Kant juxtaposes phenomenon and thing in itself . While the thing in itself is inaccessible to experience and knowledge, it nevertheless affects sensuality ; consciousness constructs the phenomenona as representations from the sensations gained in this way . The thing-in-itself is only indirectly, through it, the object of knowledge; we are only conscious of it as a noumenon , as the thought-assumed cause of our sensations. Since the subject is also a noumenon for itself, the phenomena are real for Kant's philosophy . That part of natural theory which determines the movement or rest of matter merely as such a phenomenon of the external senses is what Kant calls phenomenology .
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Edmund Husserl develops a phenomenology that initially assumes that the phenomenon is merely access to the things themselves, but takes a strong transcendental turn and takes the appearance itself and its general conditions of knowledge as its object.