Julius Hart

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Julius Hart

Julius Hart (born April 9, 1859 in Münster , † July 7, 1930 in Berlin ) was a German poet and literary critic of naturalism . He was married to Martha Hart († 1910) and had four daughters (Grete, Lilith, Eva and Maya).


Julius Hart was the son of an accountant and, like his four years older brother Heinrich , attended the Paulinum grammar school in Münster. As a schoolboy both tried their hand at magazine publishers ( heart and soul ). Together with Albert Giese and Peter Hille , they published the magazine German Seal (3 issues) in Münster in 1877 . In the same year, in 1877, the brothers moved to Berlin, where Julius Hart began studying at Berlin University . For lack of money he broke it off and returned to Munster with his brother.

Back in Münster, they published the magazine Deutsche Monatsblätter (1878–1879) and founded the German Literature Calendar in 1879 , which later became famous as Der Kürschner after changing the publisher and still exists today as the Kürschner Deutscher Literatur-Kalender .

In 1881 the brothers moved again to Berlin. Here they published the journal Kritische Waffenzüge (1882–1884), which can be seen as a source of literary naturalism in Germany. The Hart brothers wrote all of the articles themselves, but their group soon included authors such as Wilhelm Arent , Hermann Conradi and Karl Henckell . Their rather moderate views led to the center of the naturalistic movement shifting to Munich . Other magazines founded in these years were the Berlin monthly books for literature, criticism and theater (1885) and the critical yearbook (1889–1890). As a writer of poetry ( Voices in the Night , 1898) and lyrical prose ( Dreams of Midsummer Night , 1905) Julius Hart was less successful. His strength lay in the ability to gather like-minded people. So he and his brother belonged to the literary association Durch! whose members also included Arno Holz , Johannes Schlaf and Gerhart Hauptmann . He was also a member of the New Community , the Friedrichshagener Kreis and the Free Stage , which later became the Volksbühne .

Julius Hart's grave at the Zehlendorf cemetery in Berlin

Julius Hart suffered several strokes of fate in later years: his wife Martha, who was mentally ill, died in 1910 after years of suffering. In 1920 and 1921 he had to mourn the death of his daughters Eva and Lilith.

Julius Hart died in Berlin in 1930 at the age of 71. His grave is in the Zehlendorf cemetery (field 19-508). Julius Hart's final resting place has been dedicated to the State of Berlin as an honorary grave since 1956 . The dedication was extended in 2018 by the usual period of twenty years.

The cataloged part of Julius Hart's estate is in the manuscript department of the Dortmund City and State Library .

Works (in selection)

  • To German poetry , 1877
  • Sansara. A book of poems ; Kühtmann , Bremen 1879
  • Don Juan Tenorio. A tragedy in 4 acts ; Carl Meyer, Rostock 1881
  • The swamp. A play in five acts ; Brunn, Münster in Westphalia 1886
  • Five novels . (The Prosecutor, Haidenacht, Alter does not protect against folly, The new Pygmalion, separation hour); Baumert & Ronge, Grossenhain 1888
  • Voices in the night , (Visionen, Das Hünengrab, Media in vita); Diederichs, Florence 1898
  • Homo sum! A new book of poems, along with an introduction: The Poetry of the Future ; Baumert & Ronge, Großenhain 1890
  • longing ; Fischer, Berlin 1893
  • The Development of Newer Poetry in Germany , 1896
  • Triumph of life. Poems ; Diederichs, Florence and Leipzig 1898
  • The new god. A look ahead to the coming century ; Diederichs, Florence and Leipzig 1899.
  • Dreams of midsummer night ; Diederichs, Jena 1905
  • Revolution in aesthetics as the introduction to a revolution in science ; Concordia Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Berlin 1908.
  • Heinrich-and-Julius-Hart-Reader . Compiled and with an afterword by Gertrude Cepl-Kaufmann; Cologne 2005 [= Nylands Kleine Westfälische Bibliothek 10], ISBN 3-936235-11-2 .
  • Heinrich Hart, Julius Hart: Memoirs. A look back at the early days of literary modernism (1880–1900) Edited and commented on by Wolfgang Bunzel; Aisthesis-Verlag, Bielefeld 2006, (Publications of the literature commission for Westphalia 18, series texts 5), ISBN 3-89528-553-6


  • Henrik Bispinck: Hart, Heinrich and Julius . In: Günter Lassalle (ed.): 1200 years Paulinum in Münster 797–1997 . Münster 1997, p. 362 f.
  • Ingeborg Jürgen: The theater critic Julius Hart . Berlin: Free University Dissertation 1956.
  • Dagmar Kaiser: "Development is the magic word". Darwinian understanding of nature in Julius Hart's work as a building block of a new naturalism paradigm . Gardez! -Verlag, Mainz 1995. (= German studies in Gardez; 3) ISBN 3-928624-24-5
  • Ernst Ribbat: Genius and Community, Boheme and Utopia. References to Heinrich and Julius Hart . In: Walter Gödden, Winfried Woesler (Hrsg.): Literature in Westphalia. Contributions to research . Paderborn 1992, pp. 59-69.
  • Ernst Ribbat: prophets of immediacy. Comments on Heinrich and Julius Hart . In: Renate von Heydebrand, Klaus Günther Just (Hrsg.): Science as dialogue. Studies in literature and art since the turn of the century . Festschrift for Wolfdietrich Rasch on his 65th birthday. Stuttgart, 1969, pp. 59-82.
  • Dietmar N. Schmidt:  Hart, Julius. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 706 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Kurt Tillmann: The magazines of the Hart brothers. Univ. Diss., Munich 1923.
  • Leo Hans Wolf: The Aesthetic Basis of the Literature Revolution of the Eighties. The "critical armed conflicts" of the Hart brothers. A study of literary history. Univ. Diss., Bern 1921.

Web links

Commons : Julius Hart  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Zeitbilder: Julius Hart celebrates his 70th birthday , insert in the Vossische Zeitung , April 9, 1929.
  2. Kürschner's German Literature Calendar. In: NZZ , December 21, 2010
  3. ^ Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin burial places . Pharus-Plan, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86514-206-1 , p. 674.
  4. Honorary graves of the State of Berlin (as of November 2018) . (PDF, 413 kB) Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection, p. 31; accessed on March 17, 2019. Recognition and further preservation of graves as honorary graves of the State of Berlin . (PDF, 369 kB). Berlin House of Representatives, printed matter 18/14895 of November 21, 2018, p. 1 and Annex 2, p. 6; accessed on March 17, 2019.
  5. Poetry theory : Texts Hart 1877 (from: German poetry )
  6. Poetry theory: Texts Hart 1896 (from: Pa)