The history of English studies
In Germany, the first chair for the English language was established at the Georg August University in Göttingen, which was founded by Georg II and opened in 1737 . The decisive factor was that the sovereign, the Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , was also King of Great Britain in personal union.
The history of German and German-speaking English studies differs very significantly from English studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries. In particular, the concentration on English philology and the associated focus on medieval and early modern literatures were not shared in Great Britain and the USA . As a result of the First and Second World Wars , there was a noticeable separation of the two scientific traditions.
The development of English studies in the present
English studies are currently going through two important developments.
First, in recent years there has been an increasing distinction between English and Irish literature . In summary, the term Anglo-Irish Studies is used to express that the English culture is very different from the Irish. The (contemporary) Irish writers have a completely different cultural background than the English, ergo this distinction must be made.
Secondly, so-called Commonwealth Studies , which deal with the language and culture of the former British colonies , has developed into a further branch of English studies since the 1980s . Many authors (e.g. in India , Jamaica , Hong Kong ) speak the respective national language, but see English as a lingua franca as being much more effective in reaching the largest possible readership.
English studies as a subject
English / American Studies or English Philology ( English Studies in the English-speaking area) is a field of study assigned to new philology at universities and colleges in the German-speaking area Linguistics (e.g. morphology , phonology , syntax , sociolinguistics , pragmatics, etc.), language practice, as well as regional and cultural studies of the language area. Typically, different periods of time are considered (e.g. literature from the 19th and 20th centuries, historical and current language usage). At German universities, English studies (usually in combination with at least one other subject) can be studied in teacher training courses, as well as in bachelor's and master's degrees. Up until the end of the 2000s, some universities also offered an economics -based degree in English studies, which has since been replaced by Bachelor's / Master's degrees. Most of the Master’s degrees were also discontinued or discontinued as part of the Bologna Process .
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- Frank-Rutger Hausmann: English and American Studies in the Third Reich . Frankfurt / Main, 2003. ISBN 3-465-03230-6
- Christa Jansohn, Dieter Mehl, Hans Bungert: What should English and Americanists read? Berlin 1995. ISBN 978-3-503-03712-4
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- Ansgar Nünning, Andreas H. Jucker: Orientation English and American studies . Hamburg, 1999. ISBN 3-499-55614-6
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- Ramon Pils: Disciplining a subject: on English philology in Vienna in the early 20th century. In: Karl Anton Fröschl u. a. (Ed.), Reflective insights from the university: Disciplinary histories between science, society and politics (= 650 years of the University of Vienna - departure into the new century 4). Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-8471-0415-5 , pp. 539-550.
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- Stephan Speicher: One world is not enough. Hanover celebrates the Georgian era when a German dynasty ruled the British Empire . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung, May 17, 2014, p. 17.
- Richard Utz, "English Philology vs. English Studies: A Foundational Conflict," in The Potential of European Philologies. History, performance, function . Edited by Christoph König (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2009), pp. 34–44.