Whiteness (also Whiteness of English. Whiteness ) is a transdisciplinary field of study and describes cultural , historical and sociological aspects of people posing as white identify . It is also about the social construction of whiteness as a status indicator . Overall, this is linked to a category for the critical analysis of social norms . In extreme cases such as white supremacy , it is about constructs that justify or favor racism . As part of a paradigm shift in Anglo-American racism research that occurred in the 1980s , the analysis category “whiteness” traces such racial perspectives on the “other” back to the origin of racialization . From 2005 the concept has found its way into scientific work in the German-speaking area. The resulting term "critical whiteness" is not a uniform theory - different groups, authors and activists use it in different ways.
The turn in research on the concept of race and racism, most popularly initiated by Toni Morrison since the early 1990s, focuses less on the objects of the same in the sense of black studies , but on those structures and subjects that cause racism and benefit from racial processes. Based on this, the term critical whiteness research has developed in Europe, including Germany .
To the category
When it comes to socially established norms such as “white supremacy” that cause or promote racism, “being white” is an established category for critical analysis on the basis of systematic historical studies of social and political references. The reversal of the racial perspective on the " other " towards the investigation of the social norm of "whiteness", as the origin of racialization, has been applied to the situation in German-speaking countries in some studies since 2005. Originally a fighting term in the USA, "whiteness" has developed into a fruitful scientific category there.
This category refers to social models ( cultural models ) and their schemes ( patterns ) that can either be attributed to racially based power relations or a dominance culture. Areas of application are ethnicization , colonialism and post-colonialism , racism , anti-Semitism , Islamophobia and feminism .
Whiteness as a category should make it possible to construct “ white ” as the one and essential , i.e. H. to be perceived as the determining norm in relation to the deviating, minor, other . The development and change of general social norms is viewed as a discourse . For example, “colonialism” is viewed as a discourse that has produced knowledge and “truths” (e.g. the Rousseauian “ noble savages ” as opposed to “civilized whites”), which in turn contain notions of “whiteness” as the norm still have influence today. Using the “whiteness” category, it is possible to see how the individual perceives concepts and objects of racial discrimination .
In critical whiteness research , whiteness is seen in interconnection “with other structural categories ” - “such as gender, nationality, education, religion, mobility or health. Whiteness as an interdependent category is thus dynamic and complex, without being subject to a negotiability that allows individual whites to be set off-white ” (Arndt). With interdependence that whiteness in the context of different is meant forms of oppression is considered. The category “whiteness” is therefore no more relevant in the process of socialization than other forms of oppression.
It is seldom questioned, also in criticism of racism, which norms and values lead to people being discriminated against in a racial manner. A typical observation, for example, is that racism - among whites - appears to be an irrelevant issue when the people concerned are not present. Viewed critically, this is where the exclusion of people begins. Because racism only appears to be relevant if “black” people are the object of consideration. As a result, racism appears as a problem for “ black ” people, but not as a problem for “white” people. Attention is drawn to this fallacy when it is described which norms exclude people from society or which require people to integrate into the dominant culture .
A critical anti-racist approach is to change the direction of view and instead of “being black” to see “being white” as a problem. "Whiteness" is perceived here as normality , which only z. B. analyzed in the "critical whiteness research" and should be uncovered or deconstructed in the political resistance to oppression and the exercise of power .
Scientists like Fatima El-Tayeb describe the difficulty “whites” have in looking at themselves “as white”, as “color blindness” and as the strongest expression of the “normalization of whiteness”, since it “ only races the ' others ' perceives and thus ultimately sees racism as tied to the existence of these 'other'. “On the other hand, racism is produced in the more dominant parts of society, which define themselves as“ white ”without being more precisely aware of these“ white ”norms.
In the critical whiteness studies is further assumed that in "whiteness" privileges and racial thought patterns are bound. Accordingly, racism cannot be countered solely through a postulate that “ all people are equal ”, since racism has created a “reality of inequality”. With her work, the psychologist Ursula Wachendorfer wants to show how “whiteness” is generally perceived as normal and has a normative effect. Therefore “whiteness” in the “critical whiteness research” according to Susan Arndt is seen as the basis for “ discriminating against people who do not conform to the physical norm (e.g. skin color ) and / or cultural norm set by“ white ”western societies become. "
The African ethnologist Diana Bonnelamé completed her doctorate in Cologne in 1983 on the initiation rites of German Protestants . The scientist chose the perspective of researching the life of the “whites” from a “black point of view”. The project was controversial, the dissertation ultimately failed because there was no reviewer (see film). It was undisputed among ethnologists to work with the methods of this discipline, for example in African countries. The dissertation project, which wanted to apply the same methodological approaches to Germany, touched taboos in this branch of science. Together with Peter Heller, Bonnelamé documented the reactions in the university discourse in the film Like other negroes too… . Peggy Piesche describes Bonnelamé's dissertation as the first research work in Germany to critically investigate “whiteness”. Comparable to Toni Morrison's first work , Bonnelamé confronted the “normative reception of one's own with the usual racialization of the other.” Using central ethnological terms, Bonnelamé provoked the discomfort of the “white” scientists “with a white hegemonic view” when they used their own terms to be examined. At the same time, according to Piesche, the mimicry techniques used by the ethnologist correspond to those of the “black survival strategies in the white mainstream ”. Piesche's text refers to Araba Evelyn Johnston-Arthur , who analyzed the normative whiteness structure in Austria in her work and initiated critical whiteness research in Austria with her work from 2004.
Skin color as a means of narration
Actress Nisma Cherrat describes how strong the dominance of “white” norms can be with regard to German spoken theater : It is particularly difficult for black artists to move outside of the usual clichés , because we usually come into play when it is it is about pointing out political or social grievances. She judges that even in German theaters 'black' actors are usually hired for roles that are “clearly marked”. Only rarely, according to their observations, are they engaged because of their talent and ability, because they are interesting and versatile actors, and not because of their external characteristics and the ulterior motive that something very specific can be told about their skin color. Nisma Cherrat concludes that the theater business is geared towards an audience that takes the use of discriminatory language ... for granted. Classic German roles or heroines of the bourgeois tragedy do not seem to be cast with black artists for the theater business. At first glance, however, this does not apply to German music theater from 1961 ( Grace Bumbry ), and in spoken theater it still requires a theater-sociological and statistical analysis of the engagement experience of Afro-German (German-speaking) drama students who on the supply side in English-speaking theater Theaters (USA, Great Britain, Canada) are relatively far more numerous.
Ironic reversal of the integration discourse
The following examples make it clear that the “whiteness” approach does not only have to apply to “blacks”:
Fatima El-Tayeb comments on this: "The ironic reversal of the integration discourse focuses on whiteness as a marked category and gives the minority the power of representation, suddenly it is the dominant majority whose behavior is critically measured against established norms".
Black knowledge archive
Asking the origins of information about whiteness is a fundamental approach in this context. The main sources of information in the USA turned out to be social struggles for survival of people and groups who were confronted with the ascription of not being white . As “acquired knowledge”, this information about whiteness was and still is an important means of asserting oneself in racist societies. In critical whiteness research, the term “black knowledge archive” is used to denote the knowledge determined in this way. Maureen Maisha Eggers refers to the transmission of proverbs, coded sermons, parables, jokes about whites as the source for these "data and interpretations" ; they can be found in songs ( blues , spirituals ), in [...] stories and, above all, in educational speech . Criticism black feminists such as bell hooks on Second Wave feminism led to the first extensive arguments about the importance These kinds of knowledge. For the German-speaking area, beyond everyday experience, it is suggested to include the early sociological approaches of William Edward Burkhardt Du Bois .
Whiteness as a powerful construct
Arndt describes whiteness as a hegemonic standardizing and internalized construct that is made invisible and mostly remains invisible . Constructs are - compared to other cultural constructs such as B. architecture - purely artificially created, but nonetheless historical and social structures. Whiteness is therefore a form of power that has an effective influence on social processes. As an internalized category, “whiteness” itself remains unreflected. As a discourse that changes reality, as a semiotic figure and myth that interpret reality, whiteness is a historically shaped component of all standardization processes and originates from European cultural history. As a specific form of power of 'white' hegemony , whiteness cannot be devalued by individual decision or viewed as non-existent for one's own biography. Encarnación Gutiérrez Rodríguez worked out a set of analysis categories for specific framework conditions.
Whiteness as part of processes of ethnicization
In the critical whiteness research according to Eggers and others, any form of marking and categorizing people in terms of nature is also rejected in research. This includes terms that relate to external characteristics such as " skin color ". Such naturalizations are also analyzed as components in the process of ethnicization , as are culturalization and essentialization . On the one hand, these forms are analyzed in their discourses , for example in the so-called headscarf debate . Likewise, the historical development processes (the historicity ) of the concept “ race ” are examined using the category of whiteness in a power analysis and discourse analysis, for example against the background of colonialism , fascism and National Socialism . Fundamental to research into whiteness is the historical traceability of the constructed nature of “race” and research into the discourses that racialize people. The discourses in which whiteness plays a role provide information about the biological construction of the concept of “race”. In the methodology of research on whiteness, “race” becomes a “critical analysis and knowledge category”. By examining the concept of “race” in terms of its historical origin and its discursive form as educated “knowledge” in terms of its meaning and effect to this day, the myths “whiteness” and “race” are also deconstructed :
- On this basis, reference was made to the necessity of waging a struggle for the meaning of “race” from a post-colonial perspective, which aims to restore history and knowledge. For this a double movement is required, which leads away from “race” as a biological category and towards race as a critical analysis and knowledge category that can draw attention to processes of racialization and their dynamics. (Arndt / Piesche)
Whiteness here provides a theoretical and conceptual perspective in which “race” is selected as one of various interconnected categories of socialization.
White knowledge and "racialized power difference"
The assertion of differences between people in racializing and culturalizing theories and practices serves to consolidate an order from a dominant and hegemonic position. Racized power difference describes a concept developed by Maureen Maisha Eggers for the power-critical analysis of the construction processes of difference as an interpretative perspective in critical whiteness research. Above all, “the perception of social assessments of differences” and the associated actions of marking, positioning and excluding is examined. The process of socialization is considered and how affiliations and exclusions are produced using the category of whiteness. Eggers differentiates between four fundamental, interlinked levels of action that lead to the development of a racial order:
On the marking level, from a hegemonic perspective, in contrast to self-perception, subordinate categories, people and groups are assigned properties: 'knowledge' about their nature is generated. In this knowledge the main message is the articulation of their 'difference' in relation to the hegemonic white group. In a dichotomous arrangement, they are assigned properties that are in opposition to the (supposed) properties of the white group.
The "invented", more precisely: constructed properties are interpreted as natural through the practice of differentiation: They are set as an insurmountable part of "nature" by racially marked "others". The difference constructed in this way is fixed and made absolute. Hegemonic speakers equipped with authority disseminate “ racist knowledge ” (via racially marked “others”) as general knowledge and thus generate institutionally secured knowledge complexes.
Positioning and hierarchization practice
Through the practice of hierarchization and the determination of the position of the “other” as complementary to one's own, the subjects marked in this way are placed in a subordinate position and “enclosed” in a hegemonic structure.
As a result of these three levels of practice, the practice of exclusion follows: The actual exclusion realities can now be logically explained with a reference to the nature of the subordinate positions and on the basis of a hierarchical order that appears natural. The hegemonic white center can thus remain unnamed and unmarked and then even functions as a neutral authority.
Racist knowledge and "talking about others "
- The connectivity of racized discourse formations can be described by adhering to the four levels of racialization. If discursive contents or complexes show a racialized marking practice, a racized differentiation practice, a racized hierarchical positioning practice and a racial exclusion or exclusion practice, then it can be assumed that they are “compatible” with the complex racist knowledge.
“Talking about others ” has an important function in the process of racialization . Here white experts put themselves in a seemingly neutral and objective position and set "whiteness" as the central position: whites generate racist knowledge within a racist epistemology , and in the 'speaking about' racially marked subjects position themselves hierarchically as 'knowing' . (Eggers) This is how the colonial discourse functions as a process largely through the information of the 'white' public by 'white' colonial authors and adventurers about the fictional 'nature' of racially marked 'others'. (Eggers) Self-positioning as objective and neutral is made possible by the fact that the category of whiteness that is effective here is invisible and not marked. Using the example of the Islamism discourse in the magazine Emma , Eggers explains how agreeing to and participating in the production of racist knowledge buys a “ticket into the mainstream” (Daniela Marx), which is also used to relativize National Socialism. Eggers refers here to an interview with Alice Schwarzer which was titled Islamists are more dangerous than the Nazis .
The term othering should be mentioned at this point , which is now illuminated by many scientific areas such as ethnology , social work , sociology , culture and social anthropology or group education.
Historicity of the term "race" and "racialized power difference"
In their conference report from the Humboldt University in Berlin, Susan Arndt and Peggy Piesche refer to this “racialized power difference” by analyzing the “historical genesis” of the concept “race”. They come to the conclusion that the concept of "race" always aims at hierarchizing and complementary relationships and thus creates so-called entangled subjects on all sides , with the racialized subjects in particular in a forced proximity to that from the construct "race" falling whiteness can be positioned. This fact should be taken into account above all if cultural representations are designed into racial strategies to maintain a certain understanding of nationality (for example “being German” is set as synonymous with “being white”). The importance of the category whiteness in the process of racialization in the practice of marking is then also shown in terms, especially when the assertion is made from the scientific side that there are “objective terms”. At the conference it was stated that these objective terms ... do not necessarily correspond to the meaning of the term and so often racist language levels on the Internet as well as subject and keyword catalogs are updated by libraries .
White reactions to being white
Empirical observations lead to the conclusion that whites in Germany mostly do not perceive whiteness as a category for their self-expression. Although they define others as “not-white” in a variety of ways in a difference to themselves, they primarily cite categories such as occupation, age and gender for self-presentation.
Loss of control and evasion
Toni Morrison made it clear in Playing in the Dark that, contrary to the usual under the gauze, she wanted to change the perspective, to turn the critical gaze from the racial object to the racial subject; from the described and imagined to the descriptive and imaginative; from servants to servants. Whites, on the other hand, are used to staying invisible through a “ panoptic view” ( Michel Foucault ) and to observe and control others “ with foresighted suspicion ” ( Georg Christoph Tholen ). The reverse view is irritating - he and a communication with the other are avoided because the other is "the object of information, never the subject of communication " (Michel Foucault).
Denial and hierarchization of racism
Forms of the invisibility of the category of whiteness offer the white subject ( actor ) the opportunity to relativize or even deny his own - actually given - position of power. Arndt sees this as a further power function of whiteness, which gives individuals the privilege of evading reflection on their own social position by making them invisible and relativizing. Differences must be by Arndt between the postulate of Enlightenment "We're all the same" and the real condition of inequality. The correct postulate of equality could serve to ignore the real conditions of inequality and the processes of their creation.
Arnold Farr points out that many of his colleagues in science consider the problem of the concept of “race” to be a pure phenomenon of National Socialism or that they cannot understand that the color line “produces radically different experiences in American society”. Even in philosophy , due to a whiteness perspective still masked as neutral - with a few exceptions - the meaning of the concept of race for consciousness is not examined:
- "It is strange that a discipline like philosophy that deals with wisdom , morality and the human condition employed, the role that" race "in the formation of consciousness and a social order plays can knock out."
Arndt calls tractability a rhetorical figure with which white subjects associate the thesis “that whiteness is negotiable, temporary and reversible .” From a critical perspective, it is assumed that whiteness can be overcome: “I am a good white man. I am no longer white ”.
In the academic discourse of the USA, the concept of critical whiteness has developed since the 1990s : In recent years, especially in feminist and (post-) colonial analyzes, there has been a paradigm shift in which the view from divergence to norm has taken place , has shifted from the marginal to the center - a change of perspective in which not only the other, the non-normal, is exposed as a projection , but also the own, the norm itself, is made recognizable as a construct, as a staging . With the idea of the “gallery of privileges” Peggy McIntosh created a list as early as 1988 in which she named the privileges of white and male people.
Criticism of the approach
There is criticism of dealing with critical whiteness as a guide to anti-racist practice with regard to the hierarchy it contains and the lack of other important social categories, such as class , gender , ability (able-bodied) or an overlap of several categories . The idea of the correct way of speaking and speaking excludes other people who cannot deal with it and produces new racisms, classisms and sexisms as it pretends to combat and creates new exclusions. The sociologist Vassilis Tsianos also advocated an adaptation that also incorporates the history of German migration, instead of a mere theory import from the USA. At times, attempts to integrate the principles of critical whiteness into political work have led to sectarian attempts to regulate communication by prohibiting speech. This happened, for example, during a “no-border camp” in Cologne in 2012. This was actually supposed to discuss the needs of those people who had to flee to Germany. People who used “wrong” terms in their speeches in the sense of the critical whiteness debate were interrupted by a kind of critical whiteness police; white people were allowed to be interrupted by black people at any time. Wearers of dreadlocks were asked to cut them off, as this hairstyle was only entitled to " people of color " and otherwise, like wearing a keffiyeh , was " cultural cannibalism ". Refugees were criticized for their white behavior, and “shelters for people of color” were created.
"The issues of racialized people get out of sight"
It does make sense that, against the background of racism, the position of “white” people must also be dealt with. Critically, the danger is pointed out that black topics get out of sight if only "white" topics are talked about all the time. The “white” dominance is reproduced here, and this time she can justify it by saying that she is talking “critically” about herself. For “whites” this is a contradiction that cannot be resolved. It is possible for whites to decide for themselves whether to address whiteness. Blacks, on the other hand, can never escape this topic because they are constantly confronted with it.
"Being white is not just a construct"
The criticism makes it clear that while racism constructs identities, “being white” represents a real relationship of violence in society and should be perceived as such. Difference and racist hierarchy should always be made visible when talking about racism, but the divisions into “white” and “of color” would quickly become labels that appear as labels of stable categories. At the latest when proof of the parents' origin is required, it will show where the whiteness concept ceases to be critical. Racism as a social relationship that is subject to booms and struggles becomes invisible. According to this, only people who are oppressed or disadvantaged should receive a speaker position. At the same time, only these would be really aware of how the respective oppression is determined. In reality, however, this is not the case, as the oppressed often conform to their oppressors and do not automatically rebel just because they are oppressed or disadvantaged.
"The whiteness discourse also needs blackness"
It is criticized as a dilemma that the critical discourse about being white - and also its representation in an encyclopedia - needs the black in order to represent what being white is. Blacks repeatedly refer to this fact as functionalization and renewed colonization . In addition, the practice of some critical whiteness groups is not about politics, but about moralization, not about criticism, but denunciation. Some practices are dogmatic in nature and produce more exclusions and an elite caste of initiates.
Victimization and "white guilt"
The author Shelby Steele describes in his book White Guilt: How Blacks and Whites Together Destroyed the Promise of the Civil Rights Era the concept of “white guilt”, which arises from the application of the critical whiteness approach, as an alternative interpretation to the concept of Black Power . The victims of historical racism would thereby gain power over the whites who had lost their power.
Structural similarity to right-wing extremism
The German social scientist Samuel Salzborn sees the approaches of critical whiteness research as "collective-repressive" and thus as almost identical to the ethnic concepts of the extreme right : One no longer wants to discuss goals and content in a pluralistic way, but reduce "everything and everyone on a supposed identity and hierarchical, anti-emancipatory notions of irreversible 'speaking locations' within societies ”. The struggle for identities replaces “ emancipation through repression”.
White and black are emphasized in many texts of critical whiteness research using italics or capital letters, since the terms are intended to describe socially effective categories and not external ascriptions.
- Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (ed.): Myths, Masks and Subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Munster 2005
- Serhat Karakayali, Vassilis S. Tsianos, Jule Karakayali: Blackbox Critical Whiteness. To criticize new pitfalls of anti-racism: An intervention. academia.edu
- Artur Dugalski, Carolina Lara, Malik Hamsa: Color blindness is not a solution either: Critical Whiteness is a useful tool for criticizing racism , at: akweb.de of October 19, 2012
- “For a long time, research into the category of race has largely presented itself as black studies that examine blacks and their cultural identities. In 1992 Toni Morrison, who later won the Nobel Prize, published Playing in the Dark, a study that was supposed to put an end to this trend. She pointed out that " a lot of time and intelligence ... has been invested in uncovering racism and its dire effects on its objects, " but that any analysis of patterns of rule would have to reach its limits if focused solely on the objects . Only when the subjects of the manufacturing processes (to a certain extent the inventors and beneficiaries of racial theories) and their myths are taken into account can a more complex and dynamic understanding of the mechanisms and modes of action of processes of domination develop. It is therefore necessary to turn the critical gaze from the racialized object to the racialized subject - " from the described and imagined to the descriptive and imaginative ." “ So I propose… that we examine the impact of ideas of racial hierarchy, racial exclusion, and racial vulnerability and availability on non-blacks who advocated or resisted these ideas, explored them, or changed them. “The methodological challenge here is to avoid recentering whiteness.” Source: Susan Arndt: Whiteness. The misunderstood structural category of Europe and Germany and Susan Arndt: Myths of the white subject: denial and hierarchization of racism. In: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany. Compilation of the contribution .
- Cf. Carmen P. Thompson: Historical analysis provides a necessary framework for considering the social and political moorings that have established whiteness as a category of analysis. Source: Carmen P. Thompson: Towards a Bibliography of Critical Whiteness Studies Histories of Whiteness  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. | On White Supremacy, see the overview of the literature in Thompson, especially: Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996; Horne, Gerald. "The White Pacific." In Race War: White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire. New York: New York University Press, 2004; Lipsitz, George. "Swing Low, Sweet Cadillac: White Supremacy, Antiblack Racism and the New Historicism." American Literary History 7 (1995): 700-725 .; Hooks, bell. “Madonna: Plantation Mistress or Soul Sister?” In Black Looks: Race and Representation, 157–164. Boston: South End Press, 1992 / bell hooks, being white in the black world of ideas, in: Dies., Black Looks, Berlin - there: “white supremacist terror” p. 207 (cf. also Eske Wollrad: Körperpolitik - feminist-anti-racist reflections on whiteness as myth and terror.: 5–10 d'agost, 2003 Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.). Cf. also: Susan Arndt: Weiß-Sein, Roland Barthes la vaccine and the African-feminist literature , ("rhetoric of supremacy")
- Claudia Breger: Review of: Eggers, Maureen M .; Kilomba, Grada; Piesche, Peggy; Arndt, Susan; (Ed.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany. Münster 2006. In: H-Soz-u-Kult, September 29, 2006  Individual studies: Broeck, Sabine: White Amnesia - Black Memory American Women's Writing and History . Frankfurt a. M. 1999; (See Susan Arndt: Being white, Roland Barthes la vaccine and the African-feminist literature ,) Wachendorfer, Ursula: Being white in Germany. On the invisibility of a ruling normality , In: Susan Arndt (Hrsg.): AfrikaBilder. Studies on racism in Germany , Münster 1st edition. 2001. 2nd edition. 2006; Walgenbach, Katharina: The white woman as a bearer of German culture. Colonial discourses on gender, 'race' and class in the Empire , Frankfurt am Main 2005; Wollrad, Eske: Being white is a contradiction in terms . Feminist Perspectives on Racism, Culture and Religion , Königstein 2005; Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany , Münster 2005; Tißberger, Martina; Dietze, Gabriele; Hrzán, Daniela; Husmann-Kastein, Jana (Hrsg./eds.): Weiß - Weißsein - Whiteness. Critical Studies on Gender and Racism Critical Studies on Gender and Racism , Frankfurt am Main, 2006 Archived copy ( memento of the original from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- See: Brief description of a research project of the Center for Transdisciplinary Gender Studies at the Humboldt University Berlin ( Memento of the original from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The term “dominance culture ” was coined by Birgit Rommelspacher . Compare: Birgit Rommelspacher: Dominance Culture. Texts on strangeness and power. Olanda Verlag Berlin 19 ##, ISBN 3-929823-29-2 .
- Cf. Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, Masks and Subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany. Münster 2005. There for terminology: Susan Arndt: Weißsein. The misunderstood structural category of Europe and Germany , pp. 24–28, with literature. See also:  . On the subject of whiteness and colonialism, cf. also Arndt (Hrsg.): AfrikaBilder . 1st edition. 2001, p. 17r
- Susan Arndt: Whiteness and Critical Whiteness Research  (Compiled from: Susan Arndt: Whiteness. The misunderstood structural category of Europe and Germany and the same: Myths of the white subject: denial and hierarchization of racism. In: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (Ed.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Münster 2005)
- For a broad discussion of this term, see Birgit Rommelspacher, Interdependenzen. An (old) topic in the women's movement and feminist theory in Germany , 2006 
- Susan Arndt: Whiteness. The misunderstood structural category of Europe and Germany. P. 24–28, in: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (Eds.): Myths, Masks and Subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Munster 2005
- Wachendorfer, Ursula (2001; 2006): Being white in Germany. On the invisibility of a ruling normality , In: Susan Arndt (Hrsg.): AfrikaBilder. Studies on racism in Germany , Münster 1st edition. 2001. 2nd edition. 2006
- Review h-soz-kult  , Radio FSK: Interview with Susan Arndt  , each on: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (ed.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Munster 2005
- Quoted from: Susan Arndt (Ed.): AfrikaBilder a. loc. cit., pp. 23, 24; see. also Fatima El-Tayeb: Foreword to Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Munster 2005
- Ursula Wachendorfer: Being white in Germany. To the invisibility of a prevailing normality. In: Susan Arndt (Ed.): AfrikaBilder. Studies on racism in Germany , Münster 1st edition. 2001. 2nd edition. 2006, p. 88; see. on basic racist patterns too: Susan Arndt: Myths of the White Subject: Denial and Hierarchization of Racism , pp. 340-360 in: Eggers u. a. (Ed.): Myths, Masken, Subjecte , Lit.-Verz. See also: 
- Susan Arndt a. loc. cit., pp. 340, 341 ff.
- Ursula Wachendorfer: Being white in Germany. To the invisibility of a prevailing normality. In: Susan Arndt (Ed.): AfrikaBilder. Studies on racism in Germany , Münster 1st edition. 2001. 2nd edition. 2006, p. 88.
- Arndt in: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, Masks and Subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany , Münster 2005
- Like other Negroes - An African Researcher Among Germans (Documentary, 1983) ( YouTube )
- Peggy Piesche: The thing with the subject, or: Who does critical whiteness research belong to? S. 14, 15 In: Eggers u. a. (Ed.): Myths, masks, subjects. See literature
- Araba Evelyn Johnston-Arthur : Weiss-ness. In: Ljubomir Bratić (ed.): Historicization as a strategy. Positions - Power - Criticism. A publication in the context of the anti-racist archive. Vienna 2004, pp. 10–11
- Cf. Nisma Cherrat: Mistresses - Wahnsinnige - Whore: Black actors at the German-speaking theater. In: Maureen Maisha Eggers u. a. see literature p. 206f.
- Fatima El-Tayeb. In: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany. Münster 2005. See online: 
- Maureen Maisha Eggers: A Black Knowledge Archive. In: Eggers ua (Hrsg.): Myths, Masken, Subjecte . Pp. 18-21.
- Susan Arndt: Myths of the 'White' Subject: Denial and Hierarchization of Racism. In: Eggers et al. 2005.
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- Eggers et al. (2005): s. Literature.
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- Serhat Karakayali, Vassilis S. Tsianos, Jule Karakayali: Blackbox Critical Whiteness. To criticize new pitfalls of anti-racism: An intervention. academia.edu, p. 57.
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- Serhat Karakayali, Vassilis S. Tsianos, Jule Karakayali: Blackbox Critical Whiteness. To criticize new pitfalls of anti-racism: An intervention. academia.edu, p. 62 f.
- Schweizer SonntagsBlick , November 14, 2004: Islamists are more dangerous than the Nazis
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- Susan Arndt / Peggy Piesche (2005): "Race" and the category of whiteness. Conference report from the Humboldt University Berlin. 
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- Toni Morrison (1992): Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (Eng. Playing in the dark . White culture and literary imagination , 1994), here quoted from Wollrath in iz3w 
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- Susan Arndt (2005): Myths of the White Subject: Denial and Hierarchization of Racism. In: Maureen Maisha Eggers, Grada Kilomba, Peggy Piesche, Susan Arndt (eds.): Myths, masks and subjects. Critical whiteness research in Germany . Munster 2005
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