The revue ( French for 'magazine'), also known as cabaret , is a sub-form of music theater and therefore belongs to the performing arts . Similar to the related sub-forms of operetta and musical , the revue combines music, dance and verbal contributions into one overall performance (artistic performances); In contrast to these, however, there is no continuous storyline. Instead, an emcee usually leads through the program. Rather, a general theme - including a current or historical event - serves as the motto for a loose series of individual performances - called " numbers " (hence the term number revue ; see also number girl ) - in which solo performances and dance ensembles alternate. The musical revue often overlaps with the vaudeville , which takes place on a smaller scale and contains distinctly artistic numbers, as well as the circus- like US vaudeville . There can also be overlaps with cabaret , for example in the revues by Mischa Spoliansky .
The genre of the revue was based on the cabarets created in Paris at the end of the 19th century ( Le Chat Noir , Folies Bergère , Moulin Rouge ) and reached its peak worldwide in the 1920s. The origins in Paris were from around 1850 fair parodies of the military, in which dancers wore fantasy uniforms and criminals commented on the action. Initially, these performances took place at the end of the year. The Paris operetta incorporated such stylistic elements, for example in Jacques Offenbach's The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein (1867). The first interior design revue is the Place aux Jeunes staging, staged in the Folies Bergère in 1886 . In the Moulin Rouge, revues became a recurring, fixed program item for the first time from 1889. At the turn of the century they spread across Europe.
In America, the Ziegfeld Follies were modeled on the French model in 1907 . Soon they were the most successful shows on Broadway . A famous German revue theater in Berlin was the Große Schauspielhaus , the now demolished old building of today's new Friedrichstadt-Palast , Am Circus 1, where Erik Charell produced his revues, and another was the Admiralspalast , where Herman Haller showed the “Haller revues”. In addition to the performances of the singers, actors, comedians, acrobats and dancers, the elaborate equipment ( stage design , stage machinery , mask , costumes ) played a significant role. Composers such as Paul Lincke , Victor Hollaender , Walter Kollo and Ralph Benatzky wrote special reviews. The revue is of great importance for the development of the hit . In the 1920s, the form of the political review emerged at the same time; Erwin Piscator's revue Roter Rummel 1924 found numerous imitators.
The revue began to decline in the 1930s. The revue film , which was emerging at this time , shifted the performance from the theater to the cinema. In the early days of television , it experienced another boom in this medium. Past revues are ironically quoted in retrospective musicals ( John Kander : Cabaret , 1966), ( Stephen Sondheim : Follies , 1971) or films ( Federico Fellini : Ginger and Fred , 1986). With different artistic characteristics, the genre Revue is still cultivated today mainly by traditional variety theaters such as Lido , Casino de Paris, Folies Bergère, Moulin Rouge and the Friedrichstadt-Palast Berlin, but also in shows in Las Vegas . The Wiener Eisrevue was created in the late phase of the Viennese operetta .
- In the early modern period , revue was used to describe army shows .
- Musicals without an actual plot occasionally approach the revue, such as B. Oh! Calcutta! , Cats or Starlight Express .
- Revue is also called part of the ceremonial meeting , which is held every year in many carnival, Mardi Gras and Mardi Gras strongholds .
- The political impact of the repeatedly varied Hammer-Rehwü by Steffen Mensching , Hans-Eckardt Wenzel and others, performed in the GDR from 1982, was legendary . a., which at the time made a significant contribution to encouraging citizens to criticize the regime . She combined folk music , poetry and slapstick .
- In addition to classic revues there for several decades in the figure skating revues, so-called. Ice shows , such as Holiday on Ice . In addition, several German roller and figure skating clubs in the private sector regularly put on new roller or ice revues or musicals, almost as the high point of club life.
- Wolfgang Jansen : Splendid revues of the twenties. Sites of the History of Berlin, Volume 25. Hentrich, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-926175-34-6 .
- Margareta Saary: Review. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .