Francis de Sales
|Francis de Sales|
Francis de Sales
|Born||August 21, 1567 (Sales Castle, Thorens-Glières, Savoy )|
|Deceased||December 28, 1622 ( Lyon )|
|beatification||December 18, 1661 by Pope Alexander VII.|
|canonization||April 19, 1665 by Pope Alexander VII|
|Patron saint||Journalists, writers, deaf people; Cities: Annecy, Chambery, Geneva, Baker (Oregon USA); Cincinnati (Ohio, USA), Columbus (Ohio, USA), Wilmington (Delaware, USA), Keimoes-Upington (South Africa)|
|Attributes||Heart, book (Philothea, Theotimus), quill pen|
Francis de Sales ( François de Sales; born August 21, 1567 at Sales Castle , Thorens-Glières , † December 28, 1622 in Lyon ) was Prince-Bishop of Geneva , based in Annecy , founder of the order , mystic and doctor of the church . He is the patron saint of writers , journalists , the deaf and the cities of Geneva , Annecy and Chambéry .
Childhood and youth
Franz von Sales comes from a noble family from Savoy . His father was named François de Boisy , his mother Françoise de Sionnaz . He was the first of twelve children. The father wanted the best school education for his first-born. Franz enjoyed his first school lessons in La Roche-sur-Foron and Annecy. In 1578, when he was twelve years old, he came to the Collège de Clermont in Paris. Here he got into a personal crisis a few years later. He was familiar with the theological discussions of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination , which claims that God has established from eternity which man is destined to be saved and which man is destined to be damned. This teaching bothered him hard.
Francis de Sales even believed for a while that God had condemned him. In December 1586 his despair became so severe that he became physically ill. In January 1587 he was only able to drag himself to the church of Saint-Etienne des Gres with great difficulty. There he prayed the memorare and overcame his crisis by entrusting his whole life to God. Franz came to the conclusion: Whatever God plans to do with him, it will be good because God is love. With that he had become free. This trusting surrender to the God of love not only resolved his crisis, but also influenced his entire further life and teaching. His positive image of God and man as well as his optimism go back to this experience at the end of his crisis in Paris.
In 1588, Francis de Sales of Paris moved to the University of Padua . In addition to law, he also studied theology there. The resolve to become a priest was consolidated in him. In 1592 he completed his studies with a doctorate in both rights (ecclesiastical and secular law) and returned home after a pilgrimage via Loreto , where his father had already done a lot for his son's further legal career including a seat in the Senate of Chambéry . The father found it difficult to come to terms with the fact that his son was pursuing another professional goal.
Missionary in Chablais
On March 7, 1593 Pope appointed him Clement VIII. To the provost of Annecy. Franz was ordained a priest there on December 18 of the same year. Shortly after his ordination, he agreed to work on the reintroduction of the Catholic faith in the Calvinist part of the diocese of Geneva, the Chablais . Since the Calvinists forbade people to hear his sermons under penalty of punishment, Francis de Sales used the then new medium of the leaflet to get his thoughts to the people. And he was successful with it. After four years almost the entire population of the Chablais had returned to the Catholic faith. This “press action” was one of the reasons why Francis de Sales, in 1923, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the death of Pope Pius XI. was named the patron saint of writers and journalists.
Coadjutor of the bishop
In 1598 Francis de Sales traveled to Rome on behalf of his bishop Claude de Granier . There he not only reported on the situation in his diocese, but also passed a brilliant bishop's examination before Pope Clement VIII and a college of cardinals . In 1599 he was appointed episcopal coadjutor of the diocese of Geneva-Annecy with the right of succession .
At the end of 1601, Francis de Sales traveled to Paris on his first diplomatic mission to discuss the re-Catholicization of the parts of the diocese of Geneva that belonged to France with King Henry IV . However, his talks did not bring the desired success. Francis de Sales, however, impressed the people of Paris with his sermons. During this time he also got to know and appreciate Madame Barbe Acarie , who was later beatified as Marie of the Incarnation . At the time, she and her husband led a group of Christian lay people who wanted to renew religious life in France.
Prince-Bishop of Geneva based in Annecy
On his return from Paris, Francis de Sales learned of the death of his bishop. On December 8, 1602, he was ordained Prince-Bishop of Geneva in his home church of Thorens-Glières near Annecy . Since the city of Geneva was under the rule of the Calvinists , the bishops of Geneva had to reside in Annecy . His main activities as bishop in the next 20 years until his death were mainly the implementation of the reforms of the Council of Trent , the reform of the monasteries and the clergy. He was the first bishop to visit all 311 parish churches in his diocese and gave more than 3,000 sermons. He took care of the religious instruction of the children and the promotion of the education of the adults. To this end, at the end of 1606, together with Antoine Favre, he founded the Académie Florimontane , an educational institution similar to today's Académie française , in which the questions of modern science were not only discussed but also placed in the overall context of the Christian faith. As a lawyer, he was repeatedly asked for advice in disputes. He impressed the people with his great gentleness and warmth, which is why he is still referred to today as the " gentleman " among the saints. Franz von Sales also paid special attention to spiritual accompaniment. In many of the 20,000 or so letters he wrote in his life, he turned to people who asked him for advice on questions of life and faith.
Johanna Franziska von Chantal and founding of the Visitation of Mary
In 1604 Franz von Sales met the widow Johanna Franziska Frémyot, Baroness von Chantal . From this encounter a unique spiritual friendship developed, which led to the establishment of the religious order of the Sisters of the Visitation of Mary on June 6th, 1610, today also called Salesians or Visitands . Pope Paul V granted this religious community its worldwide recognition on October 6, 1618.
In 1609 he published his book Instructions for Pious Life , known in the German-speaking world under the title Philothea . This book, in which Franz von Sales explains in practical steps how people can realize their Christianity in their work and everyday life, became a bestseller. It is still one of the top ten in Christian world literature. Franz von Sales published his main theological work in 1616 with the title Treatise on the Love of God or Theotimus . With this work, Francis de Sales joins the ranks of the most important Christian mystics of the 17th century.
The last years of life
In 1618/19 Franz made his second diplomatic trip to Paris. There he met Angélique Arnauld , whom he visited in the Port Royal des Champs monastery , and Vincent de Paul . The occasion of the trip was the marriage of Prince Victor Amadeus of Savoy with Princess Christine of France, the sister of King Louis XIII. Francis de Sales played an essential part in the reconciliation of the French king with his mother Maria de Medici . His attempt to dissuade the young Cardinal Richelieu from interfering in politics as a bishop, however, failed.
His health suffered from his restless activity. His desire to resign from the office of bishop and retire to a hermitage to serve God with the rosary and the pen grew stronger and stronger. But this dream never came true. In late autumn 1622 Franz accompanied the Duke of Savoy to Avignon to meet King Louis XIII despite his poor health . On the way back he suffered a stroke in Lyon. Franz died at the age of 55 on December 28, 1622. His body was transferred to Annecy and buried at the end of January 1623 in the church of the Visitation Monastery in Annecy. Today he rests in the Basilique de la Visitation above the city.
Canonization, Remembrance Day and Patronage
- Catholic: January 24th ( Obligatory Day of Remembrance in the General Roman Calendar )
- Anglican: January 24th
The beatification took place on December 18, 1661 by Pope Alexander VII. On April 19, 1665 Francis de Sales was also canonized by Alexander VII . On July 19, 1877 Pope Pius IX declared him . for Doctor ecclesice ( Church teacher ). On the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death on December 28, 1922, Pope Pius XI appointed him . the patron saint of Catholic writers and journalists. (See also encyclical Rerum omnium perturbationem .) In addition, Francis de Sales was in 1869 by Pope Pius IX. has been named Patron of the Deaf and Patron of the cities of Geneva, Annecy and Chambéry.
- Philothea: Instructions for a pious life
- Theotimus: Treatise on the love of God
- Spiritual Conversations (Visitation)
- Spiritual Directory (Visitation)
- Letters and sermons
Living Salesian means: living in the presence of the loving God in everything I do, and in a lovable, engaging, positive, warm way so that the people I meet do not get the impression of this life in the present God would be a burden to me or make me sick and depressed, but this life in the presence of God gives me life in abundance , today as well as after my death.
Living Salesian also means being Christian in everyday life ... Small virtues: humility, gentleness, patience, warmth, optimism . Sales is based on the word of the biblical creator about the living things of the world, they should bear fruit, each according to its kind (Gen 1:11). Everyone is called to bear fruit. A bishop cannot and should not live like a monk. Spouses not like Capuchins and craftsmen not like contemplative religious, praying half the day. But God wants all fruits, each according to its own kind. Francis de Sales created a new unity between profession and religion.
People who Franz von Sales influenced
- St. Johanna Franziska von Chantal (co-founder of the Visitation of Mary )
- Barbe Acarie - Blessed Marie of the Incarnation
- Raymond Bonal (founder of the Bonalists)
- St. Vincent de Paul (founder of the Lazarists and Vincentians )
- St. Margareta Maria Alacoque ( Adoration of the Sacred Heart )
- St. Paul of the Cross (founder of the Passionists )
- Congregation of Our Lady of the Visitation of Ghent (founded 1682)
- St. Therese von Lisieux (The Little Way, Education through Visitation)
- Léonie Martin (biological sister of St. Therese of Lisieux and visitation sister)
- Redemptorists (Saint Alfons Maria di Liguori )
- Pallottine (St. Vincent Pallotti )
- Salesians of Don Bosco (St. John Don Bosco ) and the Don Bosco family
- Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales ( Pierre-Marie Mermier )
- Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Cross of Chavanod ( Pierre-Marie Mermier , Claudine Echernier)
- Community of St. Francis de Sales (daughters, priests and sons) ( Henri Chaumont , Caroline Carré de Malberg )
- Salesian Missionaries of the Immaculate Virgin Mary ( Henri Chaumont , Caroline Carré de Malberg and Gertrude Gros)
- Secular Institute of St. Franz von Sales ( Franz Reisinger )
- Oblates of St. Francis de Sales (Bl. Louis Brisson , St. Leonie Aviat )
- Oblates of St. Francis de Sales ( Maria Salesia Chappuis , Bl. Louis Brisson )
- Daughters of St. Francis de Sales of Lugo (founded in 1872 by Carlo Cavina )
- Friedrich Joseph Haass , the "Holy Doctor of Moscow"
- Giuseppe and Cesare Gualandi (founded the "Congregation of St. Joseph and St. Francis de Sales for the deaf and dumb" in 1872, now known as the "Congregation of the Fathers of the Little Mission for the deaf and dumb")
- Father Josef Kentenich (1885–1968)
- Sisters of St. Francis de Sales (founded in 1740 by Domenico Leonati)
- St. Filippo Smaldone (1848–1923, founded the " Salesian Sisters of the Sacred Heart " in 1885 for the upbringing and education of deaf children)
- The Blessed Seven Martyrs of Madrid
- St. John XXIII.
- Institute Christ the King and High Priest (founded in 1990 by Gilles Wach and Phillip Mora)
- Sisters of Adoration of the Royal Heart of Jesus
- John Paul I.
- Saint-François-Atoll , a group of islands in the Seychelles named after him
A comprehensive collection of current books by and about Franz von Sales can be found in the Franz von Sales-Online-Lexikon .
German edition of the works
- Franz von Sales: German edition of the works of St. Francis von Sales in 12 volumes. After the complete edition of the Oeuvres de saint Francois de Sales of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary at Annecy (1892 to 1931) ed. of the wafers of St. Franz von Sales under the direction of Franz Reisinger and Anton Nobis, Vol. 1 to 12. Eichstätt: Franz Sales Verlag 1959 to 1983.
- Volume 1: Instructions for the pious life (Philothea), 290 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0147-X 
- Volume 2: Spiritual Conversations, 390 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0001-5
- Volume 3: Treatise on the love of God (Theotimus) I, 320 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0128-3
- Volume 4: Treatise on the love of God (Theotimus) II, 398 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0116-X
- Volume 5: Letters I: Letters to Johanna Franziska von Chantal , 440 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0115-1
- Volume 6: Letters II: Letters from the guidance of the soul to laypeople, 420 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0005-8
- Volume 7: Letters III: Spiritual Leadership Letters to women religious, 368 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0059-7
- Volume 8: Letters IV: Overview of Correspondence, 438 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0220-4
- Volume 9: Selected Sermons, 480 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0061-9
- Volume 10: Controversy I, 394 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0062-7
- Volume 11: Controversy II, 372 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0121-6
- Volume 12: Spiritual Writings, 434 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0064-3
- Franz von Sales: German edition of the works. CD-Rom edition , ed. by Herbert Winklehner, Eichstätt: Franz-Sales-Verlag 2004. ISBN 3-7721-0270-0
- Francis of Sales: Philothea. Guide to the religious life. Paperback edition. Translated and edited by Franz Reisinger. Eichstätt: Franz-Sales-Verlag 2005. 400 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0277-8
- Etienne-Jean Lajeunie: Francis de Sales. Life - teaching - work. Franz-Sales-Verlag, 2nd edition, Eichstätt 1980, 664 pages, ISBN 3-7721-0037-6 .
- Dirk Koster: Franz von Sales - biography. Franz-Sales-Verlag, Eichstätt 2002, 288 pages, ISBN 3-7721-0240-9 .
- Hans Berghuis: Nothing so much as human. Francis de Sales - the gracious saint. Franz-Sales-Verlag, Eichstätt 1992, 280 pages, ISBN 3-7721-0124-0 .
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Franz von Sales. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 104-108.
- Sandra Coram-Mekkey: Franz von Sales. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . February 9, 2011 , accessed March 15, 2020 .
- Julien-Eymard d'Angers: L'humanisme chrétien au 17ième siècle: St. François de Sales et Yves de Paris . Springer Netherland. Berlin 1970 ISBN 9024702100
- Josef Dirnbeck : Pious and still normal. The Franz von Sales method . Franz-Sales-Verlag, Eichstätt 2008 ISBN 978-3-7721-0293-6 (describes the essential elements from the Philothea for today)
- Herbert Winklehner: Path of the small steps. Salesian Virtue ABC . Franz-Sales-Verlag, Eichstätt 2009 ISBN 978-3-7721-0301-8 (almost 50 virtues are interpreted from a Salesian point of view)
Novels and short stories
- Reinhold Schneider : Franz von Sales - Johanna Franziska von Chantal . Eichstätt: Franz-Sales-Verlag 2004, 96 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0271-9
- Katharina Grabner-Hayden, Herbert Winklehner: Delete . (Novel about the relationship between Johanna Franziska von Chantal and Franz von Sales). Eichstätt: Franz-Sales-Verlag 2005, 160 pages. ISBN 3-7721-0273-5
- In Heinrich Steinfest's detective novel , Ein thickes Fell (Piper Verlag: Munich 2006, ISBN 3-492-27117-0 ), St. Franz von Sales is the favorite saint of the hit man Anna Gemini.
- In the novel Mercury (French original title: Mercure ) by Amélie Nothomb, Franz von Sales and his book Philothea - Instructions for a pious life - helps the nurse Françoise Chavaigne to escape from her room, in which she is being held.
- In the novel Monsignor Quixote (English original title: Monsignor Quixote , DTV Verlag: Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-12865-8 ) by Graham Greene , the book Theotimus - Abhandlung über die Gottesliebe des St. Franz von Sales on the favorite books of the country pastor Quijote, who goes on a journey with his communist mayor Sancho. In the discussions and adventures of the two unequal friends, Francis de Sales becomes the saint who best illustrates God's love.
- The Francis de Sales exhibition of Gerald Spitzner for soloists, chorus and orchestra became the name day of Camillianers Father Franz Lachinger composed and in the care home church of St.. Karl Borromäus of the Geriatric Center Am Wienerwald in Lainz near Vienna premiered.
- The sales fair by the Upper Austrian composer Georg Wiesinger was premiered on January 27, 2013 in the Dachsberg high school .
- The musical Die Baronin von Francis Care (music), Herbert Winklehner (text) and Nicola Bamberger (text) tells the life story of St. Johanna Franziska von Chantal , who, together with St. Francis de Sales, founded the Sisters of the Visitation of Mary in 1610 . Further information can be found on the website www.musical-diebaronin.de .
- Works by and about Franz von Sales in the German Digital Library
- Oeuvres complètes de saint François de Sales
- Philothea: Instructions for a pious life
- International Commission on Salesian Studies
- Website of the Franz Sales Verlag, German edition of the works of St. Francis de Sales
- Francis de Sales - life, sayings, pictures, articles
- Pedigree of the Salesian Family
- Franz von Sales Lexicon
- Francis de Sales - the patron saint of the deaf
- Francis de Sales - the patron saint of journalists
- Franz Sales House - facility for the disabled
- Franz von Sales home elementary school - Schloss Niedernfels
- Institute for Salesian Spirituality
- Claudia Belemann: 08/21/1567 - birthday of the theologian Franz von Sales WDR ZeitZeichen (podcast).
- Franz von Sales: Patron of the journalists - "One treats the writers too harshly". On franz-sales-verlag.de. Last accessed on January 8, 2012.
- Francis de Sales: Patron of the Deaf. On franz-sales-verlag.de. Last accessed on January 8, 2012.
- Salesian Spirituality ( Memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
|Claude de Granier||
Bishop of Geneva
|Jean-François de Sales|
|SURNAME||Francis de Sales|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Saint Francis de Sales; François de Sales|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French bishop of Geneva / Annecy, founder of an order, doctor of the church, saint|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 21, 1567|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Thorens-Glières , Sales Castle|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 28, 1622|
|Place of death||Lyon|