exploitation

Exploitation ( French / English exploitation ) is a term for exploitation or depletion of any kind, whereby the term is particularly related to the exploitation of people by people. It was more precisely defined in Marxist theories as the appropriation of foreign work . The ruthless exploitation of people as workers, exploitation of women by men, of developing countries by industrialized countries or of natural resources through greed for profit was and is often discussed as exploitation. The term also occurs in German law in connection with usury .

Concept history

Today the word prey means something that someone has stolen or sacrifice. Prey, in the sense of 'profit' acquired through looting, goes back to the Middle Low German verb bǖten . The verb meant 'barter, distribute, take away, capture'. This is the basis of the late Middle High German verb biuten , rauben , loot , distribute '. From bǖten the Middle Low German noun is bǖte derived and meant what comes to distribution '. The noun penetrated Middle High German as a word for trade (“exchange, distribution”) and warfare (“distribution of what was acquired, share, spoils of war”), as evidenced by the late Middle High German biute . It was also borrowed in other languages: Old Norse bȳti 'debt claim'; Swedish byte , Dutch buit , French butin 'booty'.

Today the Duden gives different meanings for the verb exploit : 1. (a), economically use, reduce 'or (b), systematically use, exhaust'; 2. (a) 'unscrupulously exploiting for oneself', (b) that which stems from Marxist usage, as the owner of the means of production, appropriating the labor product produced by the workers' and finally (c) 'unscrupulously exploiting it'. The verb exploit was used in warfare in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was used in the early 20th century and meant 'to make booty' or 'booty, to distribute profit'. On this basis, the meaning of 'profit, use, exhaust' was developed. This applied first to all natural resources and also applied to the profitable exploitation of material and spiritual values.

In the early socialism of the 19th century, the word exploitation , which French and English early socialists often used, finally understood the exploitation of the penniless proletariat by the owners of the means of production , as in the famous phrase of the Saint-Simonists l'exploitation de l'homme par l'homme . Within this context of meaning, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels developed their theory of exploitation. In their economic writings they adopted the word exploitation or sometimes reproduced it as exploitation .

The “Digital Dictionary of the German Language” indicates, relative to the DWDS corpus used, that the word exploitation was used more frequently from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century.

Legal term

The term usury describes the offer of a service for a clearly excessive consideration (mostly money) while exploiting a weak situation of the contract partner. Usury can result in civil and criminal penalties . In Germany, usury is regulated in paragraph 2 of § 138 BGB :

“In particular, a legal transaction through which someone exploiting the predicament [...] promises himself or a third party pecuniary advantages for a service is void , which is noticeably disproportionate to the service. "

In the criminal law § 291 StGB a distinction is made between rent, credit, performance and agency usury.

For example, a person without a residence permit or work permit who is exploitative underpaid as a cleaning worker could not complain of usury because he would risk negative consequences (e.g. deportation or punishment for illegal work ) against himself.

Exploitation theories

Marxist theory

In Marx's main work, Capital , the concept of exploitation is not a moral concept. Marx did not claim to be making value judgments when claiming that the capitalist was exploiting the worker. In the foreword to the first edition of the first volume, he wrote explicitly that he did not want to hold the individual "responsible for circumstances whose creatures he remained socially". In the context of factory legislation, Marx expressly stated that the capitalist had to exploit the worker as much as possible in order to be able to survive as a capitalist in competition, and that this was not due to the "bad will" of the capitalist.

Marx did not intend an idealistic critique that would measure bourgeois relations against the idea of ​​justice. That the capitalist exploits the worker is not wrong. According to Marx, it does not violate the law of value of the exchange of goods. Marx was also later very skeptical of the idea that the worker in a communist society based on cooperative production should simply receive all of his labor product. In " Critique of the Gothaer Program " he criticized both bourgeois and socialist ideas of fair distribution. This particularly affected Ferdinand Lassalle's demand for unreduced income from work.

Furthermore, Marx also did not mean that exploitation always had to mean that the exploited had a low wage or standard of living. This could increase in times of increased demand for labor.

As a central concept of Marx's critique of political economy and Marxist theory of history and society , exploitation describes a class relationship or the unpaid appropriation of that foreign labor and labor products that go beyond the work necessary to maintain labor. Exploitation is accordingly the appropriation of surplus labor and the surplus product resulting from it . If, for example, 6 working hours per day are necessary to maintain the worker and his labor, but he works 8 hours, then he has done 2 hours overtime. If the product of this extra work is squeezed out by another person, the worker was exploited in this sense.

In class societies, the members of the exploiting class dispose of the labor power of the exploited and the essential social means of production. In order for a class to be formed whose members can permanently and safely appropriate the surplus product of another class, a certain social productive power of labor must have been achieved; otherwise the existence of the exploited is endangered. Depending on the social mode of production , the production relationships through which the surplus product is appropriated differ from “direct forced labor” as in slavery to “mediated forced labor” as in wage labor .

Slavery, Feudalism & Transition to Capitalist Production

Primitive communist tribal societies preceded class societies. The first significant increases in productivity, according to Engels, “under the given historical overall conditions, necessarily brought about slavery. From the first great social division of labor arose the first great division of society into two classes: masters and slaves, exploiters and exploited. ”The first possibility arose when tribes waged war against each other and robbed members of foreign tribes who could enslave them. Although slavery is "the first form of exploitation peculiar to the ancient world " and experienced its heyday there, it was not limited to this. Rather, it lasted the entire “civilized period” and was also an important moment in the course of the development of capitalism in the form of colonialism .

In the Middle Ages, the fixing of the popular masses was "the basis of feudal pressure". The peasants were tied to a certain land as serfs or servants and had to provide products or services to the landlord.

Marx described the change to the capitalist mode of exploitation in the 24th chapter of the first volume of "Das Kapital" under the heading of original accumulation . By this, Marx sums up the process that produced two special classes: the owners of money, production and foodstuffs, who utilize them by buying outside labor, and the wage-earning workers who have to sell their labor to the former. The process is nothing more than "the historical process of divorce between producer and means of production." Using England as an example, Marx showed how landlords drove peasants from the land in order to raise sheep; the state helped the landlords by force and forced the expropriated peasants into capitalist factories and their discipline. Contrary to the assumption of classical political economy, the process is not primarily based on the frugality and diligence of individuals. Rather, the process is based on “conquest, subjugation, robbery and murder, in short, violence”. Similar processes can be repeated worldwide where the capitalist mode of production spreads.

Exploitation in capitalism

Under capitalism, the capitalist class exploits the working class according to the laws of free exchange. Worker and capitalist face each other as "legally equal" and free goods owners and enter into contracts. The form of wages veils the exploitation. The disposal of foreign labor and its fruits is therefore no longer manifestly manifest as in slavery, on the basis of property in people and their labor, or as in feudal domination, through manorial or serfdom, tangible or direct financial contributions that have to be paid.

The relationship of exploitation is not based on the fact that the capitalist personally rules over the worker like the master over his slave or the feudal lord over the serf. It is based on constraints. The worker is doubly free: he is formally free or may dispose of his labor and conclude contracts, but at the same time he has to sell his labor, since he is also free of food and means of production. The capitalist, on the other hand, has to exploit the worker in order to be able to utilize his capital and in order to be able to survive in competition as a capitalist.

As a further specific feature of the capitalist mode of exploitation, Marx stated that it was aimed at exchange value or capital utilization. In contrast, earlier modes of exploitation would typically have been more oriented towards need or use value.

Movement of capital, value of labor, production of surplus value

According to Marx in capitalism, the value of every commodity is measured according to the average socially necessary labor time for its production ( labor theory ). The value appears in the form of money, but prices could also be above or below the value. In the first capital volume, Marx assumes that the price of a commodity corresponds to its value and that if two commodities are exchanged for one another, both are of equal value. Under these assumptions he tries to explain how the growth in value, which is expressed by the general formula of the capital movement GWG ', is possible. The capitalist buys goods with money in order to make more money or to achieve added value. If, however, all commodities are exchanged for labor value equivalents , surplus value cannot come exclusively from the sphere of circulation, since an increase in value can only take place through labor. The production of surplus value must therefore also be sought in the sphere of production. The capitalist would have to own a commodity whose “ use value itself would have the peculiar quality of being a source of value, whose actual consumption would therefore itself be the objectification of labor, hence value creation. And the owner of money finds such a specific commodity in the market - labor or labor. "

The use value of labor power to perform concrete work , however, is not equal to its exchange value , the labor necessary to reproduce its labor power. For a speech to workers, Marx used the following comparison in this regard: “The daily or weekly value of labor-power is entirely different from the daily or weekly activity of this power, just as the fodder a horse needs is entirely different from the time it takes it can carry the rider. ”Like the value of any other commodity, the value of labor power, its wages, is determined by the average social labor time necessary for its reproduction. Ultimately, this value corresponds to the value of that amount of food that is considered necessary to reproduce the labor force. What is considered necessary depends on historical and moral factors. The scope can vary from country to country and change with cultural development. Marx counts not only food, clothing or housing as food, but also the costs of a working-class family and the training costs of the labor force.

By producing a new quantity of goods, the worker transfers the value of the means of production used up to the new quantity of goods. There is no change in value, so that Marx speaks of constant capital (c). The worker also creates a new value that he transfers to the goods he produces. He receives only part of this new value as wages. The other part, the surplus value (m), is appropriated by the capitalist. Since the capital expended in labor leads to a change in value, Marx speaks of variable capital (v). The capitalist thus advances capital to the value of c + v, the worker creates a new value of v + m or a quantity of goods that has the value c + v + m, and the capitalist appropriates m. The capital employed and all the wealth ( accumulation ) accumulated from it is therefore based more and more on the unpaid appropriation of foreign labor in the wage-labor relationship in the course of capitalist production.

The production of surplus value takes place only in the sphere of industrial capital. “Industrial” is not limited to industrial complexes, but has to be understood in a broad sense. What is meant is any capital that either runs through the cycle G - W… P… W '- G' or the cycle G - W… P - G '. In the first case the capitalist buys commodities or labor and means of production, then he lets the workers produce a higher quantity of commodities and finally he sells them in order to realize the surplus value. The second formula concerns the performance of services such as B. a transport. No body of goods is produced here and the service must be consumed while it is being performed.

The workers who create value and surplus value are what Marx calls productive workers. The unproductive workers, on the other hand, create no surplus value. These include B. Workers who do not produce goods for the market, but work for the capitalist in his house as a private cook. Unproductive in this sense are also those workers who work in the commercial sphere and merely exchange money for goods, such as B. a cashier. Although the cashier's wages are a deduction from surplus value, they can still be exploited by doing extra work.

In the simple WGW commodity circulation, someone sells a commodity in order to use the money received to buy another commodity that he would like to consume. It is not primarily about growth in value and the movement finds a measure in the need or an end with its satisfaction. In the GWG movement, however, money is both the starting point and the end point. Capital utilization becomes an end in itself. There is no end immanent to the movement, since every capitalized capital appears as a finite sum of money G 'and must again become the starting point for a new movement in order to be able to remain capital. The movement is excessive because it is not related to something external or a need that could determine enough. The capitalist makes this movement his subjective end. He gives her consciousness and will and thus becomes "personified capital". In the first place, the individual capitalist does not act according to the formal determinations of capital because he is greedy. In order to remain a capitalist, he must always have enough money to modernize his company and thus to be able to survive in the competition.

Mystification of wages

Due to the mystification of wages, the common form of consciousness arises that wages are not used to pay for the value of labor but for the value of work. The exploitation is therefore not so easily recognizable. Marx called the expression value of work an imaginary expression. It is true that abstract work is the substance of value and the measure of value, but it itself has no value. If you wanted to ask about their value, you would only get "absurd tautology" as an answer. It could only be said that, for example, the value of 12 hours of work corresponds to the value of 12 hours of work. Marx exposed the false appearance. The worker cannot sell his work to the capitalist because it must exist before it can be sold. If the wages were the value of the work done and if the worker did not get the whole new value, then the laws of the exchange of goods would be violated. If wages were the value of the work done and if the worker received the whole new value, the capitalist would not be able to receive surplus value; consequently a foundation of the capitalist mode of production would be undermined.

Marx explained mystification by referring to several factors. One factor is that the worker always has to work the entire contractually agreed working day in order to get paid. The capitalist, on the other hand, explains his profit by buying below value or selling above value. Imaginary expressions, in which the existing state of affairs is presented incorrectly, arise from the relations of production themselves.

Just as mystifying is the fact that the worker changes from one capitalist to another and that he concludes contracts. This leads to the false impression that the worker is free.

Increased value and crisis

An increase in surplus value is achieved by methods of absolute (longer working hours) or relative increase in surplus value (increase in labor productivity). The degree of exploitation of labor power or the rate of surplus value is determined by the ratio of surplus labor and necessary labor, or in the objectified form of surplus value and variable capital (since only living labor , but not the constant capital c used, is value-creating, and is therefore set equal to 0 ).

${\ displaystyle {\ text {Value added rate; Degree of exploitation of labor}} = {\ frac {\ text {Added value (m)}} {\ text {Variable capital (v)}}} = {\ frac {\ text {Overtime}} {\ mbox {Necessary work}} }}$

The capitalists cannot arbitrarily extend working hours because they encounter physical and legal limits. But if the productive power of labor increases in the areas that are relevant for the production of the necessary food, then there is less work in this food. Then their value decreases and with it the value of labor. As a result, the necessary working hours can be shortened and overtime can be extended. The individual capitalist strives to increase productivity in order to achieve extra added value: if he can be the first to increase the productivity of his workers with a new mode of production and thereby produce at lower unit costs than his competitors, then he can sell at market price and an additional one Achieve added value. When the new mode of production has generalized, the average socially necessary labor time and thus the value of the commodity in question decrease. The means to increase productivity are cooperation, division of labor and, above all, the use of machinery.

This process tends to lead to crises, as production is expanded and consumption is limited at the same time. When productive power increases, there is a tendency for production to expand. This is because the use of expensive machines is often only worthwhile if more is produced than before. Furthermore, the capitalist who is the first to use the innovative mode of production will try to achieve as much extra value as possible. After all, he wants to use his machines as quickly as possible before they have to be replaced by new machines. A simple way to sell the larger amount of goods is to lower the price. This puts the competition under pressure. If you cannot take part, you risk your own bankruptcy. If capitalists compete with one another, they must strive for the greatest possible exploitation of their capital in order to have money for innovations. They must therefore minimize their costs or the workers' income. Likewise, they themselves only consume means of production to a limited extent. They only buy these if they hope to make use of it and this expected use is greater than if they would use their capital elsewhere, such as B. on the capital markets. If production and consumption diverge for a long time as a result, overproduction occurs.

Distribution of added value

The individual capitalist does not simply appropriate surplus value suddenly. The mass of surplus value for society as a whole is redistributed according to the average rate of profit . In the third volume, Marx concretizes his categories. He differentiates the concept of surplus value from the concept of profit. The concept of surplus value is a scientific concept with which Marx reveals the exploitation and the relationship between m and v. The concept of profit is the concept commonly used by many, which only covers a relationship between advanced and realized capital. The rate of profit is not m / v, but m / (c + v). It is the quantity that is practically relevant for the capitalist. The rate of profit depends on various factors. These include the ratio of the constant capital employed to the variable capital component, the value composition (c / v), and the turnover time of the capital. Both sizes are variable. Wherever possible, capital flows to where it can best be used, i.e. away from sectors with initially a low rate of profit and towards sectors with initially a high rate of profit. There the competition rises, so that prices and the rate of profit fall again, while in industries with initially a low rate of profit, the competition falls and prices rise. As a result, the individual rates of profit adjust to a general rate of profit. At this rate, the more a capitalist advances, the greater his profit. It also follows that prices usually do not adequately reflect the value of a commodity.

According to Marx, the capitalist has also exploited the worker when he hardly or not at all sells the goods produced. In that case the surplus value or the exploitation for the capitalist would not have materialized.

The appropriation of surplus value is not limited to the industrial capitalist who has goods produced or services performed. If he sells below value to a trading capitalist and sells it on in order to realize the value, then the trader can appropriate a part of the surplus value. Some take on the role of money capitalist, lending money to a capitalist who makes it work; its profit is then divided into entrepreneurial profit and the interest that the money capitalist receives. The functioning capitalist need not have any capital himself. So could z. For example, the CEO of a stock corporation can formally be a wage worker, but de facto he is allowed to dispose of capital, organizes the exploitation and his payment is not based on the value of the labor, but on the profit made. The interest recipient, on the other hand, can, but does not necessarily have to, let capital act. He can be a pure money capitalist. This is due to the tendency for capital ownership and capital function to separate from one another. Furthermore, the class of landowners can also appropriate part of the surplus value in the form of a rent.

Not only private individuals, but also the state can operate as capitalists. In Anti-Dühring Engels used the concept of the ideal total capitalist. In this function the state secures certain conditions for the utilization of capital against capitalists and workers. The more the state itself possesses productive forces, the more it becomes a real capitalist who exploits its citizens as wage laborers.

Regulation of wages

The price of labor and the standard of living of the worker may rise. This does not endanger the system. The capitalist mode of production tends to regulate the price of labor power according to the requirements of capital utilization.

Assuming that for the total social capital of a country, the ratio of constant to variable capital c / v remains the same. If there is accumulation, then more means of production and, to the same extent, more labor are required. If the capitalists ask for more labor, the workers can raise wages. One limit, however, is the added value. The higher the wages rise, the more the surplus value decreases and the less the capitalists can demand labor. Another limit is the fact that the c / v ratio does not stay the same in the long term. The capitalists are increasingly using machine systems. This increases c / v. Especially when the wages are relatively high, the use of new, expensive machines pays off in order to save labor costs. If productivity increases and production is no longer expanded accordingly, then labor becomes redundant and freed. If there are unemployed, the capitalists can lower wages again.

Increases in productivity sometimes offer the opportunity to raise the price of labor. A simple example can be constructed on the basis of Chapter 15 of the first capital volume. For the sake of simplicity, let's assume that productivity doubles in all industries while working hours and work intensity remain the same. Then twice as many goods will be produced in the same time as before. There is only half as much work in the individual goods. Their value and thus the value of the labor force is halved. Let us assume, for example, that the price of labor was previously 50 and the added value was 50. There are now purely mathematical distribution options:

(1) If the capitalist halves the price of labor, then the worker can buy the same amount of food as before and the capitalist can increase his surplus value.

(2) If the price of labor and surplus value remain at 50, then the worker can now buy twice as many goods with the same amount as before.

(3) If the capitalist does not halve wages, but only reduce them somewhat, then the price of labor will fall in nominal terms, but it will rise in real terms and the surplus value is higher than before. In this way the standard of living of the workers could rise and at the same time the degree of exploitation increased.

Which possibility is realized therefore depends on whether the capitalists or the workers are stronger. It should also be noted that the increase in the productivity of work goes hand in hand with a tendency towards crisis. In the crisis, many people are laid off and the capitalists who survive the crisis can use unemployment to lower wages more easily.

Moments of emancipation and abolition of exploitation

In contrast to earlier societies, the capitalist “craving for extra work” also unfolds moments of civilization. It is true that the capitalists appropriate the surplus value, but competition forces the capitalists to reinvest a large part of the surplus value in order to increase the productive power of labor. The necessary work is reduced to a minimum. Production is increasingly becoming a social work process. This enables a higher form of society in which work is increasingly an expression of the free development of human needs.

In order to overcome exploitation, one must eliminate wage labor at all. The dynamics of the capitalist mode of production create the conditions for a new society. “The centralization of the means of production and the socialization of labor” reached a point “where they became incompatible with their capitalist shell. It is blown up. The hour of capitalist private property strikes. The expropriators are expropriated. ”The individual, self-developed property, which is not based on the exploitation of foreign labor, is restored on the basis of the achievement of the capitalist era,“ the cooperation and common ownership of the earth and the means of production produced by labor itself ”.

Exploitation and alienation

The concept of exploitation also found its way into Marx's reflections on alienation, and especially on alienated work . For Marx, man has no finished being. His thoughts and actions result from the ensemble of concrete social conditions in which he works and lives. The social being determines its consciousness, while the people themselves create the social conditions. Man can therefore only really develop as a person if he consciously shapes society and himself, instead of being determined by social conditions as if by a foreign power.

For Marx and Engels, the key to understanding the problem - and thus also to its solution - is how goods, ideas and decisions are produced in a society. In every class society there is a social division of labor that places individuals in unequal social relationships that they enter into in the production of their lives. These manifest themselves not only quantitatively in the extraction of extra work, but also have a qualitative effect on how work is done and what is produced, how is distributed, how the conditions are materially and ideologically produced and reproduced. The worker does not produce for himself, but the product belongs to the capitalist. This also determines the work process. The social nature of the worker, hence his own conscious activity, becomes an externally determined activity because of the social conditions. The worker can only influence this within the scope of the existing conditions. All of this means that man is alien to man. There are differences between the classes and, due to the competition, also within a class. In capitalism, there is also a commodity fetish that reflects a relationship between people, the relationship between working hours and the manufacture of products, as a relationship between things, namely the prices of goods. The relationship between people in their joint production of life is thus veiled.

To reverse this situation, "[a] n place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms," had an association occur, "in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all", based on a production, who the social means of production are in social possession, ie “the socialized man, the associated producers,… regulate their metabolism with nature rationally, bring them under their collective control, instead of being ruled by him as a blind power; to accomplish it with the least amount of effort and under the conditions most worthy and appropriate to their human nature. ”Exploitation no longer exists in this“ association of free people ”and the social division of labor is increasingly being abolished; only in “a higher phase of communist society, after the enslaved subordination of individuals to the division of labor, so that the opposition between mental and physical labor has also disappeared; after work has become not only a means to life but itself the first necessity of life; After the all-round development of individuals, their productive forces have grown and all the springs of the cooperative wealth flow more fully - only then can the narrow bourgeois legal horizon be completely exceeded and society can write on its banner: everyone according to their abilities, everyone according to their needs! "

Exploitation of nature by man

In every form of society, people have to transform natural substances according to their needs in order to create use values. Nature and work are necessary conditions for the material wealth of a society.

In capitalism, not only are workers exploited, but natural resources are also depleted. The “exploitation and waste of the forces of the soil” is taking the place of the fields previously cultivated rationally over generations. That concerns the small independent farms and the large capitalist farms. Both are subject to the pressure of market prices. The owners and tenants of the large capitalist enterprises primarily have the greatest possible enrichment in mind. It is by no means about sustainable use of the soil.

It is true that labor and nature become means of the valorization of capital, but the capitalist mode of production systematically destroys the foundations of wealth. The exploitation of mankind and the exploitation of nature go hand in hand. Thus, in the first volume, Marx states that every advance in capitalist agriculture is “not only an advance in art, the worker, but at the same time in the art of robbing the soil, at the same time stopping every advance in increasing its fertility for a given period of time Progress in the ruin of the permanent sources of this fertility. […] Capitalist production […] only develops the technology and combination of the social production process, while at the same time it undermines the springs of all wealth: the earth and the worker. ”Big industry and big agriculture complement each other. On the one hand, the industrial system is spreading in agriculture, subjugating the workers and providing the means to exhaust the soil; on the other hand, industrialized agriculture is releasing more and more workers for large-scale industry.

The exploitation of humans and nature are also linked on the level of consciousness. The mystification of wages forms a basis for the Trinitarian formula . One aspect of this formula is that humans perceive the soil as mystified. It appears that the soil is a source of value in its own right.

Lassalle theory of surplus value

Ferdinand Lassalle was a workers leader and co-founder of the General German Workers' Association . Basically his theory agrees with that of Marx. However, Lassalle is more likely to assume that the average wage will always be reduced to the necessary cost of living. The whole surplus of the output of labor falls on the employer's share. He concludes from this that a cooperative association must be founded, which is supported by the state. This is the only way to overcome the existing relationships between wages ( low wages ) and entrepreneurial profits (see Ehernes Wage Act ).

liberalism

In the liberal model of free markets, first described by Adam Smith (1723–1790), price formation and the use of factors of production are determined by supply and demand. The philosophy of the liberal economy represents the idea of ​​a self-regulating economy that does not require any political intervention. The state only has an indirect effect on the market by securing its existing conditions. Fundamental elements are property rights, freedom of contract and the competition regime.

Exploitation can arise from the fact that an interest group controls the distribution of income and can thereby make other economic agents poor. Henry George saw the landowners as representatives of such interest groups. The landowners make their living by leasing them on the land without having to do any real work. Henry George requested a property tax to remedy this problem.

The fact that owners of land and capital through the work of other basic rent resp. The classic economist Adam Smith already described making a profit . Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883–1950) viewed Smith's approaches as a forerunner of Marx's theory of exploitation. Marx's manuscripts of theories about surplus value document his engagement with Smith. He admitted important insights to Smith. However, he criticized its theoretical shortcomings, such as the fact that Smith did not develop a general concept of surplus value and only examined surplus value in its particular manifestations. The theoretical proximity to Marx was asserted early on. According to one of the earliest reviews of Das Kapital in the yearbooks of economics and statistics , it is evident that Smith's terms were the "real weapons of socialism".

According to Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations , labor is the only factor of production that can create new value. Human work is the basic source of a society's wealth. He gave it a central place in his theory of value. Smith distinguished the use value of a commodity from its exchange value . Labor is the universal measure of exchange value.

In the case of Smith one can speak of a wage deduction theory. In the first book in the chapter Of the Wages of Labor , Smith argues that in earlier times, when no one owned land or amassed capital, the worker received the whole product of his labor. Later, the worker has to give up part of his product. The landowner does not work himself, but lets the worker work the land and demand part of the labor product for it. Often the worker has to work for a gentleman or farmer who takes care of him until the harvest. This deducts something from the worker's wages. This principle also applies in other areas. A master advances material and wages to the worker and the worker creates additional value, part of which the owner appropriates as profit. The money owner can lend his money to someone who uses it for him. In this way, the financier can receive interest from the profit made. The basic types of income are ultimately wages, basic rent and profit or interest. The prices of goods therefore included not only wage costs, but also corresponding shares of land rent and capital income.

According to Smith's Early Draft, there is no equal and fair distribution of wealth. Few of them don't work at all and get a lot; on the other hand, those who work get the least. The worker carries the burden of society on his shoulders and sinks under it in the ground. In the Wealth of Nations , Smith emphasized that while it is possible for a person to be both an entrepreneur and a worker, as in the case of the self-employed artisan, this seldom happens. Smith counted among those who did not or hardly work not only landlords, but also larger owners of capital who handed over supervision and control to a representative. In addition, something often goes from the product of labor to the state budget. B. spend on unproductive pompous court keeping.

The masters or owners of land or capital and the workers fight for the wage level to be fixed in a contract. The former want to pay as little as possible, while the latter want the highest possible wage. According to Smith, the gentlemen have the upper hand. They could organize themselves more easily, in the event of a strike because of their capital, they could hold out longer than the workers and the state allows them - unlike the workers - to unite. There was a tacit agreement among the gentlemen not to increase wages, and they sometimes met secretly to lower wages. However, the wages cannot be so low in the long term that they endanger the worker's existence. For the determination of the wage level Smith indicated several factors: the situation of the market, more subjective moments, like the confidence in the worker, and objectifiable aspects, like e. B. the training time of the worker.

Neoclassical

The neoclassical theory emerged from 1870 onwards. Important representatives were Léon Walras and later Alfred Marshall . The theory presents the economy primarily as a system of markets in which supply and demand are brought into equilibrium through the price of goods. It is based on the so-called Homo oeconomicus image of man. This model is based on the assumption that everyone maximizes their utility. Consumers are assumed to have unlimited needs and social welfare is derived exclusively from the preferences of individuals. Nobody has a reason or the ability to change consumer choices. This statement is based on the idea that everyone acts for their own good and that there is no need for government intervention. In order for this idea to take effect, this theoretical approach assumes that the economic agents have the same qualifications and the same initial situation (education etc.) and have all the important information that is necessary to make the right decision.

Exploitation in neoclassical theory is a kind of market failure. Since most markets are characterized by incomplete competition ( monopolies , oligopolies ), the assumed maximization of social welfare as a whole does not come into play. This kind of exploitation should be prevented by perfect competition .

Keynes

John Maynard Keynes believed that the so-called “rentiers” (speculators on the stock market) represented a kind of economic exploitation. For example, the higher the share prices on the stock exchange, the more likely speculators expect prices to fall. Therefore they wait and keep their savings in cash until the prices have fallen and entry into the stock business is cheap (see interest theory and liquidity trap ). Just like the landlords, speculators make their money without doing any real work and harm the economy. Keynes suggested constant, moderate currency devaluation ( inflation ). According to Keynes, capital only yields a return as long as it is scarce.

Forms of exploitation

Exploitation of labor

slavery

Slavery means the complete economic and legal dependence of one person (slave) on another person (slave owner ) whose property he is.

Historical

The origin of slavery is most likely to be found in Egypt . There is evidence of slavery from around 2300 BC. In the case of ancient Greece , archaeological sources and certain linear B tables from the Mycenaean palace economy are considered evidence of slavery . In the Roman area , the Twelve Tables Laws dealt with the enslavement of the indebted. How many workers were slaves cannot be determined because the sources are insufficient. In ancient times not only slaves worked, but in prosperous centers a lot of labor was needed and therefore slaves were used. Slaves worked in many industries, such as B. in agriculture, in mining, as educators or as secretaries. There were several ways to become a slave, such as: B. indebtedness, descent from slaves, kidnapping or captivity. The living conditions of slaves could vary depending, among other things, on where a slave worked. Trained slaves in urban handicrafts could sometimes acquire possession and expect their release, but often slaves were at the mercy of their master and were treated cruelly. While slavery was not the only necessary element of society and economy in the classical period of Greece, slaves were a crucial factor in economic prosperity. Mass slavery, as it is known for the late Republican Rome, remained an exception in the archaic and classical times. B. in the mines of South Attica. In the Roman Republic, slaves were necessary for economic growth, the market-oriented production of agricultural products on large estates and thus also for urbanization.

Slavery and the slave trade reached their greatest extent in the age of colonialism after the Conquista in the 16th century through the Atlantic slave trade . The slavery was abolished in the US on 18 December. 1865

Another relevant manifestation of slavery without (in the legal sense) slave owners are the forced labor camps of totalitarian state systems , such as the concentration camps in National Socialist Germany or the Soviet Gulag .

21st century

Today slavery is banned in the world by international treaties such as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) . So the former slave owner is now a slave owner. The advantage for the slave owner is anonymity: Nobody knows who a slave belongs to these days. Forms of modern slavery are forced labor of prisoners , child labor and forced prostitution . B. be facilitated by human trafficking . An additional aspect, especially in Africa and Asia, is the recruitment of child soldiers as well as the classic forms of serfdom and economic exploitation. Bales estimates that 27 million people are still living in slavery-like circumstances today.

Child labor

Child Labor in Massachusetts , USA 1912

Child labor refers to the practice of employing children in factories, crafts or agriculture and is typically used for wage labor. Because of its cheapness, child labor became so extensive at the beginning of industrialization that it caused serious health and moral damage to children.

Historical

It is assumed that there was child labor in the form of aid, for example with harvest work, at the beginning of agricultural society. Due to the population growth in the 18th and 19th centuries, a particularly large number of children had to work in coal mines and in the textile industry. The children did not get any schooling, could neither read nor write and many children suffered from serious illnesses or became cripples. The children were not protected by any law at the time. Child labor was poorly paid and, through its poor pay, was used to lower the wages of adult workers.

21st century
In 2002 the ILO published the following figures
Type of child trafficking Affected worldwide
Slavery and

Forced labor

5,713,000
Prostitution and

Production of pornography

1,810,000
Forced recruitment in

armed conflict

276,000
Other illegal activities

(for example drug trafficking)

590,000
all forms 8,389,000

In the 21st century there is a high standard of living in industrialized countries. A distinction must therefore be made between whether the work is voluntary or whether the children are forced to work directly or indirectly. For example, many children and young people go to work during the school holidays in order to earn (additional) pocket money.

However, there are still millions of children today who have to work mainly in the third world , in small workshops, in stone quarries, in agriculture, as street vendors or as maids in order to earn a living.

The largest number of child laborers live in Asia with 44.6 million, followed by Africa , where 23.6 million children have to work, and Latin America with 5.1 million child labor. Most children work unpaid for their own families.

In Niger - one of the poorest countries in Africa - mainly uranium, gold, phosphates, tin, coal and gypsum are mined. The children are used as carriers for ore and waste products. Benin City is among other things the capital of prostitution . In Russia , children in particular are exploited by criminal organizations for selling and distributing illegal drugs.

Haiti - in the city of Port-au-Prince there are so-called brokers who sell work slaves, mostly children, very cheaply. The children are basically available to their “new owners” for everything, mainly sex, courier services and household chores. A Haitian proverb says, among other things: "Children are animals".

International treaties against child labor

 ILO Convention No. 105 Abolition of forced labor ILO Convention No. 138 Minimum age 15 for admission to employment ILO Convention No. 182 Prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labor UN Convention on the Rights of the Child United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child UN Additional Protocol on Armed Conflicts Additional protocol to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child for the Protection of Children in Armed Conflicts UN Additional Protocol on Child Trafficking Additional protocol to protect against child trafficking, prostitution and pornography

Sexual exploitation

Sexual exploitation refers to an act against people who are forced to perform sexual acts by means of pressure such as intimidation, violence or the threat of violence, extortion or deprivation of liberty.

Forced prostitution

Forced prostitution is a form of sexual violence and at the same time a form of torture. It is directly related to pimping. The offenses of forced prostitution and sexual slavery can be found for the first time in Art. 7 (1) (g) ICC-S ( International Criminal Court ) for crimes against humanity . Forced prostitution is particularly known from wars, for example, primarily Korean women were subjected to forced prostitution by the Japanese army during World War II (so-called comfort women ).

Child pornography

Child pornography is a form of sexual abuse against children. The children are represented in sexual acts on themselves, between children, from adults to children and from children to adults through sound and image carriers, data storage media, and images. ( Section 11 Paragraph 3 StGB )

Most countries have laws in place that criminalize child abuse. For example, on May 18, 1904, the first international convention on administrative rules to protect against trafficking in girls was passed.

globalization

Under globalization is the process of increasing global interdependence in the areas of economy, politics, culture, environment, communication.

The European Union subsidizes EU fishing fleets. Since there is no longer enough fish in the Mediterranean Sea , European fishers go to Africa and fish the Atlantic coast of Africa with their fishing nets. Local African fishermen, such as those from Senegal , are losing the opportunity to earn a living from fishing . The Senegalese government does get money for the granting of fishing rights, but more can be earned in Europe from selling fish. The added value, the jobs and the wealth arise in Europe.

In addition, European countries are exporting their surplus food to African countries, which is cheaper because of the agricultural subsidies for producers. As a result, the Senegalese population, for example, has to buy their onions and potatoes from Holland because the local farmers cannot keep up with the subsidized mass products. It is similar with dairy products . There is almost no fresh milk in Senegalese supermarkets any more, as the country covers this need with much cheaper milk powder from the EU.

Exploitation of ecological resources

In the field of ecology is exploitation ( exploitation ), the consumable item extraction and use of non-renewable resources (for example, all metals) or long-term deposits of scarce natural resources ( scarcity ). Crude oil is produced again and again in a natural process, but the demand is so great that the mining volume far exceeds the reproductive volume. These goods are therefore becoming increasingly scarce and are therefore in great demand. In order to be able to regulate the resulting excess demand, the price of the raw material will rise (market equilibrium). Due to the associated potential for value growth, the raw material is becoming more and more economically attractive and extraction is stimulated again.

literature

Wiktionary: Exploitation  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

1. "Booty". In: DUDEN. Retrieved May 16, 2020 .
2. "Booty". In: Etymological Dictionary of German. Digitized version in the Digital Dictionary of the German Language, revised by Wolfgang Pfeifer, 1993, accessed on May 16, 2020 .
3. "exploit". In: DUDEN. Retrieved May 16, 2020 .
4. "exploit". In: Etymological Dictionary of German. Digitized version in the digital dictionary of the German language, revised by Wolfgang Pfeifer. 1993, accessed May 16, 2020 .
5. "exploit". In: Etymological dictionary of the German language. Digitized version in the digital dictionary of the German language, revised by Wolfgang Pfeifer. 1993, accessed May 16, 2020 .
6. "exploit". In: Etymological Dictionary of German. Digitized version in the Digital Dictionary of the German Language, revised by Wolfgang Pfeifer, 1993, accessed on May 16, 2020 .
7. Digital dictionary of the German language .: DWDS curve for "exploitation". Retrieved May 2, 2020 .
8. Marcus Tullius Cicero: De officiis . (around 44 B.C.E.)
9. Konrad Löw: Exploitation of humans by humans. Pp. 114-120.
10. Friedrich Engels: The development of socialism from utopia to science . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . 9th edition. tape 19 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1987, p. 209 : “These two great discoveries: the materialistic conception of history and the unveiling of the secret of capitalist production by means of surplus value, we owe to Marx. With them socialism became a science [...] "
11. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 94 .
12. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 16 : “A word to avoid possible misunderstandings. I by no means draw the figures of capitalists and landowners in a rosy light. But here we are dealing with persons only insofar as they are personifications of economic categories, bearers of certain class relations and interests. Less than any other can my point of view, which regards the development of the economic social formation as a natural-historical process, hold the individual responsible for conditions whose creatures he remains social, however much he may subjectively rise above them. "
13. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 286 : “By and large this depends [the fact that capital utilization wears out the labor force heavily, i. V.] but also does not depart from the good or bad will of the individual capitalist. Free competition asserts the immanent laws of capitalist production against the individual capitalist as an external law of compulsion. "
14. Michael Heinrich: Criticism in Marx . In: Devi Dumbadze / Johannes Geffers / Jan Haut et al. (Eds.): Knowledge and criticism. Contemporary positions . transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, p. 46 : “However, here [= in the case of Marx's social criticism, i. V.] beware of two common misunderstandings. Marx is not concerned with claiming the truth of freedom, equality and property against its bourgeois distortion. On the contrary, this mode of criticism, the attempt to play off bourgeois ideals against bad bourgeois reality, is also criticized by Marx. But Marx is not interested in criticizing capitalism from any moral standpoint. Whenever he comes up with such a moral criticism in Capital, he makes fun of it. "
15. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 94 .
16. ^ Karl Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . 9th edition. tape 19 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1987, p. 18 : "What is" fair "distribution? Don't the bourgeois claim that today's distribution is "fair"? And is it not in fact the only "fair" distribution based on today's mode of production? Are the economic relationships regulated by legal concepts, or do not, conversely, the legal relationships arise from the economic? Don't the socialist sectarians also have the different ideas about "fair" distribution? "
17. ^ Karl Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . 9th edition. tape 19 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1987, p. 18–19 : “Let us first take the word" labor yield "in the sense of the product of labor, then the cooperative labor yield is the total social product. The following must now be deducted from this: First: coverage to replace the means of production used up. Second: additional part to expand production. Thirdly: reserve or insurance funds against disasters, disturbances by natural events etc. These deductions from the "unreduced income from labor" are an economic necessity, and their size is to be determined according to the available means and forces [...], but they are in no way limited of justice calculable. "
18. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 646 : “From their [= the worker, d. V.] their own swelling surplus product, which is swellingly transformed into additional capital, flows back to them a larger part in the form of means of payment, so that they can expand the circle of their enjoyments, better equip their consumption fund of clothes, furniture, etc., and build small reserve funds of money. But just as little as better clothing, food, treatment, and a greater amount of peculium abolish the relationship of dependency and exploitation of the slave, just as little does that of the wage laborer. In fact, the rising price of labor as a result of the accumulation of capital only means that the size and weight of the golden chain which the wage worker has already forged for himself allow its tension to be looser. "
19. Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 534. “If the worker needs all of his time to produce the food necessary to maintain himself and his race, he has no time to work free of charge for third parties. Without a certain degree of productivity in labor there is no such disposable time for the worker, without such excess time there is no surplus work and therefore no capitalists, but also no slave owners , no feudal barons , in a word no big owner class. "
20. Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 231. "Only the form in which this surplus labor is squeezed out of the immediate producer, the worker, distinguishes economic social formations , for example the society of slavery from that of wage labor."
21. Engels: The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State , MEW 21: 157.
22. Engels: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State , MEW 21: 170. “Slavery is the first form of exploitation peculiar to the ancient world : it is followed by serfdom in the Middle Ages and wage labor in modern times. These are the three great forms of bondage as they are characteristic of the three great epochs of civilization; open, and recently disguised, slavery always goes wrong. "
23. ^ Friedrich Engels: The labor movement in America. Foreword to the American edition of the "Situation of the Working Class in England" . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 21 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 339 : "In the Middle Ages, the basis of feudal pressure was by no means the expropriation of the masses of the people, but rather their appropriation to the land. The peasant kept his home, but was tied to it as a serf or bondage and had the landlord in labor or tribute in products. "
24. ^ A b Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 742
25. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 209-210 .
26. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 89 .
27. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED. (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 183 : “So that you [the commodity's labor, i. V.] If he is the owner of it as a commodity, he must be able to dispose of it, that is, he must be a free owner of his labor capacity, his person. He and the money owner meet in the market and relate to each other as equal owners of goods, only differentiated by the fact that one buyer, the other seller, both are legally the same person. "
28. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 87-88 .
29. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 14-15 .
30. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED. (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 250 : “However, it is clear that if in an economic social formation it is not the exchange value but the use value of the product that predominates, the surplus labor is limited by a narrower or wider circle of needs, but not an unrestricted need for surplus labor from the character of production itself arises. In antiquity, therefore, there is terrible evidence of overwork, where it is a matter of obtaining exchange value in its independent monetary form, in the production of gold and silver. Working violently to death is the official form of overwork here. [...] But these are exceptions in the old world. But as soon as peoples, whose production still moves in the lower forms of slave labor, compulsory labor, etc., are drawn into a world market dominated by the capitalist mode of production, which develops the sale of their products abroad for the predominant interest, the barbaric atrocities of slavery, Serfdom, etc. grafted the civilized horror of overwork. "
31. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 87 .
32. ^ Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 181
33. ^ Marx: wages, prices, profit . MEW 16: 133.
34. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED. (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 185 : "The labor time necessary for the production of labor is thus broken down into the labor time necessary for the production of this food, or the value of labor is the value of the food necessary to maintain its owner."
35. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 185 : “The natural needs themselves, such as food, clothing, heating, housing, etc., differ depending on the climatic and other natural peculiarities of a country. On the other hand, the extent of so-called necessary needs, such as the way they are satisfied, is itself a historical product and therefore depends largely on the cultural level of a country, among other things also essentially on the conditions under which, and therefore with what habits and demands on life, the class of the free worker has formed. In contrast to other commodities, the determination of the value of labor power contains a historical and moral element. For a certain country, however, for a certain period, the average radius of the necessary food is given. "
36. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 98-100 .
37. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 134-135 .
38. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 120-122 .
39. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 133 .
40. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 166 : “The repetition or renewal of the sale in order to buy finds, like this process itself, a measure and aim at an end purpose outside of it, the consumption, the satisfaction of certain needs. In buying for sale, on the other hand, the beginning and the end are the same, money, exchange value, and this alone makes the movement endless.
41. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 167–168 : “As the conscious bearer of this movement, the owner of money becomes a capitalist. His person, or rather his pocket, is the starting point and return point of money. The objective content of that circulation - the valorisation of value - is its subjective purpose, and only to the extent that the growing appropriation of abstract wealth is the sole driving force behind its operations, does it function as a capitalist or personified capital endowed with will and consciousness. "
42. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 85 .
43. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction. 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 94-96 .
44. Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 562. "The form of wages [...] erases every trace of the division of the working day into necessary work and overtime, into paid and unpaid work. All work appears as paid work."
45. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 94-95 .
46. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 557 : “How would the value z. B. determined a twelve-hour working day? Because of the 12 working hours contained in a working day of 12 hours, which is an absurd tautology. "
47. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 558 : “In order to be sold as a commodity on the market, labor would have to exist in any case before it is sold. But if the worker could give her an independent existence, he would sell goods and not work. Apart from these contradictions, a direct exchange of money, i.e. H. objectified labor, with living labor either abolish the law of value, which is only freely developed on the basis of capitalist production, or abolish capitalist production itself, which is precisely based on wage labor. "
48. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 563 : “Let us take the position of the worker who is responsible for twelve-hour work, e.g. For example, if he receives the value product of six-hour labor, say 3 shillings, his twelve-hour labor is in fact the means of purchasing the 3 shillings. The value of his labor may vary with the value of his habitual provisions from three to four shillings. or from 3 to 2 shillings, or if the value of his labor power remains the same, its price, owing to the changing relationship between demand and supply, may rise to 4 shillings. rise or to 2 sh. fall, he always gives 12 hours of work. Every change in the size of the equivalent that he receives therefore seems necessary to him as a change in the value or price of his 12 hours of work. "
49. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 564 .
50. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 559 : "In the expression:" value of labor "the concept of value is not only completely obliterated, but reversed into its opposite. It's an imaginary expression, like the value of the earth. However, these imaginary expressions arise from the production relations themselves. They are categories for manifestations of essential relations. "
51. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 599 : “The Roman slave was by chains, the wage laborer is bound to his owner by invisible threads. The appearance of its independence is maintained by the constant change of the individual employer and the fictio juris of the contract. "
52. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 102-104 .
53. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 104-105 .
54. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 172 .
55. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 105-107 .
56. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 172-173 .
57. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 140-142 .
58. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 144-146 .
59. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. Third volume. Book III: The Overall Process of Capitalist Production. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 25 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1964, p. 254 : “The acquisition of this surplus value forms the immediate production process which, as said, has no other limits than those indicated above. As soon as the amount of surplus labor that can be expressed is objectified in commodities, surplus value is produced. But with this production of surplus-value only the first act of the capitalist production process, the immediate production process, is ended. [...] Now comes the second act of the trial. The entire mass of commodities, the total product, both that part which replaces constant and variable capital and that which represents surplus value, must be sold. If this does not happen, or only in part, or only at prices that are below the prices of production, the worker is indeed exploited, but his exploitation is not realized as such for the capitalist, and can result in no or only partial realization of the surplus value that has been extracted , yes be associated with partial or total loss of his capital. "
60. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 134-135 .
61. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 155-156 .
62. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 195 .
63. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. (Economic manuscript 1863-1865). Third book . In: International Marx-Engels Foundation Amsterdam (ed.): Marx-Engels-Gesamtwerke (MEGA) II.4.2. Economic manuscripts 1863–1867. Part 2 . 2nd Edition. De Gruyter Academy, 2012, ISBN 978-3-05-005119-2 , p. 458–459 : “The stock corporations in general - developed with the credit system - have the tendency to separate this labor of superintendence as a function more and more from the possession of capital, be it owned or borrowed, just like with the development of bourgeois society Function of the judge z. B., the administrator etc. separates from the property with which they were connected in the feudal period. But because on the one hand the mere owner of capital, the monied capitalist, is confronted by the functioning capitalist (and with the credit system this monied capital itself assumes a social character and is borrowed from other persons as its immediate owners), on the other hand the mere manager who controls the capital owns under no title, neither on loan nor otherwise, performs all the real functions that are assigned to the functioning capitalist as functioning, only the functional remains and the capitalist disappears as a superfluous person from the production process. "
64. Friedrich Engels: Mr. Eugen Dühring's upheaval in science . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 20 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1975, p. 260 : “And the modern state is again only the organization which bourgeois society gives itself in order to maintain the general external conditions of the capitalist mode of production against encroachments, both by the workers and by the individual capitalists. The modern state, whatever its form, is an essentially capitalist machine, the state of capitalists, the ideal total capitalist. The more productive forces he takes over into his property, the more he becomes a real total capitalist, the more citizens he exploits. The workers remain wage workers, proletarians. The capital ratio is not canceled, it is rather driven to extremes. "
65. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 640–641 : “Finally, the total average of the average compositions of all branches of production gives us the composition of the social capital of a country, and this is what we will talk about in the following in the last instance. [...] If we assume that, apart from otherwise constant circumstances, the composition of capital remains unchanged, that is, a certain mass of means of production or constant capital always requires the same mass of labor power, then the demand for labor and labor obviously grows Subsistence fund of the workers in proportion to capital and the faster the faster the capital grows. "
66. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 647–648 : “Either the price of labor continues to rise because its increase does not interfere with the progress of accumulation; [...] Or, that is the other side of the alternative, the accumulation slackens as a result of the rising price of labor because the sting of profit becomes dull. The accumulation decreases. But with their decrease, the cause of their decrease disappears, namely the disproportion between capital and exploitable labor. "
67. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 124-125 .
68. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital. In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 545-546 .
69. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 117-120 .
70. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume. Book I: The Production Process of Capital . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 23 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 545 : "The degree of the fall [...] depends on the relative weight that the pressure of capital on one side and the resistance of the workers on the other throws into the scales."
71. Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 25: 827f.
72. ^ Marx: wages, prices, profit. MEW 16: 152. “[The working class] should understand that, with all the misery it inflicts on them, the current system is at the same time pregnant with the material conditions and social forms that are necessary for an economic transformation of society. Instead of the conservative motto: "A fair day's wage for a fair day's work!", She should write the revolutionary slogan on her banner: "Down with the wage system!" "
73. ^ Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 791.
74. ^ Marx, Engels: Manifesto of the Communist Party , MEW 4; 482.
75. ^ Marx: Das Kapital III, MEW 25, 828.
76. ^ Marx: Das Kapital I, MEW 23, 92
77. ^ Marx: Critique of the Gothaer Program , MEW 19, 21
78. Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 58. "Work is his father, as William Petty says, and the earth his mother."
79. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy. Third volume. Book III: The Overall Process of Capitalist Production . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 25 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1964, p. 820–821 : “Here, with the small culture, the price of land, the form and result of private property on the land, appear as a barrier to production itself. In the case of large-scale agriculture and large-scale landed property based on the capitalist mode of operation, property also acts as a barrier because it restricts the tenant in the productive capital investment, which ultimately benefits not him but the landowner. In both forms, the self-conscious, rational treatment of the soil as common eternal property, the inalienable condition of existence and reproduction of the chain of detaching human sexes, is replaced by the exploitation and waste of the soil's forces [...] With small property this is due to lack of resources and Science on the application of the social productive power of labor. In the big one, by exploiting these funds for the fastest possible enrichment of tenants and owners. For both, because of the dependence on the market price. "
80. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 115-116 .
81. ^ Marx: Das Kapital , MEW 23: 529f.
82. Michael Heinrich: Critique of the political economy. An introduction . 14th edition. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, p. 184-185 .
83. ^ Gerhard Himmelmann: Labor value, surplus value and distribution: on the problem of theory and practice in Marx's teaching. P. 57.
84. ^ Richard Saage: Utopian Profiles: Industrial Revolution and Technical State in the 19th Century . LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2002, p. 248
Paul Anthony Samuelson, William D. Nordhaus, Regina Berger: Economics: The international standard work of macro and microeconomics. (Translated by Regina Berger, Brigitte Hilgner, Annemarie Pumpernig) 3rd Edition, MI Wirtschaftsbuch, 2007, p. 384.
85. ^ Joseph Alois Schumpeter: History of Economic Analysis. Edited from manuscript by Elizabeth Boody Schumpeter and with an introduction by Mark Perlman . Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006, pp. 184 (first edition: Allan & Unwin Ltd, 1954): “First, he [= Adam Smith, d. V.] definitively sanctioned and helped to victory the doctrinal tendency that was to prevail in nineteenth-century economics, particularly in England: profit, treated as the basic income of the capitalist class, is (substantially) the return from the use in business of physical goods (labor's means of subsistence included) which that class supplies; and interest on loans is simply a derivative from it. Excepting the case of the mere lenders ('monied men'), there is no distinctive function of the entrepreneurs - though Smith does speak of the 'undertaker' - or industrialists, who, 'inspection and direction' being brushed aside, are fundamentally capitalists or masters 'setting to work industrious people' and appropriating part of the product of 'their work' (ch. 6). The Marxist implications of this, which moreover Smith goes out of his way to underline, are obvious. Nevertheless, it cannot be said that Adam Smith held an exploitation theory of profit, though it can be said that he suggested it. "
86. Karl Marx: Theories about the surplus value . In: Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (Ed.): Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Works (MEW) . tape 26 , part 1. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1965, p. 60 : “Because Adam develops surplus value according to the matter, but not expressly in the form of a certain category that is different from its special forms, he immediately afterwards throws it together with the further developed form of profit. This mistake remains with Ricardo and all of his successors. This gives rise to a number of inconsistencies, unresolved contradictions and thoughtlessnesses that the Ricardians [...] try to solve scholastically through idioms. "
87. ^ Rr .: Review of Karl Marx, Das Capital. Critique of Political Economy. Volume 1: The Production Process of Capital. Hamburg, Otto Meissner, 1867. 784 pp. In: Bruno Hildebrand (Ed.): Yearbooks for economics and statistics . tape 12 . Friedrich Mauke, Jena 1869, p. 464 ( digizeitschriften.de ): "Finally, we think, this book must open the eyes of even the most reluctant to the fact that the terms of Smithianism are the real weapons of socialism."
88. Heinz-J. Bontrup: wages and profits. Economics and business basics. 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58472-1 , p. 26 .
89. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Volume 1. Methuen, London 1904, p. 1 ( libertyfund.org ): “The annual labor of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniencies which it annualy consumes, and which consists always either in the immediate produce of that labor, or in what is purchased whith that produce from other nations. "
90. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 30 : "The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called 'value in use'; the other, 'value in exchange.' "
91. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 38 : "Labor, therefore, it appears evidently, is the only universal, as well as the only accurate measure of value, or the only standard by which we can compare the values ​​of different commodities at all times and at all places."
92. Heinz-J. Bontrup: wages and profits. Economics and business basics . 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2008, p. 26 .
93. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Volume 1. Methuen, London 1904, p. 66 ( libertyfund.org ): “In that original state of things, which precedes both the appropriation of land and the accumulation of stock, the whole produce of labor belongs to the laborer. He has neither landlord nor master to share whith him. "
94. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 67 ( libertyfund.org ): "As soon as land becomes private property, the landlord demands a share of almost all the produce which the laborer can either raise, or collect from it. His rent makes the first deduction from the produce of labor which is employed upon land. "
95. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Volume 1. Methuen, London 1904, p. 67 ( libertyfund.org ): "The produce of almost all other labor is liable to the like deduction of profit. In all arts and manufactures the greater part of the workmen stand in need of a master to advance them the materials of their work, and their wages and maintenance until it be compleated. He shares in the produce of their labor, or in the value which it adds to the materials upon which it is bestowed; and in this share consists his profit. "
96. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Volume 1. Methuen, London 1904, p. 54 ( libertyfund.org ): “The revenue derived from labor is called wages. That derived from stock, by the person who manages or employs it, is called profit. That derived from it by the person who does not employ it himself, but lends it to another, is called the interest or the use of money. [...] The revenue which proceeds altogether from land, is called rent, and belongs to the landlord. "
97. Heinz-J. Bontrup: Economics. Basics of micro and macro economics . 2nd Edition. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-486-57576-7 , p. 385 .
98. ^ From Adam Smith: An Early Draft of Part of The Wealth of Nations . Quoted from: Jerry Evensky (Ed.): Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. A reader's guide . Cambridge University Press, New York 2015, p. 33: "[W] ith regard to the produce of the labor of a great Society of an hundred thousand families, there will perhaps be one hundred who don't labor at all, and who yet, either by violence, or by the more orderly oppression of law, employ the greater part of the labor of society than any other ten thousand in it. The division of what remains too, after this enormous defalcation, is made by no means in proportion to the labor of each individual. On the contrary those who labor most get least […] [That being] the poor laborer who has the soil and the seasons to struggle with, and, who while he affords the material for supplying the luxury of all the other members of the common wealth, and bears, as it were, upon his shoulders the whole fabric of human society, seems himself pressed down below ground by the weight [...] "
99. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 67-68 ( libertyfund.org ): "It sometimes happens, indeed, that a single independent workman has stock sufficient both to purchase the materials of his work, and to maintain himself until it be compleated. He is both master and workman, and enjoys the whole produce of his own labor, or the whole value which it adds to the materials upon which it is bestowed. It includes what are usually two distinct revenues, belonging to two distinct persons, the profits of stock, and the wages of labor. Such cases, however, are not very frequent [...] and the wages of labor are every where understood to be, what they usually are, when the laborer is one person, and the owner of the stock which employs him another. "
100. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 51 : “In many great works, almost the whole labor of this kind [= supervision and management, i. V.] is committed to some principal clerk. [...] and the owner of this capital, though he is thus discharged of almost all labor, still expects that his profits should bear a regular proportion to his capital. [...] "
101. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 324 : "The whole, or almost the whole public revenue, is employed in most countries in maintaining unproductive hands. Such are the people who compose a numerous and splendid court, a great ecclesiastical establishment, great fleets and armies, who in time of peace produce nothing, and in time of war acquire nothing which can compensate the expence maintaining them, even while the war lasts . Such people [...] are all maintained by the produce of other men's labor. "
102. ^ Adam Smith: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . Edwin Cannan. Methuen, London 1904, p. 68 ( libertyfund.org ): "The workmen desire to get as much, the masters to give as little as possible. [...] It is not, however, difficult to foresee which of these two parties must, upon all ordinary occasions, have the advantage in the dispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms. The masters, being fewer in number, can combine much more easily; and the law, besides, authorities, or at least does not prohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of the workmen. [...] In all such disputes the masters can hold out much longer. A landlord, a farmer, a master manufacturer, or merchant, though they did not employ a single workman, could generally live a year or two upon the stocks [...] Many workmen could not subsist a week [...] "
103. Heinz-J. Bontrup: wages and profits. Economics and business basics . 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2008, p. 29 .
104. Heinz-J. Bontrup: wages and profits. Economics and business basics . 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2008, p. 30 .
105. Heinz-J. Bontrup: wages and profits. Economics and business basics . 2nd Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2008, p. 28-29 .
106. Economics for Social Scientists By Holger Rogall, pp. 58–70
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108. ^ Elisabeth Herrmann-Otto: Slavery and release in the Greco-Roman world (=  study books antiquity, vol. 15 ). 2nd Edition. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2017, p. 62-65 .
109. Helmuth Schneider: Rome from the beginning to the end of the republic (6th century to 30 BC). In: Hans-Joachim Gehrke / Helmuth Schneider (ed.): History of antiquity. A study book. 3. Edition. JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010, p. 270-271 .
110. ^ Elisabeth Herrmann-Otto: Slavery and release in the Greco-Roman world (=  study books antiquity, vol. 15 ). 2nd Edition. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2017, p. 14 .
111. ^ Hans-Joachim Gehrke / Helmuth Schneider: Economy and technology in antiquity . In: Hans-Joachim Gehrke / Helmuth Schneider (ed.): History of antiquity. A study book. 3. Edition. JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010, p. 31 .
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114. Peter Funke: The Greek world of states in classical times (500–336 BC) . In: Hans-Joachim Gehrke, Helmuth Schneider (Hrsg.): History of antiquity. A study book . 3. Edition. JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010, p. 172 .
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117. See: Ch. Delacampaqne: History of Slavery . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich 2004.
118. Kevin Bales, Becky Cornell: Modern Slavery
119. child labor. In: Microsoft Encarta . 2004
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120. wsws.org
121. ^ E. Benjamin Skinner: Human Trafficking - Slavery in the 21st Century. Pp. 21-26.
122. Ulrike Mentz: Trafficking in women as a migration law problem . Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2001.
123. Sven-U. Burkhardt: Rape as a Crime Against Humanity: Sexualized Violence, Macrocrime and International Criminal Law . LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2005, pp. 166–167.
124. Christian Brandt: The phenomenon of pedophilia . Tectum, 2003, p. 45.
125. Agreement on administrative measures to grant effective protection against trafficking in girls - vilp.de ( Memento of April 30, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
126. Spiegel TV Spezial - April 19, 2007 - Link youtube.com
127. Video Hunger und Anger Current ZDF documentation on the world food crisis  in the ZDFmediathek , accessed on January 25, 2014. (offline)
128. See: Robert S. Pindyck, Daniel L. Rubinfeld: Mikroökonomie . 6th edition. Pearson studies, Munich 2007.