Indus


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Indus
Sindhu, Sindh
map
Data
location PR China , India , Pakistan
River system Indus
Confluence of Source streams at Sênggêkanbab in the Gar district in the Transhimalaya
31 ° 25 ′ 7 ″  N , 81 ° 35 ′ 48 ″  E
Source height approx.  5300  m
muzzle Arabian Sea at Sindh Coordinates: 23 ° 59 ′ 11 "  N , 67 ° 26 ′ 13"  E 23 ° 59 ′ 11 "  N , 67 ° 26 ′ 13"  E
Mouth height m
Height difference approx. 5300 m
Bottom slope approx. 1.7 ‰
length 3180 km
Catchment area 980,000 km²
Drain MQ
3850 m³ / s
Left tributaries Zanskar , Yapola , Suru , Astor , Siran , Haro , Sohan , Panjnad
Right tributaries Kabul , Shyok , Shigar , Gilgit , Gomal , Kurram
Reservoirs flowed through Diamer-Basha Reservoir (under construction), Tarbela Reservoir , Jinnah Reservoir , Chasma Reservoir , Taunsa Reservoir , Guddu Reservoir , Sukkur Reservoir , Kotri Reservoir
Big cities Hyderabad
River bed of the Indus at Skardu

River bed of the Indus at Skardu

Course of the Indus

Course of the Indus

Mouth of the Zanskar (from above) into the Indus (from left) in Ladakh

Mouth of the Zanskar (from above) into the Indus (from left) in Ladakh

The Indus ( Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu , Urdu سندھ Sindh ) is the longest river on the Indian subcontinent at 3,180 km and the most important river in Pakistan .

River course

The upper reaches of the Indus arise in the Chinese Transhimalaya in Tibet from the confluence of glacial streams at Sênggêkanbab and in the People's Republic of China bears the official name Sênggê Zangbo ( Tibetan སེང་གེ་ གཙང་ པོ Wylie seng ge gtsang po ), which one also flows through Large community carries. The river breaks through the Himalayas and then flows through the Tarbela Reservoir (254 km²; 13.69 km³) and the provinces of Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan. There it forms a delta of 7800 km² below Hyderabad and then flows into the Arabian Sea . In its middle reaches the river is the basis for extensive irrigation systems for agriculture. There the largest agricultural irrigation area on earth is supplied by a large number of dams and canals . The river meanders very strongly in the middle and lower reaches . A treaty between India and Pakistan ( Indus Water Treaty 1960 ) regulates the water supply. The amount of water carried varies greatly due to the monsoons .

The upper Indus valley near Leh

Dams

The following dams are located along the course of the Indus River (sorted in the direction of discharge):

etymology

The name “Indus” goes back to the ancient Greek , more precisely: the Ionian dialect , which did not know the sound “h” ( Ἰνδός Indos ) and Old Persian ( Hinduš ) from the Sanskrit word सिन्धु sindhu meaning “river”. The name "India" is derived from the name of the river. The name of the Indus in the South Asian languages ​​(e.g. Urdu سندھ Sindh ) is derived directly from the Sanskrit form. The province of Sindh , located on the lower reaches of the Indus, also got its name from the river.

history

The early Indus culture in the valley of the Indus River, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, is also called the Indus civilization. The Indus marks the extreme eastern limit of the empire of Alexander the Great . With his army he went down the Indus.

In 2010, in the wake of the flood disaster in Pakistan, the entire course of the river was flooded.

See also

literature

  • James L. Wescoat Jr .: The Indus River Basin as a Garden . In: The garden art . tape 24 , no. 1 , 2012, p. 33-41 .

Web links

Commons : Indus  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Indus  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Article Indus in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D053952~2a%3DIndus~2b%3DIndus