Vancouver Island

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Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island satellite image
Vancouver Island satellite image
Waters Pacific Ocean
Geographical location 49 ° 37 ′  N , 125 ° 39 ′  W Coordinates: 49 ° 37 ′  N , 125 ° 39 ′  W
Vancouver Island (British Columbia)
Vancouver Island
length 450 km
width 100 km
surface 31,285 km²
Highest elevation Golden Hinde
2195  m
Residents 765.415 (2011 BCStats )
24 inhabitants / km²
main place Victoria
Topographic map
Topographic map

Vancouver Island , formerly Quadra , is the largest North American Pacific island . It is located in the southwest of the Canadian province of British Columbia and is named after the British navigator George Vancouver . Although the south of the island is south of the 49th parallel, which defines the border between the United States and Canada in western North America, the island belongs entirely to Canada due to the Oregon Compromise .

Geography and climate

Vancouver Island is the largest island in the Province of British Columbia and is separated from mainland Canada by the Strait of Georgia , Johnstone Strait, and Queen Charlotte Strait . The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates the island from the US state of Washington . The island is over 450 km long and around 100 km wide; it covers an area of ​​31,285 km². Despite its size, it is only the eleventh largest island in Canada .

The long mountain range of the Vancouver Island Ranges divides the island into the stormy, rugged west side facing the Pacific and the more temperate east side. The highest mountain is the Golden Hinde with 2195 m. It is located in the approximately 2500 km² Strathcona Provincial Park . The only glacier is the Comox Glacier . The west coast is of five large fjord-like Sundgebieten , the sounds in. The largest lake is Kennedy Lake northeast of Ucluelet .

The climate is extremely mild by Canadian standards, with it raining up to 6650 mm per year in the west, at Henderson Lake - especially in autumn and winter, while only a tenth of this rainfall falls on the Saanich Peninsula or in Victoria . Except in the high mountains, snow is rather rare.

fauna and Flora

Vancouver Island is still home to large contiguous pieces of temperate coastal rainforest (especially on Clayoquot Sound , Barkley Sound, and Pacific Rim National Park ), but these are threatened by the timber industry (see Nuu-chah-nulth ). Douglas firs , giant arborvitae and Sitka spruces reach enormous heights (up to 96 m).

In addition to black bears , pumas and wolves , mountain goats , moose , skunks and coyotes also live there . The Vancouver Island fauna also includes the Vancouver marmot , a very rare species within the marmot genus .

The coastline and the rivers are very rich in fish. This is due to the fact that the ocean currents, especially in summer, bring abundant phyto- and zooplankton from the northern Pacific, but also from deeper ocean zones, which in turn have promoted great biodiversity and enormous fish populations. Marine mammals such as whales and seals, but also otters, were originally numerous here, plus large bird populations. In addition, salmon migrate regularly through rivers and lakes to their spawning areas.

In mid-2007, 13.8% of the island's area was placed under protection as a national or provincial park, as an ecological reserve or other area. Among these protected areas, Strathcona Provincial Park , founded in 1911, is also the oldest of the Provincial Parks in British Columbia .


Today around 750,000 people live on the island, which corresponds to only a little more than 20 people per km². However, these are very unevenly distributed. Most people live in the greater area between the capital Victoria and Nanaimo .

The first inhabitants were the First Nations , as the Indians in Canada are called today. These are divided into three groups: today around 7,000 Nuu-chah-nulth in the west, around 5,000 Kwakwaka'wakw in the north and east, and the Salish group in the east and south.

The majority of the island's inhabitants have European roots, but the Japanese and Chinese were added as early as the 19th century, the latter especially in connection with the coal industry and railway construction.


→ See also: History of British Columbia

Origin of the place names

The various powers that have influenced the history of Vancouver Island can already be found in the region's island names. Juan de Fuca , Galiano or Gabriola with the bay of Silva Bay are among the names that refer to Spanish roots. In contrast, Cavendish or Cook , Victoria or Douglas are the names of English personalities. There are also place names of Indian origin such as Cowichan , Haida , Nanaimo , Sooke or Songhees .

Early history

It is believed that their ancestors settled on the island after the last ice age . Today 15 groups of Nuu-chah-nulth live there on the west coast, more than 30 groups of coastal Salish in the south and east, whose territories also extend along the coasts of mainland British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, and 17 groups of Kwakwaka'wakw in the interior and north of the island.

On the island of Calvert , which is located 60 km north of Vancouver Island near the mainland, footprints of 3 people were found on the beach in 2018, which were dated to around 13,000 years old and tools were found at the Manis Mastodon Site in Washington State, USA - 50 km southeast of the southern tip of Vancouver Island on the mainland - come close.

The Port Hardy Museum and Archives keep the finds from Bear Cove , the oldest traces of human presence found on Vancouver Island

In Bear Cove , located in the north of the island, artifacts point to a period dating back to 6000 BC. Human settlement that dates back to the earliest times of settlement on the American continent.

With the end of the violent fluctuations in the coastline between 4000 and 3000 BC The number of settlements increased. Large mountains of litter and shells ( shell middens ) are typical . The largest of them is the Great Fraser Midden with a height of five meters, which was built between 500 BC. and was used in 500 AD. Finds of carved bones and antlers indicate ceremonial acts. House and boat building, weaving, tools and weapons can be proven.

Excavations at Yuquot , around Hesquiat Harbor and in western Barkley Sound , but also in the Makah area have shown that as early as 2300 BC. BC people lived. In the south of the Makah area and at Nitinat Lake in the Ditidaht area , almost 3000 year old sculptures were found.

There were also combs made from pieces of antler from around AD 1000, some with wolf sculptures, others with human facial features.

At the latest by 500 BC. The complex forms of society developed with elaborate rituals, art traditions and a highly developed spiritual life. Settlements around Nanaimo can be identified for the time around the birth of Christ . Around 800 one suspects a certain population growth on the west coast, because a number of newly created villages can be proven, e.g. B. T'akw'aa with the Toquaht in the western Barkley Sound or Hesquiat and Kupti in the upper Nootka Sound .

Spanish-British Conflicts of Interest (1774–1794), Neutralization (1794–1849)

Spanish sailors reached Vancouver Island in 1774. But although Spain ceded its ownership claims to Great Britain as early as 1790, the intervening period of Spanish-British disputes had far-reaching effects.

The first Spanish ship, the Santiago , sailed under its captain Juan José Pérez Hernández . An expedition led by Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra followed the next year . Presumably, these expeditions also served to delimit the Spanish claims against the Russian trappers and fur traders who were striving from the north to the south.

The third voyage under James Cook , who landed in Nootka Sound on the west coast on March 31, 1778 and claimed the area for Great Britain, further complicated the situation. In addition, the British East India Company set up a tiny trading post in the village of Yuquot ( Friendly Cove ) on Nootka Island . Between 1785 and 94, 25 British ships were active in the area in the fur trade.

Spain continued its exploratory voyages unimpressed in 1789, this time under the leadership of Esteban José Martínez . He founded Fort San Miguel on an island adjacent to the British trading post - the only originally Spanish settlement in Canada. It was not until the Nootka Convention that the rampant piracy, which was close to an open war, ended in 1792.

George Vancouver , who had sailed with James Cook , represented British interests. In a logbook entry from September 1792, he reported that he had suggested a meeting place to his Spanish negotiating partner Quadra on the island, which he called "The Island of Quadra and Vancouver". Isla de Quadra y Vancouver or Quadra and Vancouver's Island was the official name of the island for several decades.

The otter pelts, which brought in high profits, were particularly popular. Initially, some groups of the indigenous people also benefited from this trade, although chief Maquinna probably managed to develop a kind of regional power that lasted until around 1805. However, the rapidly growing number of fur hunters caused the island's otter population to collapse. The fur traders moved north.

Hudson's Bay Company (1849-1871)

The dwindling Spanish power ensured that the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) was only writing about "Vancouver's Island" by 1824. In 1849 at the latest, this became the official name in the form of Vancouver Island .

Flag of Vancouver Island

The western headquarters of the HBC was initially not on Vancouver Island, but in Fort Vancouver on Columbia, which is located in what is now the US state of Washington . While the border negotiations between the colonial power Great Britain and the USA were not yet completed, HBC feared that it would suffer severe economic damage if its headquarters were cut off from the Canadian base by the new border . Therefore, she built a station at the south end of Vancouver Island and named it after the British Queen Victoria . Fort Vancouver remained important to the HBC's southern sphere of influence, but the headquarters soon moved to Victoria. The Americans also continued to exert their influence in the area. In 1788–1794 alone six ships headed for the area on behalf of fur traders, 1794–1804 there were already 50, and 1805–1815 there were around 40, while only nine or three British ships sailed there.

It was not until Fort Victoria was founded that a large number of mainly British settlers came to Vancouver Island. There, in the early days, a close cooperation developed between the settlement and the peoples of the island and also beyond the Juan de Fuca Strait. Many tribes brought otter and beaver skins , oil and fat to trade. They supplied the growing city with building materials, labor and food. Their canoes carried the mail. In 1859 over 2,800 Indians camped near the city, including perhaps 600 Songhees , and the catchment area stretched as far as Alaska. Even in 1894, Victoria's merchant fleet, 59 schooners, was still largely based on Indian labor. 518 of the 1,336 employees were Indians. Esquimalt became the base of the Canadian fleet in the Pacific in 1865. In 1853 the settlement area of ​​the Songhees was reduced, but they were contractually guaranteed numerous usage and protective rights - one of the few contractual agreements with the First Nations . In 1911 they relocated to the Esquimault area on the basis of a new treaty, a treaty that is still in force today.

On the other hand, the trade and settlement of the Europeans brought about major upheavals, even in areas hardly touched by them. Rifles, for example, allowed the Comox to ally with the Lekwiltok and capture slaves. The tribes of the Nanaimo , Saanich , Songhees , Esquimalt , Musqueam and Squamish allied against these invaders and lured them into a trap. The successful tribal coalition led by Tzouhalem , chief of the Cowichan , was also the one that attacked Fort Victoria in 1843, when they agreed to a peace treaty. For the British, these tribes were important allies in the years that followed. During the Crimean War , the Squamish were supposed to help prevent the feared Russian invasion of Vancouver by covering the Burrard Inlet .

In 1849 the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island was established. The arbitrariness of the Chief Factor of Victoria, James Douglas , worried the British government, who sent Richard Blanshard as the island's first governor. Douglas prevailed against this after 18 months, Blanshard was withdrawn. This made Douglas himself governor. In 1864 Douglas even received the title of knight from Queen Victoria.

During the Fraser Canyon gold rush on mainland Canada, many California prospectors came north and geared up for their businesses, especially in Victoria. The influence of the USA grew - although it had renounced its claims as early as 1846 - and to the same extent the concern that this could also have political consequences. The HBC lost its influence (especially after 1858). A wave of settlements started north from Victoria after London allowed the colony to sell uninhabited land in 1852.

Vancouver Island and the mainland were united into the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia in 1866 . Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken , the speaker of the Legislative Assembly, initially supported a connection to the USA, but was then convinced of the economic advantages of joining Canada, in particular assuming debt and building a rail link. After it had received the promise to be connected to the Canadian rail network by the Canadian Pacific Railway within ten years, "BC" joined the Canadian Confederation on July 20, 1871 . The railway connection was completed in 1885.


The first census on Vancouver Island was carried out in Victoria in 1871, in 1881 for the entire island, again in 1891 and 1901. According to this, British Columbia had 176,546 inhabitants, of which around 26,000 in Vancouver and just under 21,000 in Victoria. In the district Vancouver lived 5765 "Indians", including in Victoria 333. Their number must be up to the 1830s have been much larger, but many are Indians introduced diseases fallen victim. In particular, the smallpox epidemic of 1862 decimated the tribes between Alaska and the Puget Sound . In addition, there was the process of displacement, especially in the south, around Victoria and Nanaimo. However, their number was to decline considerably well into the 20th century. Therefore, the Indian agents counted considerably more tribes in 1881 than in later times. Harry Guillod still counted 20 Nuu-chah-nulth tribes, George Blenkinsop 25 tribes of the Kwakwaka'wakw , WH Lomas counted 22 bands in the so-called Cowichan Agency on the east coast and 10 on the south coast. As a result, 32 coasts lived at that time Salish tribes on Vancouver Island, plus the Kwakwaka'wakw in the north. A total of 77 strains could be distinguished.

But these Indians became more and more a minority. Thousands of prospectors had come to Victoria as early as 1858, but they had moved on. From 1870 onwards, the island experienced a renewed, now more permanent, surge in immigration when the Cariboo gold rush began. Over the next few years, over 100,000 men hiked along the Cariboo Road (also called Cariboo Wagon Road or Great North Road ) towards Barkerville , which soon became the largest city in western Canada.


Two reasons led to several waves of immigration in the second half of the 19th century. The motive of religious emigration (e.g. the Duchoborzen from Russia or the Norwegian Lutheran Free Church) was comparatively weak, rather it was the economic opportunities that attracted numerous people to the country. These possibilities were based on the one hand on gold discoveries, on the other hand on primary production, be it logging, coal extraction or agriculture, and thirdly on the rapidly developing industries, primarily railway construction. The Canadian Pacific Railway and Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway construction sites drew thousands. In addition, there was a beginning urbanization, especially around Victoria, which in 1901 already had 20,919 inhabitants.

The bulk of the immigrants were the residents of the United Kingdom. They first came with the HBC, but were also specifically recruited for colonization around Victoria. This was especially true for the coal mines, but the companies here were in a stronger competitive relationship with the emerging European mining industry. In many cases it was possible to recruit specialists, but the much more extensive and laboriously difficult but easy-to-learn jobs soon suffered from a lack of manpower. As a result, Asian workers were recruited early on, especially Chinese.

As early as 1788 John Meares brought around 50 ship carpenters and other craftsmen from China on two ships, but they were later brought to Mexico by the Spaniards. The first Chinese immigrants came to Victoria from California in 1858 during the gold rush . Most lived in tents or wooden huts along what is now Johnson Street in Victoria. Chinatown was the largest in Canada as early as 1880 . In 1911, 3,458 Chinese lived in the city, many had long since brought their families to the city, and shops, theaters and schools were opened (1909, Chinese lessons). The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association tried to resolve conflicts with non-Chinese people and represented the community. Chinatowns also developed in other places such as Nanaimo, but their economic base was more trade and coal mining. In 1887, 53 Chinese were killed in the Nanaimo mine accident . There were also Chinatowns in Cumberland , South Wellington, Wellington, Extension and Northfield (now the neighborhoods of Nanaimo). In 1892 there were 228 Chinese in 75 households in Nanaimo (including only five women), in Wellington even 312. In 1901 there were 3004 Chinese in the Victoria district alone.

Like the First Nations , the Qualifications of Voters Act in 1872 prevented the Chinese from voting, and from 1878 onwards they were no longer allowed to be employed for construction projects in the province. Instead, thousands of them worked on the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1880 and 1885 . With the completion of the railway, the Chinese were only allowed to immigrate if they paid a head tax of 50 dollars . This was doubled in 1900/02 and increased to $ 500 in 1903. Many now migrated eastwards. In 1907 there were anti-Chinese riots in Vancouver , where by 1919 there were already 6,000 Chinese. In 1923 the government stopped further immigration.

With the fur traders of the HBC, not only Irish, Scots and English came to Vancouver Island, but also Franco-Canadians and Indians from the eastern and central areas of what would later become Canada. In contrast to American fur traders, the company let the respective residents do the trapping, but built forts in which the purchase took place - this is how Victoria came into being in 1843. There were also numerous employees who made contact with the indigenous peoples and maintained them.

The Japanese didn't come to Vancouver Island until around 1877. They were mostly fishermen. As early as 1895, British Columbia tried to stop Asian immigration. In 1901 there were 338 Japanese in the Victoria district and 1,062 in the Vancouver district. After riots broke out in Vancouver in 1907, Japan limited the number of immigrants to 400 per year, in 1923 even to 150; . During the First World War , 200 Japanese Canadians took part in the hostilities, and from 1931 they were the only Japanese who were eligible to vote. In 1919 the fishermen were so successful that they held almost half of the fishing licenses. A few years later the government withdrew around 1,000 of the more than 3,000 licenses. In 1920 the first trade union organization came into being, and from 1924 on it published its own newspaper ( Minshu ).

They were already excluded from military service on January 8, 1941, and registered from March 4. After the attack on Pearl Harbor , all 22,000 Canadians of Japanese origin were expropriated and interned. Politics in Ottawa did not counteract the racism that was pronounced on Vancouver Island and Vancouver. In British Columbia in 1941 around 95% of those who were disparagingly referred to as "Japs" lived. They had no right to vote. Around 12,000 of them went to prison camps. A first detention camp was set up in Greenwood in April , followed by Kaslo , New Denver , Slocan , Sandon and Tashme , all of which were in the southeast of the province. 572 farms were forcibly sold. In 1946, 3,964 Japanese were forced to leave for Japan. Only 6,776 were (again) living in British Columbia in January 1947. It was not until 1988 that Ottawa apologized.

Reverend Christian Saugstad, pastor of the Lutheran Free Church in Polk County , Minnesota , led a group of 79 Norwegians to Vancouver Island in 1894. There, together with 98 other Norwegians, they established a community in Bella Coola . In 1896 the community had 158 inhabitants who were apparently on good terms with the Indians of the region, the Nuxalk . Further immigration by other groups ultimately led to the Norwegians becoming more culturally integrated. The last community meeting took place in 1909. A few Finns worked in the coal mines around Nanaimo, and after 1900 a group of idealists came to try their luck in the north of the island.

Just a few years after the United States gained independence from Great Britain, its southern neighbors played an important role in the fur trade and soon outstripped the British. The first major wave of immigration came in 1858 when thousands of Californians migrated north via Victoria in hopes of finding gold there. This wave was so strong that there was fear in London that the men would create a fait accompli and bring the island to the United States. Victoria, with around a thousand inhabitants, had to cope with an influx of around 16,000 men. In addition, in 1862, the Californians, the worst smallpox epidemic, hit western Canada (and Washington and Alaska) and killed a significant proportion of the Indians.

Gold finds (1858-1900)

From 1861, British Columbia experienced another surge in immigration when the Cariboo gold rush broke out. Over the next few years, over 100,000 men migrated along Cariboo Wagon Road towards Barkerville , but the majority of them ended up in Vancouver, not Vancouver Island. But not only gold finds, coal finds also attracted numerous people. This was especially true for the east side of the island, which should therefore be quickly developed via a road connection. Logging and agriculture also attracted immigrants, later also rapidly developing industries, initially railway construction in particular. The construction site of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway drew thousands.

In addition, there was a beginning urbanization around Victoria, which in 1901 already had 20,919 inhabitants. British Columbia had a population of 176,546 as of that year’s census. With the exception of the west of the island, the Indians had long since become a minority, especially as their population continued to decline. The island districts had the following population figures: Alberni 4842 (thereof 3301 "Indians"), Comox 5240 (770), Cowichan 3498 (779), Esquimalt 2051 (89), on the islands lived 1818 (140), Nanaimo 6130, Saanich 3412 (199), Victoria 20.919 (103). At the same time, the census showed a large number of countries of origin, plus 66 religious denominations alone. The largest was the Church of England with 40,672 followers, followed by the Catholic Church with 34,227 and the Presbyterians with 34,176. In addition there were 25,021 Methodists and 10,027 Buddhists as well as 5,332 Lutherans.

Industrialization and provincial administration

Industrialists like Robert Dunsmuir ruled the island with his stakes in coal mines and railway construction. His son James Dunsmuir even became premier and lieutenant governor of the province. The cities around Victoria grew increasingly together with the metropolis, cities like Nanaimo soon grew to over 4000 inhabitants, around 1900 to over 6000; in addition, places like Ladysmith developed , which in 1911 had around 3300 inhabitants. They supplied the Pacific coast as far as San Francisco with coal, a development that the Nanaimo mine disaster with 150 deaths could not stop. Between 1892 and 1912 alone another 180 people died there and the longest strike against these intolerable security conditions rocked the Canadian west coast from 1912 to 1914.

Victoria became a center of government and administration that could play some role in regional trade, but was always overshadowed by Vancouver and Seattle economically . Deforestation began for large parts of the island in the 1940s and continues to this day. Only a fraction of the primeval forests still exist. But the exhaustion of the coal reserves caused the government to rely on wood. At the same time, the fishing industry experienced its first boom, which also drew numerous Japanese into the country, who increasingly competed with the Indians. Meanwhile, however, the threatened salmon farming , the wild salmon , the millions to spawn up wandering the rivers a few years ago. Their populations have collapsed on many rivers, which - especially in the north - has to do with the pulp industry and thus the wood industry.

Since the 1960s tourism has become an increasingly important branch of the economy, which the province now supports by maintaining its image as a wilderness . Numerous provincial parks , protected areas and national parks , the Pacific Rim National Park and the Gulf Islands National Park , attract more tourists every year. The island has benefited greatly from the so-called eco boom since the 1990s. This includes the expansion of hydropower plants as well as the cultivation of wine. On the other hand, after the “War of the Forests” of the 1970s, there was further destruction of the temperate rainforest, such as most recently on the Bruce Peninsula in the north or the fight to establish a copper mine on Clayoquot Sound .

Another focus of employment is now education. The University of Victoria alone employs over 4,000 people with almost 20,000 students, Capilano University just under 800 people with 7,500 students, and Camosun College employs over 1,000 people and 17,000 students. There are also other institutions such as Vancouver Island University in Nanaimo and colleges in Duncan , Parksville and Powell River .

power supply

Several high-voltage submarine cables have been laid between Vancouver Island and the Canadian mainland, including two for direct current ( HVDC Vancouver-Island). However, the province is trying to become independent in terms of power supply by 2016, while at the same time obtaining 90% of its electricity from “clean sources”. This is why the proportion of energy generated from hydropower is also being increased significantly on Vancouver Island. This includes the projects as part of the Green Power Corridor , a chain of 34 hydropower plants. In addition, the trees destroyed by the mountain pine beetle , which represent enormous amounts of wood, are to be used for energy generation.


According to the 2011 census, the main cities and towns on the island had the following population figures:

See also

Regions and parks




  • Richard Somerset Mackie: Trading Beyond the Mountains. The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver 1997, ISBN 0-7748-0559-5 .

Web links

Commons : Vancouver Island  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Report in the Westcoaster from April 18, 2007: .
  2. Name relics from the discovery phase of the 18th century in the province of British Columbia
  3. 13,000-year-old footprints found, March 29, 2018, accessed on March 29, 2018.
  4. See Alan D. McMillan: Early Nuu-chah-nulth Art and Adornment: Glimpses from the Archaeological Record. In: Alan L. Hoover (Ed.): Nuu-chah-nulth Voices, Histories, Objects & Journeys. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria 2000, ISBN 0-7718-9548-8 , pp. 230-256.
  5. This trip is important for our knowledge of the indigenous cultures of the northwest because the Franciscan Juan Crespí (d. 1782) took part in it, who left descriptions of the islanders in his diaries. They are translated and published by Herbert Eugene Bolton: Fray Juan Crespi. Missionary Explorer on the Pacific coast, 1769-1774 . University of California press, Berkeley CA 1927; Emphasis. AMS Press, New York 1971, ISBN 0-404-01838-6 . See also: Palous Noticias de la Nueva California. Documentos para la Historia de Mexico , reprinted San Francisco 1874; last: John Bankston: Fray Juan Crespi . Mitchell Lane Publishers, Hockessin 2004, ISBN 1-58415-198-6 .
  6. This and the following after: Archived copy ( memento of the original dated August 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. ^ 1901 census
  8. See viHistory: [1] .
  9. To: VIHistory .
  10. A floor plan of Victoria's Chinatown can be found here: British Columbia Archives ( Memento of the original from September 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. A photograph of Fort Victoria from 1862: BC Archives ( Memento of the original from September 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Chronology of the expropriations and forced relocations of the Japanese citizens of Canada ( Memento of the original from June 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . A brief summary is provided by: Hans-Jürgen Hübner: Japanese in Canada. 2011. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. ^ Ann Gomer Sunahara: The Politics of Racism: The Uprooting of Japanese Canadians during the Second World War. 2nd edition. Self-published, Ottawa 2000, p. 12, (PDF; 1.1 MB).
  14. Chronology of expropriations and forced relocations ( memento of the original from June 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. CBC report of September 22, 1988 .
  16. According to: ViHistory .
  17. Financial Post, October 5, 2007 ( Memento of the original dated November 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. 2011 Census: Census Profile on Statistics Canada


  1. Basically, the number of inhabitants refers to the city (Village, Town, City). In the case of municipalities with the suffix DM, the indication of the number of inhabitants refers to the district. A certain population density is given here, without a single municipality having achieved recognition as a town (village, town, city).