Katharine Hepburn

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Katharine Hepburn with Robert Helpmann (1955)

Katharine Houghton Hepburn (born May 12, 1907 in Hartford , Connecticut , † June 29, 2003 in Old Saybrook , Connecticut) was an American actress . She has won the Oscar for Best Actress four times , making her the record-breaking Oscar winner in the acting categories. The American Film Institute voted her the greatest American film actress in history .

After a career in theater in the 1920s, the aspiring actress moved to Hollywood, where she soon received her first Oscar for Dawn of Fame (1933). A series of commercial failures such as Leopard You Don't Kiss her, brought her a “ box office poison ” reputation in the late 1930s , which put her film career in jeopardy. The comedy she initiated herself, The Night Before the Wedding, turned out to be a glamorous comeback in 1940. In the decades that followed, Hepburn was one of the leading Hollywood stars for audiences and critics alike through films like African Queen . She played with legends like Cary Grant and James Stewart , but above all Spencer Tracy , with whom she made a total of nine films between 1941 and 1967 and who was also her private partner. Despite her film career, she continued to appear regularly on the theater stage and was always looking for challenging character roles. At an advanced age she received her three other Oscars for the leading roles in Rat mal, Wer zum Essen (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968) and At the Golden Lake (1981). She remained active as an actress until the mid-1990s.

Hepburn was best known for her often intelligent and idiosyncratic screen characters. She also preferred trousers, which was unusual for women at the time. Through her role profile and her private person, she became an icon of emancipation and the "modern woman".

life and career

Early years

Katharine Hepburn grew up in sheltered circumstances and enjoyed a liberal upbringing. Her father, Thomas Norval Hepburn (1879–1962), was a surgeon and chief urologist at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and was one of the first to draw attention to sexually transmitted diseases . Her mother, Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn (1878–1951), was a suffragette fighter for women's suffrage and a pioneer in the birth control movement .

Hepburn's name can be traced back to Scotland as far back as the 15th century . Her ancestors included u. a. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , third husband of Queen Mary I of Scotland . The Hepburns had six children. The mother's maiden name became the middle name for all children. Katharine Hepburn's sister Marion is the daughter of actress Katharine Houghton , who was born in 1945 . With her, Hepburn stood together in front of the camera in 1967 for the film Rat mal, who comes to dinner .

On April 3, 1921, the then 13-year-old Katharine Hepburn found her brother Tom (* 1905) hanged in the attic of her parents' house. She thought about suicide afterward, but decided not to. The family always denied suicide . Hepburn's parents insisted that the supposedly happy boy's death was the result of an accident. Katharine sank into severe depression and from then on “moved” her birthday to that of her deceased brother (November 8th). It was only in her autobiography from 1991 that she announced her real birthday.

As a little girl, Katharine supposedly preferred to be a boy. She attended West Middle School and the Oxford School for Girls in Hartford, and later she went to Bryn Mawr College for Women in Pennsylvania . In 1928 she finished her studies there with a degree in philosophy and history .

Career start at the theater

Katharine Hepburn's interest in acting was sparked in her youth. She gained her first stage experience in an acting ensemble she founded at the Hepburns' summer residence on Long Island and at theater performances during her college days.

1928 Hepburn went with 21 years to Baltimore, where she succeeded through perseverance, the producer Edwin H. Knopf to convince her a role in the stage play The Czarina (The Empress) to give: She played a maid of stage stars Mary Boland . Her strong self-confidence, her sometimes bossy demeanor and her sharp tongue towards colleagues gave her the nickname "The Tsarina" later - based on her first piece. Lucille Ball once said of Hepburn: “She was not really arrogant towards anyone. She ignored everyone equally. "

In the same year she was hired as the second cast for the female lead in The Big Pond . Hepburn had to step in at the premiere, but her performance was a disaster. She spoke far too quickly, got bogged down in the text and in places could not be understood at all. She was released immediately after the performance.

But the ambitious young actress did not give up, took speech and dance lessons and finally got her first major role on Broadway in the play These Days , which premiered on November 12, 1928.

In the following years she played smaller and larger theater roles until she caught the attention of Hollywood as Antiope in the play The Warrior's Husband .

Hollywood career


Her screen debut in the drama Hepburn Divorce ( A Bill of Divorcement , 1932), directed by George Cukor , with whom she worked in the following decades in many projects and developed a friendship. She played in a major supporting role the daughter of a mentally ill man ( John Barrymore ), for the sake of which she renounced her own happiness. The reviews for Hepburn in A Bill of Divorcement were good, and the film studio planned to star her. Hepburn played the leading role in her second film - the love story Christopher Strong by director Dorothy Arzner . For her third film, Morning Glory ( Dawn of Glory , 1933), Hepburn was in 1934 finally her first Oscar as the lead actress. In it she embodied the ambitious young actress Eva Lovelace. Also in 1933, Hepburn played the lead role in George Cukor's Four Sisters , the literary film adaptation of Louisa May Alcott's novel Little Women . While Four Sisters became a big box-office success, Hepburn's subsequent films were all flops, including The Little Minister (1934), a film adaptation of the novel by JM Barrie . In this film she played a wealthy aristocrat who disguised herself as a gypsy to protect her village.

While critics mostly praised Hepburn, her film career at RKO Pictures was in jeopardy because of the failures. Only her portrayal of an ambitious poor woman who wants to get upstairs in the melodrama Alice Adams (1935), directed by George Stevens, was again a minor success. She received her second Oscar nomination for the performance. In the same year she also starred for the first time alongside Cary Grant in the romantic comedy Sylvia Scarlett , directed by George Cukor. While the film proved unpopular, Grant and Hepburn were used side by side in three other comedies by 1940. In 1936 she played Mary Stuart in John Ford's lavishly produced historical drama Mary of Scotland . After several unsuccessful works in a row, the stage entrance , Gregory La Cava's feature film about budding actresses, was again a success. In addition to Hepburn, Ginger Rogers and Adolphe Menjou also played . The Life magazine praised Hepburn's performance: "It turns out that (...) Miss Hepburn as her early films hinted, is perhaps the best movie actress." When the audience she was however unpopular, probably unapproachable because of their boyish and often Characters. She also had a reputation for being rebellious and arrogant.

In 1938, Katharine Hepburn was cast as the over-the-top millionaire heiress in Howard Hawks ' screwball comedy Leopards Don't Kisses, alongside Cary Grant . Hepburn struggled with her first really comical role and took the tutorial from her co-actor, show veteran Walter Catlett . Although the film initially flopped at the box office, it now has a comedy classic. About the same fate overtook the comedy The Bride's Sister, also filmed in 1938 , where she played again alongside Cary Grant under the direction of George Cukor. After her many failures, she was placed at the top of the American Cinema Association's “ box office poison list”. Hepburn only wanted to cast her film studio RKO in rather hopeless B-films, which she refused.


Hepburn instead left RKO and returned to Broadway, where she played the aloof high society lady Tracy Lord in Philip Barry's comedy The Philadelphia Story , which shortly before her wedding has a choice of three men. The play became a hit and performed 417 times on Broadway. Hepburn had previously secured the film rights to the play and now sold it to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on the condition that she would play the leading role and also the director (George Cukor) and her co-stars (Cary Grant and James Stewart ) may choose themselves. The film, released in Germany under the title The Night Before the Wedding , became one of the biggest financial hits of the year, and Hepburn received the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress . The night before the wedding is considered a turning point in Hepburn's career, which has now been a success with critics and audiences. The following year, Hepburn first appeared alongside Spencer Tracy in The Woman We Talked About, which is about the turbulent and troubled marriage of two newspaper reporters. The role as a politically active journalist Tess Harding was typical of the actress because she often played intelligent and independent women. She also wore pants, which was unusual in Hollywood at the time and was considered masculine. Because this screen image also suited her private person, Hepburn became a pioneer of emancipation .

The woman they are talking about became another hit, earning Hepburn her fourth Oscar nomination. A longstanding partnership developed between Tracy and Hepburn during the shooting, both privately and professionally: They shot a total of nine films together and were also a couple privately until Tracy's death in 1967. In order to take better care of Tracy, who was plagued by personal problems, Hepburn made fewer films in the 1940s. She played in George Cukor's Keeper of the Flame (1942) and had an appearance in the drama Drachensaat (1944) as a Chinese villager who rebelled against her oppressors. Both films were anti-fascism propaganda films made in the context of World War II. In 1945 Hepburn appeared again alongside Tracy in the comedy Too Klug für die Liebe , which was received rather cautiously by the critics, but like almost all Hepburn films of the time was a financial success and the screen couple Tracy / Hepburn further established. The following year, Hepburn starred with Vincente Minnelli's The Unknown Beloved in her first film noir . In 1947 she shot for the fourth time with Tracy in Endlos ist die Prärie and also played the historical role of Clara Schumann in Clara Schumann's Great Love , directed by Clarence Brown . This was followed by roles as the wife of an aspiring politician in Frank Capra's The Best Man (1948) and in the comedy Ehekrieg (1949) as a lawyer who competes against her husband - the public prosecutor - in the courtroom. In both films, Spencer Tracy was her partner.


From the 1950s onwards, Katharine Hepburn - she was now over 40 years old - became more and more of a character actress. On Broadway around 1950 she played Rosalind in As You Like It , and on London's West End she was in George Bernhard Shaw's The Millionairess . In 1951 she was nominated again for an Oscar nomination for her appearance in the classic film African Queen together with Humphrey Bogart , directed by John Huston . In the very successful adventure film, she played Rose Sayer, an old and young and strict missionary in Africa at the outbreak of the First World War. African Queen was also Hepburn's first color film. Next came the comedy Pat and Mike , where she played a widowed PE teacher and was able to show her athletic talent in films. It was Hepburn's last film on MGM. After two years of absence, she returned with David Lean's romantic drama dream of my life (1955), which on the piece Time of the Cuckoo of Arthur Laurents based. This was followed by a successful six-month tour of Australia with the actors of the Old Vic Theater .

In 1956, Hepburn had another triumph with audiences and critics with Joseph Anthony's The Rainmaker . In the film, she has to choose between two men ( Burt Lancaster and Wendell Corey ) as an aging maid . Her comedy The Iron Underskirt , which she shot with Bob Hope in the same year, was not very successful . Her next film A Woman Who Knows Everything (1957), which she shot again with Spencer Tracy, was received rather poorly by the audience. Hepburn then worked at the American Shakespeare Theater, where she impersonated various Shakespeare roles. In 1959 she returned to film with Suddenly last summer , a film adaptation of the controversial play by Tennessee Williams . She played alongside Elizabeth Taylor and Montgomery Clift, a villainous aunt who wants to subject her niece to a dangerous brain operation because she knew about the homosexuality of her deceased son. Despite falling out on the set with director Joseph L. Mankiewicz , she again received brilliant reviews and an Oscar nomination.


After further theater appearances, Hepburn starred in 1962, directed by Sidney Lumet, in Long Day's Journey Into Night , the film adaptation of Eugene O'Neill's play One Long Day Journey into the Night , a drug addict mother. Because she admired the play very much, but the film had only a small budget, she waived most of her fee. Although the movie failed at the box office, it earned Hepburn the Best Actress award at the Cannes Film Festival . From the early 1960s, her partner Spencer Tracy struggled with health problems, one of the main reasons for her subsequent five-year abstinence from the screen. It wasn't until 1967 that she stood in front of the camera with advice on who's going to have dinner again, together with the terminally ill Tracy, it was her ninth and last collaboration. The film is about a liberal family whose daughter becomes engaged to an African American, which causes problems in the family. Her niece Katharine Houghton played as Hepburn's daughter in the film . The tragic comedy became a huge hit, earning Hepburn her second Oscar - 34 years after the dawn of fame . However, their triumph was marred by the death of Tracy, who died shortly after the filming was over.

In the following year she honored the Academy - together with Barbra Streisand for her role in Funny Girl  - with the third Oscar for Best Actress for her brilliant impersonation of Eleanor of Aquitaine in The Lion in Winter . Some critics felt the role of the queen, who has a power game with her husband over the succession to the throne, as Hepburn's role of life. Her next film The Madness of Chaillot alongside Charles Boyer , which was shot in Nice, was less successful. This was followed by the leading role for Hepburn in the Broadway play Coco about the life of Coco Chanel . She was nominated for a Tony Award for her portrayal . With the Cypriot filmmaker Michael Cacoyannis , she made a film version of The Trojans the following year . Afterwards, Hepburn was actually cast for the film project Reisen with my aunt in the lead role, but was clearly dissatisfied with the script. Ultimately, Maggie Smith took on the role of aunt.

Age career

After the film drama Sensitive Balance (1973) directed by Tony Richardson was rather unsuccessful, Hepburn took over the lead role in a television movie for the first time with the Tennessee Williams film The Glass Menagerie . The portrayal of the melancholy Southerner Amanda Wingfield brought her good reviews again and was counted among the highlights of the television season at the time. She then starred in other television films: In Love in the Twilight (1975) alongside Laurence Olivier (for which Hepburn won an Emmy Award ) and the drama The Grain Is Green (1979), filmed in Wales , where she was the last of ten times under George Cukors Was directed. In addition, she continued to appear in films, for example in the 1975 western With Dynamite and Pious Sayings, she played a feisty pastor's daughter who had vicious arguments with John Wayne . The adventure film The Great Adventure in the Ballon (1978), where she and two children build a balloon, was a major failure .

Hepburn won his fourth Oscar in 1981 with the melodrama Am golden See as the wife of Henry Fonda , who was also awarded an Oscar for this film. At the box office, Am Goldenen See became the second most successful film of 1981. In her long career, she won a total of four Oscars as a leading actress - a record that is still unmatched. The twelve Oscar nominations for Katharine Hepburn surpassed only Meryl Streep . On Broadway, Hepburn also received another Tony Award nomination in 1981 for appearing as the old pianist in The West Side Waltz . In 1984 Hepburn starred alongside Nick Nolte as a deathly longing woman in the movie Grace Quigley's Last Chance . She later starred primarily in television films such as Mrs. Delafield Getting Married (1986), A Lady Called Laura (1988), No Angel on Earth (1992) and Love Is Not Just a Word (1993) which earned her Emmy Award nominations and brought in the Golden Globe. In the latter made-for-TV movie, Love Isn't Just a Word , Hepburn more or less played himself alongside Anthony Quinn .

In the early 1990s, the aging Hepburn made her last films and skilfully incorporated her tremor into her roles, about which she herself sarcastically said: “At my age there isn't much to choose from - usually I play an old box of those something is wrong. ”Her last feature film role - and her first film role since Grace Quigley 1984 - Hepburn had in the love story Perfect Love Affair alongside Annette Bening and Warren Beatty . Her final role played Hepburn in late 1994 in the Christmas television film One Christmas by Tony Bill , for which the 87-year-old was nominated for the Screen Actors Guild Award .

Private life and death

On December 12, 1928, she married Ludlow Ogden Smith ("Luddy"), a wealthy Philadelphia stockbroker whom she had met while studying. Not wanting to appear as Katharine Smith, she persuaded her husband to change his name. Ludlow Ogden Smith became Ogden Ludlow. The marriage lasted six years and was divorced in Mexico. Then she was in a relationship with Howard Hughes for a few years .

She later lived with her colleague Spencer Tracy for 26 years in a secret relationship that did not become public until after his death in 1967. The two were a couple from 1941 until Tracy's death. Hepburn later said, “I loved Spencer Tracy. Only his interests and needs mattered. It wasn't so easy for me because I was decidedly egocentric. ”The couple never shared an apartment and had separate rooms when traveling. The actors never appeared together in public. Tracy also stayed married to his wife - presumably because of his Roman Catholic upbringing - but lived with Katharine Hepburn. All acquaintances knew about the relationship and tacitly tolerated it to the end. Although the press and gossip columnists were also informed about the Tracy / Hepburn relationship, it was never discussed in public, as the two actors enjoyed great respect worldwide.

Katharine Hepburn helped her significant other to cope with his alcohol addiction and advised him on film roles. They also made nine films together. From 1962 to 1967, Hepburn interrupted her film career to care for the heart-sick Tracy. He died shortly after the filming of Guess Who's Coming to Dinner by heart failure . After his death, Katharine Hepburn called his wife and family for the first time. Although she had cared for Tracy until his death, out of consideration for his wife, she did not attend his funeral.

Katharine Hepburn was known for rejecting the usual Hollywood glamor. She was rarely present at awards ceremonies, and she never picked up any of her four Oscars in person. Similar to many of her screen characters, she was considered a self-confident, independent, sporty and clever woman.

Hepburn's grave in Hartford

Katharine Hepburn died at the age of 96 from complications from cancer as one of the last Hollywood legends. In sympathy for her death, Broadway was completely blacked out for a minute. Her final resting place is in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford , Connecticut.


In the film The Best Man (1948) Katharine Hepburn received a solo credits that took up almost half of the screen. Your name was misspelled, however: Kath e rine. Years later, this mistake also happened to the creators of a film poster for Aviator (2004).

Katharine Hepburn was neither related nor related by marriage to the younger, British-Dutch actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-1993) .

In 2004 on the life of Howard Hughes turned Drama Aviator Hughes plays' relationship with Katharine Hepburn an essential role. Hepburn is played by Cate Blanchett , who was awarded the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for her performance . However, the relationship between the couple shown in the film is not true in all respects, so Hepburn did not split up with Hughes because of Spencer Tracy , but left him three years before their relationship with Tracy.

In 2002 the solo play Tea at Five , based on Hepburn's biography, premiered with Kate Mulgrew as Katharine Hepburn.

A feature of her later years that was clearly evident in her films were her watery eyes. This was due to a chronic inflammation that she contracted while filming Dream of my Life : She fell three times into a canal in Venice . The film team was aware of the associated health risks, but they failed to disinfect their eyes during the subsequent cleaning.



Television films

  • 1973: The Glass Menagerie (The Glass Menagerie)
  • 1975: Love at dusk ( Love among the Ruins )
  • 1979: The corn is green ( The Corn is Green )
  • 1986: Mrs. Delafield wants to marry ( Mrs. Delafield Wants to Marry )
  • 1988: A Lady Called Laura ( Laura Lansing Slept Here )
  • 1992: No Angel on Earth ( The Man Upstairs )
  • 1993: Love Is Not Just a Word ( This Can't Be Love )
  • 1994: A Christmas ( One Christmas )

TV appearances and documentaries

  • 1940: The Miracle of Sound
  • 1941: Women in Defense (spokeswoman)
  • 1949: Some of the Best: Twenty-Five Years of Motion Picture Leadership
  • 1963: The 35th Annual Academy Awards
  • 1968: The 40th Annual Academy Awards
  • 1973: The Dick Cavett Show
  • 1974: The 46th Annual Academy Awards
  • 1981: The Barbara Walters Special (Episode # 5.3)
  • 1981: Starring Katharine Hepburn
  • 1984: George Stevens: A Filmmaker's Journey
  • 1986: Spencer Tracy: A Portrait of Katharine Hepburn ( The Spencer Tracy Legacy: A Tribute by Katharine Hepburn )
  • 1987: James Stewart: A Wonderful Life
  • 1987: Hollywood The Golden Years: The RKO Story
  • 1987: Happy 100th Birthday, Hollywood
  • 1988: Bacall on Bogart
  • 1988: Michael Jackson: The Legend Continues
  • 1989: American Masters: Broadway's Dreamers: The Legacy of the Group Theater
  • 1990: The Kennedy Center Honors: A Celebration of the Performing Arts
  • 1990: Night of 100 Stars III
  • 1991: The 63rd Annual Academy Awards
  • 1993: The Roots of Roe (narrator)
  • 1993: Katharine Hepburn: All About Me - A Self-Portrait ( Katharine Hepburn: All About Me ) recorded on the two-disc special edition DVD of The Night Before the Wedding (1940)
  • 1994: 100 Years of the Hollywood Western
  • 1995: Legends in Light: The Photography of George Hurrell
  • 1996: The Line King: The Al Hirschfeld Story (narrator)
  • 2006: That's Entertainment, Part II
  • 2013: Katharine Hepburn - The Great Kate

Theater roles

The data refer to the premiere in the USA.

year  title role From
1928 The Czarina Lady in waiting Melchior Lengyel and Lajos Biró
1928 The Cradle Snatchers fried fish Russel Medcraft and Norma Mitchell
1928 The Big Pond Barbara. (Dismissed after the performance) George Middleton and AE Thomas
1928 These Days Veronica Sims Katharine Clugston
1928 Holiday Second cast for Hope Williams. An introduction as Linda Seton Philip Barry
1929 Death takes a holiday Grazia Alberto Casella
1930 A month in the country Katja Ivan Turgenev
1930 The Admirable Crichton Lady Agatha Lasenby JMBarrie
1930 The Romantic Young Lady Amalia Martinez Sierra
1930 Romeo and Juliet Relatives of the Capulets William Shakespeare
1930 Art and Mrs. Bottle Judy Bottle Benn W. Levy
1931 The Animal Kingdom Daisy Sage Philip Barry
1932 The Warrior's Husband Antiope Julian Thompson
1932 The Bride the Sun Shines on Psyche Marburg Will Cotton
1933 The Lake Stella Surrege Dorothy Massingham and Murray MacDonald
1936 Jane Eyre Jane Eyre Charlotte Brontë (stage adaptation by Helen Jerome )
1939 The Philadelphia Story Tracy Lord Philip Barry
1942 Without love Jamie Coe Rowan Philip Barry
1950 As you Like It Rosalind William Shakespeare
1952 The Millionairess Epifania George Bernard Shaw
1957 The merchant of Venice Portia William Shakespeare
1957 A lot of noise about nothing Beatrice William Shakespeare
1960 What you want viola William Shakespeare
1960 Antony and Cleopatra Cleopatra William Shakespeare
1969 Coco Coco Chanel Alan Jay Lerner (book and texts) and André Previn (music)
1976 A Matter of Gravity Mrs. Basil Enid Bagnold
1981 West Side Waltz Margaret Mary Elderdice Ernest Thompson



With four Oscars , Hepburn holds the record in the actor categories for this award. She has received all of the Oscars in the Best Actress category.

  • 1933: Dawn of Fame
  • 1967: Guess who comes to eat
  • 1968: The lion in winter
  • 1982: At the golden lake
More Oscar nominations

Only Meryl Streep (21 times) has been nominated for an Oscar in actor categories more often than Hepburn (twelve nominations) .

Hepburn's other Oscar nominations for Best Actress

  • 1935: Alice Adams
  • 1940: The night before the wedding
  • 1942: The woman one speaks of
  • 1951: African Queen
  • 1955: dream of my life
  • 1956: The rain maker
  • 1959: Suddenly last summer
  • 1962: Long Day's Journey into Night
Golden Globe nominations

Hepburn never won a Golden Globe . In the actress categories she was nominated as follows:

  • 1953: Musical / Comedy - Pat and Mike
  • 1957: Drama - The Rainmaker
  • 1960: Drama - Suddenly last summer
  • 1968: Drama - guess who comes to eat
  • 1969: Drama - The Lion in Winter
  • 1982: Drama - At the golden lake
  • 1993: TV multi-part / TV film - No angel on earth
Further awards


  • “I often ask myself whether men and women are really a good match. Maybe they should just live next to each other and visit each other now and then. "
  • "Acting is a nice, childish job - you pretend to be someone else and at the same time you sell yourself."
  • “What makes a star? It's either some kind of electrifying voltage or some kind of energy. I do not know exactly. But no matter what it is: I have it! "
  • “I always wanted to be a film actress. I thought it was romantic - and that was it. "
  • "If women seem unfathomable, then it's because men lack depth."
  • "If you always do what you want, at least one person will be happy."
  • "I've always suspected that blowing out the candles on the birthday cake was a disguised health test for the insurance company."


  • In 1987 Katharine Hepburn published the book The Making of The African Queen, Or, How I Went to Africa with Bogart, Bacall, and Huston and Almost Lost My Mind (African Queen, or how I went to Africa with Bogart, Bacall and Huston and almost lost his mind) .
  • Her autograph Me - Stories of my life was published in 1991


Web links

Commons : Katharine Hepburn  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Anne Edwards: A Remarkable Woman: A Biography of Katharine Hepburn . William Morrow and Company, New York 1985, pp. 34-44.
  2. a b Katharine Hepburn Biography Prisma.de, accessed on October 2, 2011.
  3. ^ These Days Internet Broadway Database, accessed October 2, 2011.
  4. Quoted from Rob Nixon: Stage Door (1937) - Articles. In: Turner Classic Movies . Retrieved October 26, 2019 .
  5. Katharine Hepburn's biography
  6. Biography at FemBio
  7. ^ Berg, Scott A. (2004): Kate Remembered: Katharine Hepburn, a Personal Biography. , P. 206
  8. ^ Edwards, Anne: A Remarkable Woman: A Biography of Katharine Hepburn. New York City, 1985. pp. 374-379
  9. This film star Katharine Hepburn . BBC News , June 30, 2003.
  10. The grave of Katharine Hepburn Find a grave
  11. ^ Poster "Aviator" moviemaze.de
  12. ^ Greg Ferrara: Summertime (1955) - Articles. In: Turner Classic Movies . Retrieved October 26, 2019 .