The transport (or transport ) is in the logistics transportation of cargo ( freight ), passengers ( passenger transport ) or messages ( communication ) with the help of transport means by change of place from a place to another place.
Transport is therefore necessary when goods, people or messages are not needed at the point of departure. In addition to storage and transshipment, transport is one of the three main processes (“TUL processes”) in logistics. Transport is also known as bridging space and time, while storage is only used to bridge time. It is carried out commercially by transport companies or the media . The part of logistics as a scientific discipline that deals with transportation is called transportation logistics . Transportation by means of transport is dependent on the existing infrastructure ( road network , rail network , waterways or air corridors ). In the following, only the transport of goods and passengers is dealt with.
In general, a distinction is made between internal and external transport:
- The outside or inter-company transport takes place between different companies, often between supplier and customer . Local traffic bridges short distances, long-distance traffic has to cover long distances, for which ship or air transport is often used.
- In -house transport moves within a location (e.g. factory or operating facility ) and is characterized by short transport routes and transport times. It is referred to as conveying and carried out with conveyor systems ; these include assembly lines , cranes and forklifts .
If several means of transport are used, a transport chain is involved , which can consist of the pre-carriage from the sender to the main carriage by the shipping agent , and after the main carriage by the receiving carrier . The transport triggers transport costs or shipping costs , the payment of which is regulated by the franking or the Incoterms (international), unless otherwise agreed in the freight contract . The transport risk is any event that can impair or prevent transport and lead to damage . It can be covered by transport insurance.
- Literature on transport in the catalog of the German National Library
- Peter Klaus / Winfried Krieger (eds.): Gabler Lexikon Logistik , Springer Gabler, 5th edition, keywords "Transport" and the following.
- Wolfgang Domschke: Logistics: Transport: Basics, linear transport and reloading problems , 4th edition. Oldenbourg 2007. ISBN 978-3486582901 .
- Horst Krampe, Hans-Joachim Lucke, Michael Schenk: Basics of logistics. Theory and practice of logistic systems . HUSS-Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-941418-80-6 .