As communications (including messaging ) is generally referred to all systems or organizations associated with the transmission of information or data between sender and receiver are involved. Communication is a complementary term .
Message transmission is necessary as soon as the sender and recipient are out of sight or call range. It serves to bridge space and time. The term message transmission is made up of the terms message transmission , the transmission of messages between two technical devices, and message switching , the targeted organization of the flow of messages in a telecommunications network between certain users. Messages can be information , stimuli , commands , questions , answers , observations , etc. They are generated by humans through sounds (e.g. language ) and images and are received via their sensory organs . Messages are therefore tied to a person's physical and mental abilities . The message transmission has the task of transmitting these messages from the sender to the recipient using telecommunication technology or communication technology .
Smoke signals for the purpose of transmitting messages already existed in prehistory. All great civilized peoples, from the Aztecs to the Romans , used so-called vexilloids ( Latin vexillum , "flag"), an early type of standard . These rods, decorated with emblems made of wood, metal or leather, have already been found as images on 5500 year old ancient Egyptian pottery. About 1000 BC there was the first pigeon mail from carrier pigeons . The news drum was used in West Africa at the same time . Aeschylus described in Oresty in 458 BC The fire mail (torch mail), with whose help in the Trojan War of 1148 BC The news of the capture of Troy was spread. The messenger Pheidippides brought in August 490 BC After the Battle of Marathon, the news of the victory over the Persians came about in BC and was the forerunner of today's marathon . In 405 BC The heliograph (mirror telegraph) was first used. In the Roman Empire , the Romans on the Limes used mirrors, smoke, fire signals or trumpets ( Latin tubae ) as alarm signals until the 6th century AD . In the 4th century AD, Flavius Vegetius Renatus explained in his outline of military affairs ( Latin Epitoma rei militaris ): “When troops are separated, they show the allies by fire at night and smoke during the day, which is not communicated in any other way can. ”In the late Middle Ages and early modern times , chalk fires or noise fires were used to signal approaching dangers.
The electrical telegraphy invented in April 1833 by Carl Friedrich Gauß and Wilhelm Eduard Weber received important impulses with the writing telegraph designed by Samuel Morse in April 1838 and improved in 1844 . On May 24, 1844, Morse sent the first telegraph from Washington, DC to Baltimore . The word " telegram " ( English telegram ) was proposed in the USA in 1852 for the messages transmitted by telegram . The Pony Express with mail riders started operating between St. Joseph and Sacramento on April 3, 1860, on the initiative of William Hepburn Russell . Philipp Reis presented the first fully functional telephone in Frankfurt am Main on October 26, 1861 , and Alexander Graham Bell received a patent for its design on March 7, 1876 in the USA . After the postmaster general Heinrich von Stephan had read a report in the "Scientific American" of October 6, 1877 about Bell's device and its possibilities, copies were immediately ordered and tested. Since Bell had (probably by mistake) not applied for a patent for Germany, the telegraph construction company Siemens & Halske was able to replicate and improve Bell's telephone set. As early as 1877, the daily production there increased to up to 700 devices, Stephan gave them the name " Telephones ". Guglielmo Marconi applied for a patent for wireless telegraphy on June 2, 1896, which he presented to the public on July 27, 1896.
In the 20th century, telecommunications technology was revolutionized by important inventions . The development of the Internet since October 1969 promoted digitization , which encompassed not only digital sound carriers but also image carriers ( photography , film ). Ray Tomlinson is considered the inventor of e-mail when he sent an Internet-based e-mail to himself in November / December 1971. Michael Rotert received his first email on August 3, 1984 in Germany. The first fax machine came onto the market on October 28, 1974 as “Infotec 6000” , and the German Federal Post Office introduced the fax service “ Telefax ” in January 1979 with a transmission time of three minutes per A4 page. This was followed by teletex (March 1981), on-screen text ( Austria in June 1982 Germany in September 1983) or teletext ( WDR television since January 3, 1983, in Germany since January 1990). The rapid IT industrialization brought by Motorola International 3200 in September 1991 the first digital GSM-enabled mobile phone indicates that the digital media added. It triggered a real mobile phone boom in Germany from 2000 onwards .
In general, a distinction must be made between analog and digital messaging:
- Analog messaging
Digital networks by network operators ( telecommunications network operators or cellular network operators )
- Public land mobile radio service
- Non-public mobile land radio service (digital radio for authorities and organizations with security tasks)
- other closed networks
The messages are transmitted by carriers that transport the useful signal. There is a tendency that what used to be analog systems are being digitized, such as police radio (officially: “non-public mobile VHF land radio service of the police”).
In electrical message transmission, voltages and currents as well as electric and magnetic fields are used to transmit messages . Transmission begins with the message source sending the messages and ends with the recipient. The electrical communication system (communication system) lies between the two.
Messaging is essential to human communication . As a rule, it causes fees ( letter postage , telephone charges ) for the sender and / or recipient ( subscriber ), which are part of the information costs . This is the information value compared to that created by the messaging for the user. He uses the message transmission until the information costs reach the information value.
- Hans Fricke / Kurt Lamberts / Ernst Patzelt: Basics of electrical communication . BG Teubner Verlag, Stuttgart 1979.
- Karl-Dirk Kammeyer: message transmission . Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 1996, ISBN 978-3-663-10869-6 .
- Siegfried Geckeler: fiber optic cables for optical communication . Second revised edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1987, ISBN 978-3-540-16971-0 .
- Peter Gerdsen: Digital news transmission . BG Teubner Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 978-3-519-06185-4 .
- Message transfer formulas and notes (accessed July 7, 2017)
- Optical messaging (accessed July 7, 2017)
- Wireless messaging (accessed July 7, 2017)
- Basics of digital messaging (accessed July 7, 2017)
- Martin Werner, Telekommunikation , 2002, p. 145
- Poel, Telekommunikation , 2007, p. 2
- Edwin Teale, Mile-a-Minute Pigeons , in: Popular Science Monthly 128 (6), June 1936, pp. 25 ff.
- Aeschylus, Oresty: Agamemnon , verses 280-311
- Volker Aschoff, History of communications engineering , Volume 1, 1989, p. 60
- Fritz Jörn, How do I connect the telephone, answering machine, fax and modem myself , 1999, p. 93
- Rolf Oberliesen, Informations, Daten und Signals , 1987, p. 143