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An instruction (from Latin instruere "to prepare, instruct, teach, instruct"; PPP instructus ) is an instruction. The meaning of the term ranges from informative instruction among equals to instruction or training by an instructor, trainer , leader or coach to instructions from a hierarchical superior and military command . Instructions can also be part of sexual practices, such as erotic role plays or parenting games . Appellatively informative texts such as instructions for use can also be described as instructions ; likewise the instructions formulated in a programming language in a computer program that a computer is to execute.

In addition, the term is sometimes also used in its further basic meaning of preparation , derived from Latin , especially in procedural law ; In this sense, the instruction (also: the instruction procedure ) is a preparatory or preliminary procedure.

Instructive call to action

Basically, instruction is the action-related communication between an authority ( teacher , trainer , educator , supervisor , etc.) and a person who should / must be taught something in the broadest sense in order to acquire practical knowledge or behavior or to learn a course of action. Every instruction is therefore connected with an instructive-explanatory, sometimes educational, intent, in addition to the requesting one , insofar as it is not only about the purely authoritative transmission of a regulation or an order, but also always about providing the recipient with theoretical and / or practical information to guide and thus enable them to carry out the desired action in the desired manner.

Programming command

In the program , the term "instruction" is often used as a synonym (for "command" English. Instruction or command ), or synonymous with "instruction" used or for "command code" to the instruction set defined a computer code for a particular machine instruction .

Unix command

An instruction at the operating system level is a command within a command line , for example a Unix command .

Canon Law Interpretation Instructions

In Roman Catholic canon law , the instruction is a written statement of interpretation and execution from the ecclesiastical authority ( congregation ) for a law (which is usually issued as an Apostolic Constitution or Motu Proprio ). In contrast to laws, instructions have no legal force of their own and only have legal force if they interpret a specific law. Instructions that try to create new law have no legal force. This applies e.g. B. for the regulation in Universae Ecclesiae that the unreformed mass rite of 1962 can also be used on the Easter holidays. Summorum Pontificum expressly does not allow this. Thus Universae Ecclesiae tries to create new law, but has no legal force on the point mentioned. Unlike the encyclical (papal circular), an instruction is not a textbook, but serves the uniformly regulated interpretation and implementation of church laws.

See for example:

Process preparation

The preparatory procedural acts (e.g. the criminal investigation or the evidence procedure ), which precede the actual process in the inquisitorial procedure , are referred to in the procedural law of numerous legal systems and historically also in German-language procedural law as the instruction procedure or instruction phase . In Swiss legal language, the instruction procedure is also called the preliminary procedure . Often the instruction takes place before another judicial authority (such as examining magistrate or public prosecutor ) than the subsequent main proceedings .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Martin Klöckener: The Chrism Mass in the Archdiocese of Vaduz . Swiss church newspaper. Retrieved May 14, 2019.