Past participle passive

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The past participle passive or past participle passive , short PPP , also: second participle , is a form derived from a verb that can serve as an infinitive or an adjective . As an adjective, it forms a predicate about the object of the verb on which it is based and typically expresses the result state of the event referred to by the verb or some other prematurity. It is referred to as “ passive ”, although for some verbs it would have to be paraphrased with a perfect tense in the active (namely when there is an unaccusative verb ). In Latin there are also deposits in which the past participle also corresponds to an active

Latin language

In Latin, which is participle perfect passive always case-Number genus congruence to a noun of the sentence. When tied to a congruent noun, it is called a participium conjunctum (connected participle).


The PPP is formed with the following rule: Verbal stem + identifiers “t” or “s” + ending of the adjectives of the a and o declination . Irregular verbs can have their own participle stems. The verbal stem is obtained “by subtracting all formants, i. H. Prefixes such as B. Reduplication syllable, infixes, […] suffixes. Example: gign-o [present tense], genu-i [perfect], gen-itum [PPP]; Root: gen- “.

In general, the last master time is the PPP:

in approx. 90% of the cases the following applies:

  • a- Conjugation: → -atus
  • i- conjugation: → -itus
  • e- conjugation: → -etus or -itus

translation to German

The PPP form denotes an early tense relationship in the corresponding sentence and is generally expressed with an adverbial sentence in which the conjunction “after” is mostly used; however, all conjunctions that express prematurity can also be used. A PPP can e.g. B. can also be represented attributively with a relative clause, by a prepositional expression or literally.

Example: Gloria Europae a Iove raptae magna erat.

  • Literally: 'The glory of Europe stolen by Jupiter was great.'
  • With an adverbial phrase : 'After she was stolen by Jupiter, the glory of Europe was great.'
  • With a relative phrase : 'The glory of Europe, which had been stolen by Jupiter, was great.'
  • With a paratax or assignment : 'Europe was stolen by Jupiter, her fame was (after) great. / Europe was stolen from Jupiter and her fame was (after) great. '
  • With a prepositional expression : 'After Europa was stolen by Jupiter, her fame was great.'

Use of the PPP in Latin

  • As a predicate noun in connection with a present tense of esse = 'to be', the PPP thus forms the perfect passive, in connection with an imperfect form of esse the past perfect passive. Examples:
    • 'I have been praised' - laudatus sum
    • 'I was praised' - laudatus eram .
  • The PPP can also be used as an attribute ; this means that it refers to a relational word like an attributive adjective and has nothing to do with the predicate action. Example:
    • 'We see the famous work, the beautiful work, the work built by Augustus.' - Videmus opus clarum, opus pulchrum, opus from Augusto aedificatum .
  • The PPP can also take on the function of an adverbial determination ; this is called the Participium coniunctum (PC). In this function, like a predicative, it also relates to the predicate action; However, it is also connected to a clause in case-number-gender congruence and is therefore called PC. Example:
    • 'Oh, how happy Julia was because she had been abandoned by Tiberius.' - O, quam laeta Iulia erat a Tiberio relicta .
  • Another common use is as an ablativus absolutus . Nouns and PPP are in the ablative and, similar to the PC , are translated with an adverbial sentence. The subject of this sentence, however, is different from the rest of the main sentence (hence absolutus , dt. 'Detached'). Example:
    • Discipulis laudatis magister gaudebat . - After the students were praised, the teacher was happy.


  1. ^ H. Rubenbauer & J. Hoffmann: Latin grammar . Revised by R.Heine. Bamberg: Buchners Verlag. 9th edition 1975; P. 66

See also

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