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A Deponens (Pl. Deponentia , Deponentien or Deponenzien ; from the Latin dēpōnere 'to lay down, put away') is a verb that only exists in passive forms, but has an active meaning. It has figuratively "discarded" its passive meaning according to ancient and modern perspectives. Deponents are remnants of a diathesis between active and passive, which is also shown in the fact that many Latin, Greek and Scandinavian Deponentien correspond to German verbs with a reflexive meaning ("sich ..."). A certain subclass of reflexive verbs can also be understood as a variant of a diathesis medium of its own .

The landfills play a role in ancient and modern Greek , Latin , ancient Irish and the Scandinavian languages . In ancient Greek, a distinction is also made between passive and medial waste. Latin, which no longer knows a medium , has, like modern Greek, only passive deposits.

Except for the PPA and the PFA, there are no active forms because their meaning is covered by the passive forms. The only form with passive meaning is the gerundive .

Examples of Latin landfills

  • arbitrāri, arbitror, ​​arbitratus sum = believe, mean
  • complēcti, complector, complexus sum = embrace, embrace
  • conāri, conor, conātus sum = try
  • cunctāri, cunctor, cunctatus sum = to hesitate
  • experīrī, experior, expertus sum = experience, try out, try
  • fruī, fruor, fructus sum (with ex .) = enjoy something
  • Fungi, fungor, functus sum (with Abl .) = something do, accomplish, manage, exercise
  • gradī, gradior, gressus sum = go, step
  • hortāri, hortor, hortatus sum = admonish, prompt
  • intuērī, intueor, intuitus sum = look at, look at
  • laetāri, laetor, laetatus sum = to be pleased / to be pleased
  • lamentāri, lamentor, lamentatus sum = complain, lament
  • loquī, loquor, locutus sum = speak, speak
  • nītī, nītor, nīsus sum = lean on, climb, strive
  • oblīvīscī, oblīvīscor, oblītus sum = something forgotten
  • potiri, potior, Potitus sum (with Abl .) = seize
  • pollicēri, polliceor, pollicitus sum = promise
  • proficīscī, proficīscor, profectus sum = to set off, march
  • (con-, per-) sequī, sequor, secutus sum (with acc .) = follow someone, follow something, accompany
  • trahi, trahor, tractus sum = to pull something
  • utī, utor, usus sum (with ex .) = (be) using, using, applying
  • vidērī, videor, vīsus sum = appear
  • verērī, vereor, veritus sum = fear

Examples of Latin semideponents :

  • fidere, fido, fīsus sum = to trust
  • fierī, fio, factus sum = to become, to arise, to be made (passive stem to facere)
  • audēre, audēo, ausus sum = dare
  • gaudēre, gaudēo, gavīsus sum = to be happy
  • solēre, solēo, solitus sum = usually (to do), to maintain
  • confidere, confido, confīsus sum = trust
  • diffidere, diffido, diffīsus sum = distrust, doubt
  • revertī, revertor, revertī, reversus = to return (also revertere, revertō, revertī, reversus )

Example in the Latin proverb

Roma locuta causa finita (add: est ), Latin for "When Rome has spoken, the matter is over" (freely adapted from Augustine).

Examples of ancient Greek landfills

The use of landfill is very common in ancient Greek . The distinction between medial Deponentien ( "deponentia media (DM) ") and liabilities Deponentien ( "deponentia passiva (DP) ") is Aorist perform (in the present tense are medium and passive equal).

Media deposits:

  • φαίνομαι ( medium of φαίνω = show) = (show oneself) seem
  • παύομαι ( medium of παύω = quit) = stop
  • μάχομαι = fight ( aorist  : ἐμαχεσάμην )

Most DM can also form passive forms with a passive meaning, namely a passive orist on -θην with the associated future tense, and they can use their perfect active as well as passive. An example of this is

  • ἀιτιάομαι = accuse ( Aorist medium: ᾐτιασάμην = I accused; Aorist passive: ᾐτιάθην = I was accused)

Passive landfill

  • ὀργίζομαι = get angry ( aorist  : ὠργίσθην )
  • ἡττάομαι = subject to ( aorist  : ἡττήθην )
  • ἡδέομαι = to be happy ( aorist  : ἥσθην )

Examples of modern Greek landfills

  • έρχομαι = come
  • στέκομαι = stand
  • κάθομαι = (to sit down)
  • συναντιέμαι = (to meet)
  • σκέφτομαι = consider, think
  • αισθάνομαι = feel, feel

Greek landfills mainly originate from the semantic area of ​​mental activity, sensation or physical behavior and movement.

Examples of Scandinavian landfills

  • att hoppas (swed.) = hope
  • at synes (Danish) = to appear
  • å finnes (norw.) = exist
  • að eldast (isl.) = altern

The deposits of the Scandinavian languages ​​go back to the Old Norse mediopassive, a form that arose from the enclise of the reflexive pronoun sik .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Deponens  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations