Past participle active

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The past participle active in the future , or PFA for short , is a special verb form in some languages ( verbal adjective ). The PFA can be used to express a later action or intention. Nothing comparable is used in the German language; Forms like "being praised" (the man who is being praised) can be developed theoretically.


general education

The PFA of a verb is formed by inserting the suffix -ur- between the root of the participle perfect passive (PPP) and the case- number-gender ending .

Latin infinitive German translation PPP PFA
laudāre praise laudātus Laudat UR us
manēre stay mānsus Mans UR us
facere do factus fact ūr us
audīre Listen audītus Audit UR us


However, there are a few exceptions where the PFA forms differ from those of the PPP strain. Examples:

Latin infinitive German translation PPP PFA example
morī to die mortus moritūrus Ave Caesar, moritūri te salutant. ( Suet. Claud. 21)
parere give birth, beget partus paritūrus uter populus alterī paritūrus foret ( Vell . 2, 90, 3)
iuvāre looking forward iūtus iuvātūrus iuvātūrum exercitum ( Sall. Iug. 47, 2)

Use and translation

In the Latin language, the PFA expresses the temporal relationship between the temporality of an activity and the predicate of a sentence, regardless of its tense . It is therefore translated later and actively. The PFA stands in a KNG congruence to its reference word and belongs to the 1st and 2nd declination .

In connection with a form of the auxiliary verb esse (both finite and infinite ), the PFA forms the Coniugatio periphrastica activa , which, in contrast to the simple future tense, which denotes the future neutrally, is used by an immediate future which the speaker calls intended or in is represented subjectively colored in another way.

The PFA in attributive use is almost entirely limited to the adjective futūrus in classical times (e.g. aetās futūra - the future time). The attributive use of other PFAs is poetic and / or post-classical.

Latin sentence German translation meaning
Barbari accedunt expugnaturi urbem. The barbarians are advancing to conquer the city. The barbarians are approaching to conquer the city in the near future.
Barbari accesserunt expugnaturi urbem. The barbarians have come to conquer the city. The barbarians have come to conquer the city later, but this may have happened by now.
Monītūrus sum. I want to admonish / I am about to admonish / I will admonish.

Ancient Greek

general education

In addition to the past participle passive and future medium participle, there is also the active past participle in ancient Greek. The PFA is formed by adding the σ typical of the future tense and the case ending of the participle to the verbal stem . This sigma merges with certain consonants to form ξ or ψ .

Greek infinitive transcription German translation PFA
παιδεύ-ειν paideuein bring up παιδεύ-σ-ων
ἄγ-ειν agein to lead ἄξ-ων (= ἄγ-σ-ων)
γράφ-ειν graphein write γράψ-ων (= γράφ-σ-ων)


In Esperanto , the future active participle ends in -onta and is used for subsequent or future actions. Literally means z. B. vidonta "one who will see". A good translation option is "about to see". Like all compound forms, this is not common in spoken language.


  • La virino salutonta vin estas tre afabla. - The woman who is about to greet you is very nice.
  • La venonta monato estas marto. - The coming month is March.

There is also a passive form that ends in -ota .


  • La skrib ota letero devas aspekti bela. - The letter that will be written must look beautiful.
  • La manĝ ota kuko estas tre seka. - The cake that will be eaten is very dry.


In Lithuanian there is both an active and a passive past participle, e.g. B. rašysima knyga (“the book that will be written”) or Gimė vaikas valdysiantis pasaulį (“a child was born who will rule the world”).