In addition to the intended smoke signals for communication, any smoke formation (both natural and artificial) can be read as signs that influence our actions. So z. B. a heavy smoke development in forest fires prompt to change his whereabouts.
In order to obtain the clouds of smoke required for this, North American Indians usually added wet grass to the open fire. Then the now heavily smoking fireplace was covered with a blanket. The accumulating smoke was released at certain intervals so that a sequence of “smoke” and “no smoke” was created, similar to Morse code , which were given different meanings. Other distinguishing features were the different sizes of the individual clouds as well as the color, which were influenced by the choice of smoke-forming additions to the fire. The transmission rate of smoke signals should be up to 8 characters per minute, which corresponds to a bit rate of 0.13 characters per second.
- In the Catholic Church , the tradition of the election of the Pope has been preserved in the election of the Pope by means of a smoke signal: if black smoke rises, the last ballot was inconclusive - if the smoke was white , a new Pope was elected.
- After the rising smoke of the Noon Gun in Cape Town , which was fired at noon (to this day), the surrounding ships once regulated their timing devices.
- Signal pistols fire smoke cartridges for specific purposes .
- Depending on the situation, smoke grenades are used in the military to communicate with air units .
- Red smoke and fog signals serve as emergency signals in shipping .
- Walter Loeliger: From smoke signals to mail & SMS. The history of data transmission from earlier to today, Kohl Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8663-2280-6 .
- Target-Film - & - Video-Produktion G (Ed.): Vom Rauchzeichen zum Handy. The development of modern telecommunications, Springer-Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3-540-14806-7 .
- Martin Werner: communications engineering. An introduction to all courses, 7th edition, Vieweg + Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-8348-0905-6 , p. 216.
- Volkmar Brückner: Optical communication technology: Basics and applications . 2003, p. 11.
- Old forms of telegraphy - are fire signals and co dying out? (accessed on January 5, 2018)
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- Signal language of the Indians
- Language of the Indians
- Communication from the smoke signal to the Emotikon (accessed on January 5, 2018)