A sender (short channels ; outdated addresser ) is in the information theoretical sense of a transmitter-receiver model a person or institution that a message or other information transmitted, or by a medium to the receiver can be transmitted (addressee) or transmit.
The sender and recipient can be in the same place and then communicate directly with each other ( conversation , negotiation , discussion ) or both are out of sight or call range . Then they need a means of communication for their telecommunication in order to communicate . A distinction must be made between asynchronous and synchronous telecommunications. With asynchronous telecommunications , messages are recorded or written down, transported to the recipient with a time delay and only then (perhaps) received by him ( letter , e-mail , fax , answering machine ). The synchronous telecommunications provides a two-way communication connection, the sender and recipient are in direct contact brings ( telephony , video conferencing , chat ). Sender (sender, communicator, e.g. speaker or writer) and recipient (addressee, recipient, e.g. listener or reader) can constantly change their roles in the course of synchronous communication - the sender becomes the recipient and the recipient becomes the sender.
Communication between sender and recipient
The sender already has the information (he has an information advantage: asymmetrical information ) and intends to pass it on to a recipient. The sender uses a certain carrier medium ( language , writing ) to transmit messages in order to make the information transparent for the recipient. With primary media , no device is interposed between the sender and recipient ; secondary media require technical equipment on the sender's side, but not on the recipient's side. Tertiary media require a technical device for both the sender and the recipient. The sender needs a technical device ( telephone , radio stations , television stations , computers for e-mail ), he must use this for sending the information.
The sender and recipient must be active in the transmission of information. While the sender must endeavor to select a level of communication appropriate to the addressee, the recipient must perceive the information ( listening , reading ), possibly decoding it and processing it if necessary. If information is incorrectly coded by the sender or incorrectly decoded by the recipient, there is a misunderstanding . The communication from the sender to the recipient turns evaluated data into information, with which an expansion of the recipient's knowledge is connected.
A sender in the postal sense is the indication of the name and address for the purpose of identifying the sender. In Germany, the sender must be placed on an envelope in the upper left corner of the front. However, the details of the sender are not mandatory under the Postal Act (PostG). In Switzerland , the sender is also placed in the top left corner. In Austria , the sender information must be affixed at the top left in the area up to 40 mm from the top edge. If the space does not allow otherwise, the sender information can in exceptional cases be affixed to the back. In the case of handwritten addressing, the sender is sometimes also affixed to the bottom left. In the case of an envelope with a window , the information can be found in the sender line at the top of the field of vision.
Since there were often problems with undeliverable parcels in the past, DIN 5008 stipulates that the sender must be given with full name and address.
In communication and communications technology , only the sender is spoken of, who transmits the information to the recipient. The transmission can take place here via radio , cable or optical communication . Sender and receiver must be coordinated so that the information can be received and evaluated correctly at all.
In the transport sector, the sender is the carrier's contractual partner . For the carrier, the obligation arises from this contract to transport the freight to the agreed location and to deliver it to the recipient there. The sender, in turn, is obliged to pay the agreed freight from the freight contract ( German Commercial Code ).
- Julia Haberstroh / Katharina Neumeyer / Johannes Pantel, Communication in Dementia , 2016, p. 28
- Dietmar Brunner, Information, Communication and Planning in Work , 2014, p. 88
- Georg Hans Wiebecke, The Interface Between R&D and Marketing , 1989, p. 103
- Helmut Fickenscher, Goal-Oriented Information Management , 1991, p. 5
- Deutsche Post ( Memento from January 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.8 MB)
- Swiss Post (PDF; 67 kB)
- Austrian Post (PDF; 748 kB)
- Writing and layout rules, valid from January 18, 2005