Carrier medium

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Carrier medium are media on tangible carriers with any type of information ( texts , images , films or sounds or their combination) or energy ( electric current , natural gas , water ) on physical carriers ( data carriers or carriers ) intended for immediate perception for transport or suitable for distribution or installed in a demonstration or game console . The term is used to differentiate it from the term telemedia . Carrier media are offline media, for example books , magazines , comics , sound carriers , CDs , DVDs , USB sticks , slot machines, etc.


This definition is based on the central concept of the Youth Protection Act (JuSchG), the carrier medium ( Section 1 (2) sentence 1 JuSchG), and includes energy sources for the sake of completeness. Before it was amended in April 2003, the law used the term “writing” instead. As one of the three prerequisites, it names the "objective carrier" as a storage medium . The wearer must therefore have a physical object shape.

Carrier media are often subject to technical progress (the record was replaced by the CD in August 1982, VHS by the DVD in November 1996). As soon as a media product is stored on a data carrier (on paper or a CD), a material good is created that is important for the distribution and permanent storage of the content, but it can also be a mere collector's item. The use of carrier media leads to a materialization of services , even if a link to a carrier medium cannot remove the immateriality of the actual service. Many services only become perceptible to the customer via his sensory organs when they have been objectified (materialized) by a carrier medium.


The various media products can be divided into the categories of print media , storage media , radio and data networks ( communication networks ) based on the carrier medium used . Paper , books , newspapers , magazines (print media), records , magnetic tapes , film reels , music cassettes , video cassettes , CDs , DVDs , hard drives , computer games , power cables , water or gas pipes (storage media) can be used as carriers . If electromagnetic waves are able to transport energy, they belong to the carrier media. The carrier medium in broadcasting are electromagnetic waves because they transmit sounds and / or images. The Internet is the transmission medium for websites or e-mails . Other carrier media are also all types of digital content, such as MP3 files, JPEG files , ISDN signals or video telephony , if they are used as a volume of data when embedding hidden signals, e.g. B. when embedding digital watermarks or steganographically hidden content.

Legal issues

The carrier medium can be physically separated from the information it contains, but on the one hand each piece of information is bound to some carrier medium, and on the other hand the carrier medium determines the processing options for the information. The information must interact with the carrier medium in such a way that its substance changes and the labeling causes a change in the carrier medium.

For the suitability as a carrier medium, the durability of the stored information plays a role in questions of evidence and the retention obligation (not in the case of electricity, water or gas networks). The information must interact with the carrier medium in such a way that its substance changes. Writing in the sand only changes the position of the grains of sand, but not the grains themselves and is also ephemeral. Ink affects the paper, magnetization changes the magnetic alignment of the atoms on the tape or hard drive, a laser or a press plate changes the metal coating of a DVD or CD. The data has been physically fixed to the carrier medium.

According to Section 371, Paragraph 1, Sentence 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, evidence can be provided in civil proceedings if a file is presented to the court or transmitted. § § 415 ff. ZPO do not make any further requirements for documents . There is no such regulation for criminal proceedings , so that a document must be presented to the court in such a way that it can be inspected immediately , for example through a printout or on the screen .

Individual evidence

  1. Section 1.4 of the implementation instructions for the Youth Protection Act. Announcement of January 10, 2018 ( AllMBl. Pp. 29, 30 ; PDF, 3.1 MB)
  2. Martin Schneider, Crossmadia Management , 2007, p. 12
  3. ^ Hans Corsten, The production of services , 1985, p. 93 f.
  4. ^ Matthias Schumann / Thomas Hess, Grundfragen der Medienwirtschaft , 2002, pp. 6–9
  5. Hans-Jürgen Papier / Meinhard Schröder , Press-Similar Offers , in: epd Media No. 60 of August 4, 2010, p. 22
  6. Gerhard Schwabe (Ed.), CSCW Compendium , 2001, p. 448
  7. Marianne Unruh, Banking Supervision in the Area of ​​Electronic Payment Options , 2004, p. 40
  8. Mey Marianne Unruh, Banking Supervision in the Area of ​​Electronic Payment Options , 2004, p. 40 ff.