The etymology of news comes from the word “ news ”, ie something to which one has to act. In the Anglo-Saxon area, too, the plural “news” is only used for news or news broadcasts. The news is of essential importance for the formation of judgments and opinions among the population, whereby the media news offer arises from the human need for information. The multitude and complexity of the daily events worldwide cannot be fully perceived and grasped by humans. Therefore, a selection in important and less important messages is crucial. Radio and television news do important preparatory work here.
News emerges when it is selected from the complexity of everyday life for media distribution. News in radio and television should comply with the press code in Germany , i.e. be compatible with the journalistic principles of truth , topicality , objectivity , balance , non-discrimination and comprehensibility . They have to “inform their audience in an interesting, precise, up-to-date and efficient manner.” Messages only contain facts that are newsworthy and are always geared towards the most current possible time. Most news texts that are distributed via a broadcaster are based on the (quotable) dispatch text of a news agency .
It is easy for recipients to notice errors in news because there are many news programs on radio and television and there is a large degree of theme identity. False reports are relatively rare, because the journalistic control mechanism - security through at least two independent sources - is used the most for news.
Strictly speaking, the term “news program” is incorrect in terms of media law , since a program always represents the entirety of all successive programs.
According to the point in time , morning, lunchtime, evening and late news can be distinguished, according to their scope main and short news. After the origin there are world and regional news, according to content can be political, economic or different sports news. Special or urgent reports (“breaking news”) have such a high priority in terms of their relevance that it is not possible to wait for a regular news broadcast, but rather that the current program has to be interrupted. While there is no alternative to breaking news on the radio, an optical ticker can also be displayed on television without the program being interrupted while a program is in progress .
The news research distinguishes between news production, message content and message reception. The news production starts at the source collection, which occurs mainly through news agencies and self-reporting by the network of correspondents located in key locations. Mobile, satellite-supported reporting increases the proximity and authenticity of the information content. The selection of the relevant news takes place in the editorial office . The message content includes the order of the messages and the text read out; The timing and frequency of the news broadcast determine its design. In the reverse pyramid principle , it is expected that messages start with the most important information and then follow more and more insignificant messages. It is also used per message, with a concise heading followed by a concise introductory sentence followed by the core information. Diversity, relevance, professionalism and legitimacy are the dimensions that are discussed in journalistic literature and scientific debate as quality criteria. Finally, message reception tries to determine acceptance by the listener / viewer and in doing so encounters his limited perceptual ability and learning motivation. The main criteria for news broadcasts are the timeliness of the reporting and the regular broadcast rhythm of the programs. The daily information genres only include programs that are "broadcast at least five times a week and predominantly report on public topics with current relevance."
General news contains the most important things from politics , economy , health , research , culture and sport . Special news formats, as business news or sports news, deal exclusively with the specified topic. News that greatly value the conversation or human interests ( human interest story based) are also Boulevard called messages.
On August 31, 1920, the first news program was broadcast by the station 8MK (forerunner of WWJ, Detroit ), after the station had only received its broadcasting license on August 20, 1920. These were reports from the US presidential election . Today the station is a news channel owned by the CBS. Two years later, the American Walter Lippmann put forward the thesis in 1922 that reality was too complex to be fully understood by humans. Radio news has since been viewed as a condensed form of important events.
In 1946 there were only two regular evening TV news programs in the United States on CBS and NBC, but they were not presented daily. It was not until August 1948 that “CBS-TV News” was broadcast daily for 15 minutes. News was also broadcast on Today's breakfast television from January 14, 1952 , and CBS Morning News was added in March 1954 . In December 1957, Variety magazine reported that CBS News had more viewers than any newspaper or news magazine in the world.
The BBC (then still short for "British Broadcasting Company") began its first news broadcasts on November 14, 1922, stating that the copyright was held by the news agencies Reuters , Press Association, Exchange Telegraph and Central News. At that time, only 4 employees dealt with news on the station. From December 23, 1922, the audience was confronted with the decision that there would be news ("news bulletins") after consultation with the print media and the agencies only after 7:00 p.m. It was not until January 1, 1927, that the BBC (now British Broadcasting Corporation ) was granted the statutory right to its own news production; there was also no time limit. BBC World News is now the largest news organization in the world. It began on December 19, 1932 with the news broadcast from specially set up studios. On July 13, 1940, the news anchors first introduced themselves by name.
From the start of broadcasting on October 29, 1923, the first German radio station, Radio-Stunden AG , initially broadcast a so-called “press service” every day, which was renamed “reports” on December 23, 1923; these were broadcast 3 times a day, in the morning, at noon and in the evening. Radio programs were often the subject of state intervention because they had a “dispersed audience” about which one could only have vague ideas because of the spatial distance. Therefore it was felt that even the style should be prescribed. Under National Socialism , Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels declared on March 25, 1933 that radio had to be conscious of tendencies and to submit to government instructions. During the war, the special messages phase began , an early propagandistic form of breaking news that was written by the Wehrmacht and led to program interruptions . In the post-war period, the ARD Tagesschau achieved a role model function for the news after its first broadcast on December 26, 1952. That affected their audience ratings . Today, the news program RTL aktuell - measured in terms of market share - ranks second after the Tagesschau, followed by Today on ZDF. On days with normal programming, these three news programs have the highest market shares of all programs.
The message format is a scheme according to which a news broadcast is structured. It starts with the dramaturgy , in which order the different messages are sent and which message is presented first ("lead story "). The unifying element of all news is the newscaster , who links the films or graphic overlays with one another. He can act as a moderator and then present the texts he has written, or as a pure speaker who presents the concepts created by the newsroom. The evening news is presented by a newscaster who has not written the day before Read in itself. This form of presentation prefers the factual, almost official form of hard facts in the context of quality journalism. The news moderation from Today on ZDF, where the news is moderated, is somewhat weakened . Private television broadcasters tend towards the "happy talk format" ( infotainment ). Since 2011 there has been a German Radio Prize in the best news format category .
In the case of full programs , the news broadcast can - but does not have to - be an integral part of a mixed program. In Germany, it is compulsory for full programs to have news programs in the program. The state media laws contain provisions for this (e.g. Section 31, Paragraphs 1 and 4 of the State Media Act of North Rhine-Westphalia). If the listener or viewer tunes in to a news channel, they can assume that it is mainly news that is broadcast there.
The US station CNN , founded on June 1, 1980, broke the news hegemony of the three major commercial television networks ABC , CBS News and NBC , for which the lavish news business was a loss. It was the first nationwide news broadcaster, so in terms of media law it is one of the specialty programs that mainly or exclusively specialize in the distribution of news. The concise form of the news has been expanded to include extensive and detailed reports, combined with live broadcasts to the locations of the event. To this end, an extensive network of correspondents and studios has been set up in many countries. Full programs later took over the format of the live broadcasts.
News broadcasts in different states
About 70% of Germans regularly watch TV news. More than any other program content, news is part of the constitutionally guaranteed “ basic service ”. Therefore, media law deals extensively with news. According to Paragraph 2 No. 15 of the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty (RStV), messages belong to the information . The RStV contains a few passages that deal with news and mostly pronounce bans. Film material from other television stations may be used free of charge if it is limited to short news reports ( (4) RStV). No persons who regularly present news programs are allowed to appear in television advertising , radio advertising or teleshopping ( (8) of the RStV). News broadcasts do not contain advertising because they do not last at least 30 minutes ( Paragraph 3 RStV), sponsoring of news broadcasts is prohibited ( Paragraph 6 RStV). Messages are to be checked for truth and origin with the care required under the circumstances before they are distributed; Comments must be clearly separated from the reporting and must be identified as such by naming the author ( (1) RStV). Reporting and information programs must comply with recognized journalistic principles, including when using virtual elements. You have to be independent and objective.
In 2001, the BGH ruled that there was no risk of confusion if Sat.1 (“Tagesreport”) and ProSieben (“Tagesbild”) name their news programs similar to the ARD Tagesschau and ARD Tagesthemen. There is no likelihood of confusion because of the clear differences in the names. Political reporting dominated at ARD and ZDF (as of 2008); on RTL and SAT.1 the proportion was significantly lower. Georg Ruhrmann and Michaela Maier found in a study (investigation period 1992 to 2007) that the visualization of news and the visual representation of emotions have become significantly more important. This applies to both groups of providers; to a greater extent for the private providers, since they report more extensively on non-political events.
The SRG and the regional radio stations were allowed from 1931 to 1971 its news content only on the Swiss Telegraphic Agency relate (SDA). Until the beginning of the Second World War, SRG only broadcast two “news bulletins” per day, and from 1939 onwards four. Standard German is spoken in the German-language news on the radio and in the Tagesschau on television, paying attention to the national (Swiss) expression of standard German.
In Austria, the television news of the ORF (“ Zeit im Bild ”), the private broadcaster ATV (“ATV Aktuell”) and those of the ProSiebenSat.1PULS4 group (“4NEWS”) are broadcast on working days, whereby the ORF is obliged to do so to contribute comprehensive information "for the free formation of individual and public opinion in the service of the responsible citizen ..." (Section 10 Paragraph 4 of the Federal Act on Austrian Broadcasting). In Austria, a total of 56% of those questioned in 2003 said television was the most important source of political information, and 51% also saw television as the most credible source of political information. Broadcasting is in third place with 12% and 8% respectively.
Conventional radio news is presented monologically . A single newscaster reads out the individual messages. How these are arranged is very different. Weather reports and traffic reports often follow at the end of a program without actually being part of the news. Depending on the presentation style, the program can be preceded by headlines or the messages are briefly summarized again at the end.
More modern radio news, such as can be heard on the pure news channels of the public broadcasting corporations ( e.g. B5 aktuell or Inforadio ) and many information-oriented public broadcasters and private broadcasters , have been working increasingly with original sounds from interviews since the early 1990s . Not only voices from representatives of public life (who are the subject of the report), but also short correspondent reports are built into the broadcast. Then the radio news is conceived as a dialog.
The forerunners of television news were the newsreels , which were usually shown in cinemas before the main film. TV news provides information about world events, they are more easily accessible than newspaper articles, can be experienced faster and more adventurously thanks to their visualization, and they appear more authentic. TV news is usually designed in a dialogical manner, in that most reports are supplemented with short video and sound reports. As part of a worldwide survey of opinion leaders, a study by the Edelman agency determined how great the trust u. a. is in the media and which medium is most likely to offer credible information. The result for Germany was that television was considered a credible medium before newspapers and radio. They have become a habit in many households, they let the evening "ring in" because after the news the evening TV entertainment begins with prime time . The following programs are often favored by the main news because of the phenomenon of audience flow , because a large proportion of viewers then neither change channels ( zapping ) nor switch off.
A pure term focused on television news is the " anchorman " ( English for literally anchorman ; for women "anchorwoman"). This Anglicism describes moderators or editors in the television studio who guide through a news program and obtain comments from reporters on site or statements from interviewees. The anchorman deviates formally from the pure news anchor because the latter has no other task “than to read out the news processed by the editorial offices. They are therefore not allowed to evaluate the news through emphasis, facial expressions, gestures or the like. They should be neutral, impersonal and inconspicuous. "
In the television news, the term anchorman has established itself as the permanent spokesperson for a news program that characterizes this program. One of the first and most famous was Bernard Shaw , who had shaped the role of anchorman since CNN was founded in June 1980; he retired on February 28, 2001 due to age. In Germany, the term became commonplace in everyday language from around 1990: "The new anchorman Ulrich Wickert does not want to change anything essential in the program concept."
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