The main characteristics of these events are that the effects occur randomly , unexpectedly , not naturally and cannot be foreseen . The transport risk is one of the sales risks , so that the classic risk bearer is the manufacturer or dealer of goods . The longer the transport time, the more the transport risk increases. That is why transport risks due to distance are of great importance in foreign trade , but there are also transport risks in domestic trade . In foreign trade, for example, a blockade can impair or completely prevent sea transport ( sea blockade ), air transport or land transport; in domestic trade, accidents are the most common transport risk when transporting goods . The transport risk in floor trading rests solely with the buyer as soon as the goods are handed over to him by the seller.
Reinhold Henzler differentiates between local, temporal, quantitative and qualitative transport risk:
- Local transport risk: is the risk that the goods are not transported in the usual way or are not delivered to the correct recipient .
- Temporal transport risk: a frequent transport risk is the delay in transport for all sorts of reasons ( breakdown , strike , traffic jam ), which - with a fixed delivery period - leads to a delay in delivery .
- Quantitative transport risk: consists in the partial or complete loss of the goods during transport ( theft , damage to sea containers , shrinkage ).
- Qualitative transport risk: Risk of deterioration of the goods ( damage , corrosion , spoilage ), also, for example, through interruption of the deep-freeze chain .
Quantitative and qualitative transport risks are purely technical risks.
The transport risk can also increase if several modes of transport are used in connected traffic . For example, damage or losses can occur at the shipping agent in the run-up to the train station during loading onto the freight train and also during on- carriage during the takeover by the receiving carrier .
A transport risk also arises from the means of transport itself. When passenger transport can cause injury or property damage occur. In addition to the risk of theft , spoilage , shrinkage or damage to goods in sustainable supply chains, the transport of goods involves the risk that the means of transport used cause social or ecological damage such as emissions or noise pollution . Also delays by transport means (such as traffic jams , accidents ) are among the transportation risks.
The transfer of risk is decisive for the risk bearer of the transport risk . Therefore, the delivery conditions stipulate the point in time at which the risk is transferred from the contractor / exporter / seller to the client / importer / buyer. In Germany , when the goods are sold by mail, the risk is transferred when the goods have been dispatched ( (1) BGB ), e.g. B. with the handover to the carrier . In accordance with (2) BGB, this does not apply to the purchase of consumer goods : If a consumer orders goods from an entrepreneur , the risk is only transferred when the consumer has received the goods. Deviating agreements (e.g. "uninsured shipping only at the risk of the buyer") are ineffective according to Paragraph 1, Paragraph 2 BGB .
The German trade clause " free domicile " means that the seller bears the freight costs to the buyer, but does not also assume the transport risk. Internationally, with the Incoterms, the transport risk with the code “DDP” (agreed delivery location in the importing country) lies entirely with the exporter, with the code “EXW” (ex works ) the importer bears the transport risk. In the case of an FOB or CIF delivery, the transport risk is transferred to the importer as soon as the goods have crossed the railing of the ocean-going vessel in the port of shipment. In the UN sales law , the buyer bears the transport risk from the transfer of risk, i.e. when the goods are handed over to the first carrier for transmission to the buyer in accordance with the sales contract (Art. 67 Para. 1 CISG).
The respective risk bearer can eliminate most of the dangers of the transport risk especially by means of a transport insurance , performance guarantee ( contract performance guarantee ) or delivery guarantee . In general, supply chain risk management also monitors weak points in a supply chain, such as the transport risk .