A container (English: [ ˌkɔnˈtɛɪnɘr ] ; German: [ ˌkonˈteːnɐ ] ; from Latin continere for “ hold together”, “contain”) mostly denotes large-capacity containers for the storage and transport of goods . The freight containers come in a wide variety of sizes and are usually standardized and / or standardized in order to simplify transport and planning.
Wooden outer packaging boxes were used in England as early as the 18th century. These forerunners of today's containers allowed goods to be transferred more quickly from rail to horse transport. In the 19th century, there were early container forms in various countries that were used to transport freight by rail.
In the 20th century, for example, the Laadkist RTM 903 can be found in Holland as a railway container. In the 1920s, the Railway Clearing House (RCH) in Great Britain set some kind of standard for the railway containers so that they could be better used between the various railway companies. These RCH containers were either 5 or 10 feet (′) long.
At the end of the 1940s, the railways in Germany used the porteur aménagé containers ( pa containers for short ) developed in the Netherlands , which held up to 11 cubic meters of cargo. At the same time, the Swiss Feldschlösschen brewery patented rail transport containers for its beer bottles, the Swiss Containercars .
In 1956, the American Malcom McLean was the first to ship 58 containers on the Ideal X from Newark to Houston ; In 1961 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established internationally valid dimensions for ISO containers for the first time.
The most important and best-known type of container is the 40 'container for merchant shipping with the dimensions 12.192 m × 2.438 m × 2.591 m (L × W × H). More than 15 million of this type of container according to ISO 668 (freight container) are in traffic.
The freight or ship container was introduced in 1956 by the shipowner Malcolm McLean on the US east coast for freight transport . At first it was disparagingly referred to as the “box ship”, but soon prevailed - against strong resistance from the port workers, who feared for their jobs and fought for better tariffs.
Two thirds of all cross-border goods traffic are now carried out with container ships . The freight containers became the basis of the globalization of the economy; with them u. a. most of the trade in goods is carried out with finished products . Due to their standardized shape, the containers can be transported by a wide variety of means of transport ( ocean-going vessels , inland waterway vessels , railways and trucks ) and quickly handled without the cargo itself having to be handled ( intermodal transport ).
Commonly used are 20- foot containers - the so-called TEU ( Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit ) - and 40-foot containers (FEU = Forty Foot Equivalent Unit). The 20 'standard containers measure (outside) 6.058 m × 2.438 m × 2.591 m and can e.g. B. can hold 10,000 jeans or 20,000 watches in their original packaging, but also bulky goods, goods to be cooled in refrigerated containers , etc. The largest container ships hold around 23,000 such standard containers (as of October 2019, CMA CGM Megamax-24 ).
Around 27.5 million TEU standard containers (20 ′, 40 ′ or 40 ′ high cube) were in circulation worldwide in mid-2010 . The average lifespan of a standard steel container is 12 to 13 years. Lately these containers have mainly been manufactured in China, most recently almost 3 million TEU annually. After the consequences of the financial crisis significantly reduced freight volumes, this production almost came to a standstill. There is still a demand for special containers such as reefer containers.
The standard containers (also called dry containers) can be divided into four groups:
( load weight = net load in the container)
( dimensions are internal dimensions )
|20 ′ standard||6,095 m||2,352 m||2.393 m||33.2 m³||21740/28230 kg|
|40 ′ standard||12,032 m||2,352 m||2.393 m||67.7 m³||26630 kg|
|High cube||12,032 m||2,352 m||2,698 m||76.3 m³||26520 kg|
|20 ′ standard||5.444 m||2.284 m||2.267 m||28.5 m³||21135/27160 kg|
|40 ′ standard||11,583 m||2.284 m||2,250 m||58.7 m³||26580 kg|
|High cube||11,583 m||2.284 m||2.556 m||67.9 m³||26380 kg|
Open top container
|20 ′ standard||5,900 m||2,330 m||2,337 m||32.6 m³||21740 kg|
|40 ′ standard||12,029 m||2,330 m||2,337 m||68.5 m³||26410 kg|
Flat rack container
|20 ′ standard||5.628 m||2.178 m||2.159 m||-||27800 kg|
|40 ′ standard||12.05 m||2.178 m||1,986 m||-||40 250 kg|
Containers are also used in particular for waste disposal as a collection and transport unit for waste . These are especially suitable for a larger amount of waste that exceeds the capacity and the permitted type of waste in garbage cans . In particular, other types of waste, such as building rubble or mixed construction waste, bulky waste , steel scrap or garden waste, can also be disposed of here.
There are different types of containers that can vary in height and length with the same filling quantity and are used depending on the circumstances and loading options. Drop-off containers are attached to holding chains by the container vehicle and set down or raised horizontally by two lifting arms.
Containers that are parked and pulled up with skip trucks, mostly with chains. The mostly asymmetrically designed containers are preferably found with a capacity of 7 m³.
Roll-off containers have rollers and are picked up and pulled up or set down by a hydraulic lifting arm with hooks.
|Container type (volume)||Width in mm||Height in mm||length in mm|
|Bigbag - garbage bag (1 m³)||1000||1000||1000|
|Skip container (3 m³)||1290||950||2450|
|Skip container (5 m³)||1900||1250||3100|
|Skip container with lid (5 m³)||1900||1600||3200|
|Skip container (7 m³)||1900||1600||3600|
|Skip container with lid (7 m³)||1900||1600||3550|
|Skip container (10 m³)||1900||1800||3900|
|Skip container with lid (10 m³)||1900||2050||4150|
|Skip container with doors (15 m³)||2000||1500||5000|
|Roll-off container open or with lid (7 m³)||2000||1000||4000|
|Roll-off container open or with lid (10 m³)||2000||1400||4000|
|Roll-off container open or with lid (15 m³)||2400||1600||4200|
Due to the high capacity (from a volume of at least 1 m³) these waste bins are considered to be containers.
For containers of this size in Germany, an installation permit must be applied for from the city or municipality. This application can be made using a form or informally. The fees vary depending on the type of use, but amount to at least 35 euros. Used clothing collections on public property are generally not permitted; a special responsibility also applies to green spaces.
Other types of containers
There are a large number of other container types , some of which are described in international standards. Standardization supports intermodal transport , in which the carrier vehicle is changed at least once. The type of carrying vehicle is often changed (so-called " intermodal transport ") in order to gain advantages:
- Roll- off container transport systems are mainly used as bulky waste or waste containers. Special containers of this system are used, for example, by some fire brigades as a means of transport for supply facilities . With the roll-off container system " Swap loader system Multi " used by the German armed forces, additional container equipment (CEA) is also provided to accommodate 20-foot ISO containers.
- Inland containers for use in inland shipping and combined transport within Europe
- CC containers (CC Container Centralen, since 1970 in Denmark, from 2012: NL) Trolley with 4 corner posts, shelves and lock in Dänen- or Euro pallets -Mass
- Wooden container , e.g. B. as a soil container for certain ornamental plants
- Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) e.g. B. for liquids
- Reefer container
- Dry containers: are special containers for particularly difficult operating conditions in wet areas.
- Storage containers are universal steel containers for storing materials and machines.
- Nuclear waste transports - see transport containers (nuclear technology) z. B. Castor
- Quick-build containers can be disassembled and stacked; this can save storage costs and storage space
- Air freight containers ( Unit Load Device ): These are bevelled on one side or on two sides in order to better adapt to the concave outer wall of the cargo hold.
- Swap (Swap bodies) are containers with tarpaulins or hard boot, of the gun carriage can be parked (chassis) on legs
- bigbag large sacks (flexible bulk goods container) with a capacity of around one to two cubic meters
- Standard container (large container) of the Deutsche Bundesbank made of sheet steel, outside L × W × H = 755 mm × 575 mm × 570 mm, inside 220 liters, for coin roll packs , gross up to 700 kg, tare approx. 50 kg
Containers as space-forming modules
Containers are also used as a module for constructing container buildings . They can be adapted and pre-set up for a wide range of uses, for example as a living container , office container , toilet container or school container . To do this, they are usually insulated, provided with doors and windows and equipped on the inside. So they can serve as a lounge for people.
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- World success with the wonder box (more information about the history of ISO containers)
- History of the container ( Memento from May 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Forerunner of modern container traffic
- Swiss Containercars
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- Container Compendium ( Memento from June 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 879 kB) p. 10.
- Information on container types and sizes. In: Containerdienst.de. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014 ; accessed on October 7, 2014 .
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- Regulations and installation permit for containers of the City of Hamburg ; accessed on October 7, 2014.
- Slawik, Han: Container Atlas: Handbook of Container Architecture . Gestalten, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-89955-294-2 .