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Construction rubble and demolition

On a construction site , rubble accumulates during new construction , expansion and renovation, as well as during gutting and demolition . The term refers to mineral waste and building materials such as concrete , bricks , bricks , clinker bricks and mortar residues , but also tiles, ceramics or bricks. Under no circumstances may earth or glass be added to the recyclable materials.

Waste disposal companies often differentiate between building rubble and mixed construction waste. Both types of waste must be disposed of properly and do not belong in the household waste . According to the Waste Catalog Ordinance, construction waste and mixed construction waste belong to main category 17, construction and demolition waste (including excavation from contaminated sites).

Disposal of construction waste and mixed construction waste

The disposal costs for mixed construction waste (it includes both mineral and non-mineral waste) are much higher than those for construction waste. That is why the two have been carefully separated on most construction sites since around 1990. That is why they have been dismantling since then : before the actual demolition, as many of the materials as possible that do not belong to the rubble are removed, only then is the building torn down.

For commercial demolition, this separation of materials is regulated in Germany in the Commercial Waste Ordinance. This does not apply to the private sector, but it lowers disposal costs and makes recycling easier. If separation on site is not possible, mixed construction and demolition waste should be sent to a nearby sorting facility.

Building rubble and mixed construction waste
Rubble Mixed construction waste
  • Glass and glass scraps glass
  • Lumber , wood cuttings, wood scraps and shavings
  • Scrap metals and scrap
  • Plaster residues, plasterboard (GK), plasterboard building boards (GKB)
  • Aerated concrete
  • Cable scraps, cables and pipes made of PVC and plastic
  • Insulation material, insulation and styrofoam
  • Doors, windows and door frames
  • Wallpaper and wallpaper scraps
  • Plastics and foils
  • PVC pipes and flooring

Recycling of rubble

Until the Shell Ordinance for Substitute Building Materials and Soil Protection (MantelV) comes into force, the recycling of construction waste in Germany is a matter for the federal states. The regulations are based, among other things, on Communication 20 "Requirements for the material recycling of mineral residues / waste" from the Federal / State Working Group on Waste (LAGA), the application of which the country-specific regulations must be observed accordingly.

Construction waste is processed in specialized companies and largely resold as a recycling product. Materials such as concrete, bricks and tiles can be processed in crushing plants into recycled concrete or material for road and path construction. Lightweight building materials such as pumice, aerated concrete, plaster, etc. are not included. Special systems can process asphalt into asphalt granulate , which is used as an additive in road construction.

Aside from being reused in road construction and landfill construction, construction waste has an even greater recycling potential, as current projects show. On the grounds of the Bayern barracks , demolition material is processed on site so that it can be used again in the new construction. Regular tests of the recycled building material and official approval procedures accompany the process.

As part of the “BauCycle” project, four Fraunhofer institutes want to implement a recycling process for the fine fractions of sand and gravel that are not yet usable in building construction. The first results of the opto-pneumatic sorting process developed for this purpose were presented at the BAU 2019 trade fair: aerated concrete made from rubble, acoustic building materials and components made from mineral granules.



Web links

Wiktionary: Building rubble  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. What is rubble? In: Retrieved January 15, 2015 .
  2. Information on waste code number AVV 17. In: Retrieved January 15, 2015 .
  3. Valid notifications from LAGA (as of July 2019). Federal / State Working Group on Waste (LAGA), accessed on May 12, 2020 .
  4. ↑ Hazardous waste knowledge: More and more rubble: disposal and recycling potential. Retrieved May 12, 2020 .
  5. Marius Schaub: Munich is building a lighthouse . Ed .: Recycling Magazin. October 23, 2019, p. 54 f .
  6. ^ Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft: Novel recycling of construction waste. October 15, 2018, accessed May 12, 2020 .