Trans-European Networks

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Trans-European Networks ( English Trans-European Networks , short TEN ) are a contribution of the European Union for the implementation and development of the internal market and to improve the economic and social cohesion of the Union. The priority program aims to improve networking in the internal market and a certain degree of standardization of the transport systems in the EU . Furthermore, the intended infrastructure of energy and telecommunications improved and the satellite navigation system Galileo will be developed.

The legal basis is the chapter “Trans-European Networks” ( Art. 170 to Art. 172 ) in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union . In the ordinary legislative procedure , the EU defines guidelines that define the goals and priorities of the TEN expansion as well as individual projects of common interest. The harmonization of technical standards in particular is intended to guarantee that the networks of different countries can be successfully linked. The EU can have feasibility studies carried out and financially support individual projects with the help of the Cohesion Fund and other means. Projects affecting the territory of a specific Member State always require the approval of that State.

Structure of the TEN

The TENs include networks for:

  • Energy (TEN energy)
  • Telecommunication (eTEN)
    • Information systems ( GIS )

For each of these areas, guidelines have been created that define objectives and define the components of the Trans-European Networks in a descriptive manner or in the form of maps.


The TEN energy consists of electricity , gas, district heating and cooling and oil networks as well as networks for the transport of CO 2 . The EU also includes the storage of CO 2 , hydrogen, natural gas and electricity in this area.

In 2010 the EU forecast that one trillion euros would have to be invested in the energy system over the next ten years. The report did not reveal who should pay the costs. The report went on to say that 200 billion euros would have to be spent on energy transmission networks alone, and the market would only bear about half of that.


  • Offshore energy network in the "northern seas" and connection to Northern and Central Europe.
  • Interconnections in south-western Europe, particularly between southern France and Spain
  • Connections in Central Eastern and South Eastern Europe
  • Completion of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP), a plan to connect the electricity and gas networks of the Baltic Sea countries (with the exception of Russia)


Network of high-speed railways in Europe

Guidelines for the trans-European transport network

The basis for the development of a TEN-T , often also TEN-T for TEN - Transport , was established by the guidelines for the development of a trans-European transport network (Decision No. 1692/96 / EC of 23 July 1996, amended by Decision No. 1346/2001 / EC of May 22, 2001 and Decision No. 884/2004 / EC of April 29, 2004). They were codified in accordance with Decision No. 661/2010 / EU of 7 July 2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council. With the Official Journal L 348 of the European Union of December 20, 2013, Regulation (EU) No. 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of December 11, 2013 on Union guidelines for the development of a trans-European transport network and repealing Decision No. . 661/2010 / EU and came into force the day after its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. (December 20, 2013). Decision No. 661/2010 / EU was thus repealed. They are an orientation framework for the development and expansion of the internationally important transport infrastructure within the EU and a. first common guiding ideas for the expansion of around 58,000 km of trunk roads - in particular European roads , around 70,000 km of railways and around 12,000 km of inland waterways within a time horizon up to 2020. The following points were given particular importance:

  • Cross-border connections
  • Elimination of weaknesses within the national networks
  • Connection of peripheral regions
  • Combination and networking of the various modes of transport, taking into account their respective advantages
  • optimal use of the available capacities
  • environmentally friendly expansion and construction
  • Interoperability in all areas
  • Safety and reliability in passenger and freight transport
  • Prospect of later networking with the networks of the EFTA countries, the Central and Eastern European countries (CEE countries) and the Mediterranean countries
  • homogeneous economic and social conditions

In order to ensure the implementation of the TEN guidelines (with regard to objectives and priorities), the European Commission should regularly report . The first report appeared in October 1998.

The text Trans-European Networks - Community guidelines for the development of a Trans-European Transport Network , published in mid-2010, reports on the goals, content and implementation of the projects.

Construction and financing of the trans-European networks

The TEN guidelines are neither a construction nor a financing program. According to estimates by the EU Commission, the costs of realizing the trans-European transport network by 2020 will amount to around 600 billion euros. This also includes the need for expansion in the acceding countries, which was identified as part of the work to determine the necessary infrastructure needs in the associated countries (TINA process).

The main funding rests with the Member States. The Union is co-financed by the following funds:

In addition, international financial institutions, in particular the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Investment Fund (EIF), co- finance transport infrastructures in Europe to a considerable extent through loans and guarantees.

The details of the funding from the TEN budget line are regulated by the TEN grant regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No. 2236/95 on the basic rules for the granting of Union grants for trans-European networks as amended by Regulation (EC) No. 807/2004 of the European Parliament and Council of April 21, 2004). From this budget line, investment projects in the transport sector can generally be funded with up to 10% and studies with up to 50% of the costs. For certain priority projects (especially if they cross-border or cross natural barriers), up to 20% of the investments can be subsidized due to the amendment of the TEN-Grant Regulation, also made in 2004 .

The TEN budget line contained a total of EUR 4.855 billion for the period 2000–2006, of which around 90% was for transport and 10% for energy and telecommunications. Between 2004 and 2006, EUR 255 million of this was reserved for projects in the newly acceding countries.

For the financial period 2007 to 2013, 8.013 billion euros should be made available for transport projects.

The EU summit from 7./8. In February 2013, the so-called “Connecting Europe Facility” for transport and infrastructure projects was approved, which is funded with a total of 29.299 billion euros for the period 2014–2020 , of which 23.174 billion euros for transport projects.

Revision of the TEN-T guidelines from October 2001

Due to the obligation according to Art. 21 (review every 5 years) of the guidelines, the Commission submitted a revision proposal in October 2001 - on the basis of the White Paper on EU transport policy from 2001. The main focus was on strengthening the more environmentally friendly modes of transport and changing Annex III (at that time still a list of priority projects). Since no agreement could be reached between the Member States and the Commission, particularly with regard to this list, the common position necessary for an agreement with Parliament could not be reached.

At the instigation of Commissioner Loyola de Palacio , a high-level working group was therefore set up under the former Commissioner Karel Van Miert , which finally presented a final report (Van Miert report) on 30 June 2003 with proposals for priority projects and for the financing of the TEN-T . On the basis of these proposals, the negotiations were successfully concluded and the revision was finally passed in April 2004.

2005: High-Level Working Group II

Pan-European transport corridors

The revision of the planning for the connection of the TEN-T with the national transport networks of the EU neighboring countries - based on the previous pan-European transport corridors - took place in 2004/2005 by the so-called High - Level Working Group II under the leadership of Loyola de Palacio .

On June 11, 2004, the European Commission and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia, North Macedonia as well as Serbia and Montenegro (including Kosovo) signed a declaration of intent on the development of the south-east European regional core transport network. The network includes 4,300 km of rails, 6,000 km of roads, the most important airports and the ports of Rijeka , Split , Dubrovnik , Niš , Durrës and Vlora . The Danube and the Save are included as inland waterways . The network is cross-border at 58 points. The total cost of developing the network is estimated at over 16 billion euros. A total of 17 priority projects were identified with an estimated total cost of EUR 650 million. Examples: Zezeljov Most railway bridge in Novi Sad (Serbia), Skopje airport (North Macedonia), Durrës port (Albania), motorway from Banja Luka to Bosanska Gradiška (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and rail connection from Moravice to Sapjane (Croatia).

The final report Networks for Peace and Development - Extension of the most important trans-European transport axes to the neighboring countries and regions was presented to the EU Transport Commissioner Jacques Barrot on December 7, 2005 .

Extension of the motorways of the sea
No. Project Beginning route annotation
01. Baltic Sea to Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg
02. Atlantic to Norway and Morocco
03. Mediterranean to North Africa , the Middle East and the Red Sea
04th in the Black Sea
North axis
No. Project Beginning route annotation
05. Berlin - Transsib Berlin - Warsaw - Minsk - Moscow - Trans-Siberian multimodal axis
06th Finnish border - St. Petersburg - Moscow Finnish border - St. Petersburg - Moscow multimodal axis
07th St. Petersburg - Trans-Siberian St. Petersburg - Vologda - Moscow / Transsib Rail freight connection
08th. Baltic ports - Belarus - Russia Baltic ports to Minsk / Moscow multimodal axis
09. Estonia - Russia Tallinn - St. Petersburg - Moscow
10. Latvia - Russia Ventspils - Riga - Moscow
11. Kaliningrad / Lithuania - Russia Klaipėda / Kaliningrad - Vilnius - Minsk - Moscow
12. Norwegian part of the Nordic Triangle rail / road axis several routes
13. Russia - Northern Norway St. Petersburg - Vartius - Tornio - Haparanda - Narvik
Central axis
No. Project Beginning route annotation
14th Dresden - Kiev Dresden - Katowice - Lviv - Kiev multimodal axis
15th Moscow - Kiev - Odessa Moscow - Kiev - Odessa multimodal axis
16. Belarus - Odessa Belarus - Kiev - Odessa Inland shipping
17th Don / Volga shipping Caspian Sea - Black Sea - Volga Inland shipping on the Don / Volga
18th Minsk - Kiev Minsk - Kiev multimodal axis
19th Kiev - Trans-Siberian Kiev - Kharkiv - Trans-Siberia / Caucasus multimodal axis
Southeast axis
No. Project Beginning route annotation
20th Salzburg - Niš Salzburg - Ljubljana - Zagreb / Budapest - Belgrade - Nis (incl. Skopje - Thessaloniki and Sofia - Istanbul - Ankara - Georgia / Armenia - Azerbaijan ) multimodal axis, see a. " TRACECA "
21st Budapest - Sarajevo - Ploce Budapest - Sarajevo - Ploce multimodal axis
22nd Bari / Brindisi - Burgas Bari / Brindisi - Durrës / Vlora - Tirana - Skopje - Sofia - Burgas multimodal axis
23. Inland navigation on the Danube and Sava
24. Ankara - Alexandria Ankara - Mersin - Syria - Jordan - Suez Canal - Alexandria / East Port Said Ankara - Mersin - Syria - Jordan - Suez Canal - Alexandria / East Port Said (incl. 24a-f)
24a Turkey Sivas - Malatya - Mersin
24b Turkey to Iran and Iraq
24c Syria Tartus - Homs Direction Iraq
24d Lebanon - Syria Beirut - Damascus Direction Iraq and Syria
24e Israel Haifa - Israel's northern border
24f Jordan Jordanian western border - Amman Direction Iraq and Saudi Arabia
25th Egypt Dumyat - Cairo multimodal axis
26th South Caucasus from Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the north and south multimodal axis
Southwest axis
No. Project Beginning route annotation
Algeciras - Rabat Algeciras - Rabat Towards Agadir
Rabat - Libya / Egypt Rabat - Fez - Oujda - Constantine - Algiers - Tunis - Libyan border Trans-Maghrebin ” and Tunisia - Egypt
Extension of TEN 24 through Switzerland s. O.

2006: comodality

In the mid-term review of the EU Transport White Paper 2001, which was published in 2006, the previously pursued favoring of rail projects was contrasted with the term comodality . Accordingly, all modes of transport should be optimized in their efficient use, either alone or in combination.

Modification of the TEN-T guidelines 2010

With Decision No. 661/2010 / EU of 7 July 2010 of the European Parliament and the Council on the codification of the TEN-T, Decision No. 1692/96 / EC in the version of Decision No. 884/2004 / EC was codified and A new annex with the maps of the 27 member states has been added and the time horizon for setting up the network for all member states is 2020.

Priority projects ( transport axes and sections) to start before 2010:

colour status
green completed
yellow under construction
red not started
without unknown
No. Project Beginning route annotation
01. Railway axis Berlin - Palermo k. A. Including burner base tunnel
02. High-speed railway axis PBKA L k. A. Paris - Brussels - Cologne - Amsterdam - London see Thalys and Eurostar
03. High-speed railway axis south (Western Europe) 1996 Paris - Madrid see AVE , TGV , Madrid - Paris
04th East high-speed railway axis k. A. Paris - Eastern France - Frankfurt - Stuttgart - Munich see Rhealys
05. Betuwe connection Maasvlakte - Kijfhoek - Oberhausen finished in the Netherlands, in Germany still in the planning phase
06th Railway axis Lyon - Tschop k. A. Lyon - Trieste - Divača / Koper - Divača - Ljubljana - Budapest - Chop
07th Igoumenitsa - Budapest motorway axis k. A. Igoumenitsa / Patra - Athens - Sofia - Budapest
08th. Multimodal axis Iberian Peninsula − rest of Europe k. A. Portugal - Spain - France
09. Railway axis Ireland Cork - Dublin - Belfast - Stranraer
10. Connection to Milan Malpensa airport 2001
11. Öresund land connection 1993 Copenhagen - Malmo
12. Railway / road axis Nordic triangle several routes
13. Road axis Ireland - Benelux 2010 Ireland - GB - Benelux
14th West Coast Main Line Edinburgh / Glasgow - Carlisle - (Manchester) - or Liverpool - Crewe - (Birmingham) - Rugby - London
15th Galileo 2007 -
16. Freight transport Sines - Paris k. A. Sines / Algeciras - Madrid - Paris
17th Main line for Europe k. A. Paris - Strasbourg - Stuttgart - Munich - Vienna - Bratislava / Budapest
18th Inland waterway Rhine- Danube k. A. Rhine / Maas - Main - Danube
19th Interoperability 2010 Iberia see AVE
20th Fehmarnbelt 2015 Scandinavian-Mediterranean corridor in the EU transport network (TEN-T) planned completion 2028
21st Motorways of the Sea k. A. including the Kiel Canal
22nd Railway axis Athens - Nuremberg / Dresden k. A. Athens - Sofia - Budapest - Vienna - Prague - Nuremberg / Dresden
23. Baltic-Adriatic axis k. A. Gdansk - Warsaw - Brno / Bratislava - Vienna - Venice - Bologna
24. Railway axis Lyon / Genoa - Rotterdam / Antwerp k. A. Lyon / Genoa - Basel - Duisburg - Rotterdam / Antwerp
25th Motorway axis Gdansk - Vienna Gdansk - Brno / Bratislava - Vienna
26th Ireland - mainland rail / road axis k. A. Ireland - Great Britain - mainland Europe
27. Rail Baltica k. A. Warsaw - Kaunas - Riga - Tallinn - Helsinki
28. Eurocaprail k. A. Brussels - Luxembourg - Strasbourg
29 Railway axis Ionian Sea - Adriatic k. A.
30th Canal Seine-Nord Europe k. A.

(see Decision No. 884/2004 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 29, 2004 amending Decision No. 1692/96 / EC on Community guidelines for the development of a trans-European transport network, Official Journal of the European Union L 167 of 30 April 2004 )

Project No. 30 is or was the Canal Seine-Nord Europe , a planned canal about 106 km long in a south-north direction through northern France and Belgium between the catchment areas of the rivers Seine and Scheldt . After the change of government in France in 2012 ( François Hollande succeeded Nicolas Sarkozy ), it became known that the financing of the project was not secured: in 2006 its costs were estimated at 3.6 billion euros, in 2007 at 4.2 billion euros, at the beginning of 2013 to 7 billion euros.

Core network corridors

The concept of the Pan-European Transport Corridors was further developed by EU transport policy between 2010 and 2013 and goes well beyond the interim approach of the Priority Projects . The Helsinki corridors are today partly in an amended form, part of the so-called nine. TEN-T core network corridors (TEN-T Core Network Corridors), in the new Regulation (EU) no. 1315/2013 (PDF) on the guidelines of the Union defined for the development of a trans-European transport network and particularly taken into account in the Regulation on the Connecting Europe Facility Investment Program ( Regulation (EU) No. 1316/2013 (PDF) ), which came into force at the end of 2013.

Accordingly, there are three levels in the trans-European transport network:

  • the comprehensive network
    • therein the core network
      • therein the nine core network corridors

The nine multimodal corridors with a total length of 15,000 km are to be expanded by 2030 in such a way that they meet the defined minimum technical criteria for an efficient transport network.

TEN-T core network corridors
Corridor name course coordinator Affected member states
Baltic - Adriatic
(Baltic - Adriatic)
Gdynia - Gdansk - Warsaw - Katowice - Ostrava
Świnoujście - Poznan - Wroclaw - Ostrava
Ostrava - Brno - Vienna - Graz
Graz - Villach - Udine
Graz - Maribor - Ljubljana - Koper - Trieste - Udine
Udine - Venice - Padua - Bologna - Ravenna
Kurt Bodewig
since 2018:
Anne Elisabet Jensen
North Sea - Baltic
Helsinki - Tallinn - Rīga
Ventspils - Rīga
Rīga - Kaunas
Klaipėda - Kaunas - Vilnius
Kaunas - Warsaw
Border Belarus - Warsaw - Poznań - Frankfurt (Oder) - Berlin - Hamburg
Berlin - Magdeburg - Braunschweig - Hanover
Hanover - Bremen - Bremerhaven / Wilhelmshaven
Hanover - Osnabrück - Hengelo - Almelo - Deventer - Utrecht
Utrecht - Amsterdam
Utrecht - Rotterdam - Antwerp
Hanover - Cologne - Antwerp
Catherine Trautmann FI, EE, LV, LT, PL, DE, NL
Algeciras - Bobadilla - Madrid - Saragossa - Tarragona
Seville - Bobadilla - Murcia
Cartagena - Murcia - Valencia - Tarragona
Tarragona - Barcelona - Perpignan - Marseille / Lyon - Turin - Novara - Milan - Verona - Padua - Venice - Ravenna / Triest / Koper - Ljubljana - Budapest
Ljubljana / Rijeka - Zagreb - Budapest - Ukraine border
Laurens Jan Brinkhorst
since 2018:
Iveta Radičová
Orient /
Hamburg - Berlin
Rostock - Berlin - Dresden
Bremerhaven / Wilhelmshaven - Magdeburg - Dresden
Dresden - Ústí nad Labem - Mělník / Prague - Kolín
Kolín - Pardubice - Brno - Vienna - / - Bratislava - Budapest - Arad - Timișoara - Craiova - Calafat - Vidin - Sofia
Sofia - Plovdiv - Burgas
Plovdiv - Turkey border
Sofia - Thessaloniki - Athens - Piraeus - Lemesos - Lefkosia
Athens - Patras / - Igoumenitsa
Mathieu Grosch DE, CZ, AT, SK, HU, RO, BG, EL, CY
Scandinavia - Mediterranean
(Scandinavian - Mediterranean)
Border Russia - Hamina / Kotka - Helsinki - Turku / Naantali - Stockholm - Malmö
Oslo - Gothenburg - Malmö - Trelleborg
Malmö - Copenhagen - Kolding / Lübeck - Hamburg - Hanover
Bremen - Hanover - Nuremberg
Rostock - Berlin - Leipzig - Munich
Nuremberg - Munich - Innsbruck - Verona - Bologna - Ancona / Florence
Livorno / La Spezia - Florence - Rome - Naples - Bari - Taranto - Valletta
Naples - Gioia Tauro - Palermo / Augusta - Valletta
Pat Cox FI, SE, DK, NO, DE, AT, IT, MT
Rhine - Alps
(Rhine - Alpine)
Genoa - Milan - Lugano - Basel
Genoa - Novara - Brig - Bern - Basel - Karlsruhe - Mannheim - Mainz - Koblenz - Cologne
Cologne - Düsseldorf - Duisburg - Nijmegen / Arnhem - Utrecht - Amsterdam
Nijmegen - Rotterdam - Vlissingen
Cologne - Liège - Brussels - Gent
Liège - Antwerp - Ghent - Zeebrugge
Paweł Wojciechowski IT, CH, FR, DE, NL, BE
Algeciras - Bobadilla - Madrid
Sines / Lisbon - Madrid - Valladolid
Lisbon - Aveiro - Leixões / Porto
Aveiro - Valladolid - Vitoria - Bergara - Bilbao / Bordeaux - Paris - Le Havre / Metz - Mannheim / Strasbourg
Carlo Secchi PT, ES, FR, DE
North Sea - Mediterranean Sea
(North Sea - Mediterranean)
Belfast - Dublin - Cork
Glasgow / Edinburgh - Liverpool / Manchester - Birmingham
Birmingham - Felixstowe / London / Southampton
London - Lille - Brussels
Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels - Luxembourg
Luxembourg - Metz - Dijon - Mâcon - Lyon - Marseille
Luxembourg - Metz - Strasbourg - Basel
Antwerp / Zeebrugge - Ghent - Dunkirk / Lille - Paris
Péter Balázs IE, UK, FR, BE, NL, LU, CH
Rhine - Danube
(Rhine - Danube)
Strasbourg - Stuttgart - Munich - Wels / Linz
Strasbourg - Mannheim - Frankfurt am Main - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Regensburg - Passau - Wels / Linz
Munich / Nuremberg - Prague - Ostrava / Přerov - Žilina - Košice - Ukraine border
Wels / Linz - Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest - Vukovar
Vienna / Bratislava - Budapest - Arad - Brașov / Craiova - Bucharest - Constanța - Sulina
Karla Peijs FR, DE, AT, CZ, SK, HU, RO

The Commission has also appointed European coordinators for the ERTMS and Motorways of the Sea .

To this end, and to ensure investments in horizontal priorities of transport policy ( SESAR , ITS etc.), the EU transport budget will be tripled to 26 billion euros in the period from 2014 to 2020; 80 to 85 percent of this is to flow into the core network, including equipping existing lines with ETCS and GSM-R . To implement all priority projects, 250 billion euros would have to be invested in the same period.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. The 2010 EU report on TEN energy .
  2. ^ The EU report from 2010 on TEN energy, page 10, paragraph 2.7
  3. This is specified in the report in The North Sea and the Northwestern Seas .
  4. (July 2010)
  5. European Commission (Ed.): White Paper - The European Transport Policy until 2010 - Setting the course for the future . Luxembourg 2001
  6. European Commission (Ed.): High-Level Group for the Trans-European Transport Network (Head: Karel Van Miert), Report, June 27, 2003
  7. ^ Networks For Peace And Development - Extension of the major trans-European transport axes to the neighboring countries and regions. (PDF) Report from the High Level Group chaired by Loyola de Palacio. European Commission , November 2005, accessed March 18, 2014 .
  8. European Commission (ed.): For a mobile Europe - Sustainable mobility for our continent. Mid-term review of the European Commission's 2001 Transport White Paper. Luxembourg 2006.
  9. Decision No. 661/2010 / EU .
  10. Photo gallery - picture 3 - photos (pictures): Fehmarnsund tunnel from Denmark to Germany. In: Spiegel Online photo gallery. August 21, 2014, accessed June 9, 2018 .
  11. Femern A / S - The Fehmarnbelt Tunnel project is making good progress. Retrieved March 29, 2020 .
  12. Commission appoints new coordinators for TEN-T Core Network Corridors , September 14, 2018
  13. Trans-European corridors become the core network . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 12 , 2013, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 627 .