The monument of İsmet İnönü in the city center
|Province (il) :||Malatya|
|Residents :||800,165 (2019)|
|Telephone code :||(+90) 422|
|Postal code :||44,000|
|License plate :||44|
|Structure and administration (as of 2019)|
|Mayor :||Selahattin Gürkan ( AKP )|
Malatya ( Armenian Մալաթիա Malat'ya , Aramaic ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná , Ottoman مالاتيا, Kurdish Meletî) is the capital of the Turkish province of the same name in Malatya in eastern Anatolia with around 800,000 inhabitants . Since a territorial reform in 2014, Malatya has been a Büyükşehir belediyesi (big city municipality), which is identical to the province in terms of area and population.
The name Malatya
The name Malatya is based on the Hittite Melid for honey , which probably stood for the economic importance of the city. In Assyrian sources the city is called Meliddu, Melide, Melid, Milid, or Milidia . The Urartians called her Melitea . At Strabo the city was called Melitene . The Arabs called it Malatiyye , from which the Turks derived the current form Malatya. The name Melatia was common among the Latins. The Zazas call the city Meletiye and the Kurds call it Meleti .
Hittites and Assyrians
Malatya already existed as Melid (today Arslantepe ) in Hittite times. After the fall of the great empire, it was ruled by the descendants of Kuzi-Teššup von Karkemiš , a grandson of Šuppiluliuma II , the last ruler of the Hittite empire.
The territory covered the plain from Malatya on the western bank of the Euphrates to Elbistan . It bordered Išuwa to the east . Assyrian campaigns are under Shalmaneser III. (844, 836, 835) occupied. Around 800 the Assyrian Empire was besieged by Urartu . Under Tukulti-apil-Ešarra III. the city was subject to tribute until Sargon II handed the city over to the king of Kummuh . Direct Assyrian rule was established after 708, but it only lasted until 705. Campaigns against Melid are narrated under Sennacherib and Assurhaddon . Eventually old Melid was burned down by the Assyrians. The remains are known today as Arslantepe. The city was later rebuilt elsewhere.
Ancient and Middle Ages
Later the city came under Persian , Seleucid and Roman rule. In Roman times it was the seat of the Legio XII Fulminata . In 358 the Synod of Melitene took place here, at which Eustathius was deposed by Sebaste . 575 it was the site of the Battle of Melitene in which the Byzantine commander Justinian the Persian king Khosrow I. defeated. The short-term reign of Melias the Great at the time of Johannes Tzimiskes ended with the battle of Amida and the execution of Melias in 973. In 1069 Melitene fell to the Seljuks for the first time . After the battle of Manzikert in 1071 Melitene came under the control of the Byzantine general Philaretos Brachamios ; after his death around 1090, the city was ruled by an Armenian ruler named Gabriel , who established relationships with the emerging crusader states . In 1103 Melitene was conquered by the Danischmenden and Gabriel killed.
After the death of the Danischmenden ruler Gümüştekin Danischmend Ghazi , the city fell to his younger son Sangur , who, however, could not stand against the Seljuk prince Kılıç Arslan I , who conquered Melitene in the autumn of 1106. As a result of the death of Kılıç Arslan in 1107 and the imprisonment of his eldest son Malik Shah I , the city fell to the younger son Toghrul Arslan , his mother and her new husband, the Ortoqiden Balak ibn Bahram . In 1124 Balak died in battle and Melitene was recaptured by Emir Ghazi for the Danischmenden, to the delight of the local Christians, since Emir Ghazi was considered a mild and just ruler.
When the Mongols invaded in 1243 , many residents tried to flee to Syria but were captured by the Mongols. The Syrian metropolitan Dionysius managed to negotiate peace with the Mongols, the city was surrendered without being plundered. In 1273 the city suffered greatly from Arab attacks, and numerous residents of the surrounding villages were sold as slaves. In 1516 Malatya fell to the Ottomans . In the 19th century, the city moved a few kilometers further.
Today's Malatya is the third city next to the ancient Melid or Arslantepe of the Hittites and the medieval Melitene with the name Malatya. The Malatya from earlier times is now called Battalgazi and is also popularly called Old Malatya (Eskimalatya) .
Persecution of the Armenian people
During the Hamid massacres from 1895 to 1896, 7,500 Armenian civilians were killed by fanatical Muslims and Turkish-Kurdish units in Malatya alone . Subsequently, a Red Cross rescue team sent to Malatya and led by Julian B. Hubbell found that 1,500 Armenian houses had been looted and 375 were completely burned down.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 , the city of Malatya was populated by 30,000 people at the time, with a clear Turkish majority and an Armenian population of 3,000, of which 800 were Catholics . A more recent source, however, states that Malatya's population was around 40,000, of which half (20,000) were Armenians. Of the five churches in the city, three belonged to the Armenians . They were in charge of trade, sericulture , silk trade and agriculture. In the spring of 1915, the city's Armenians were arrested by Ottoman authorities and sent to the Syrian Desert - death marches that culminated in the Armenian genocide . The survivors settled in different countries.
Murders in the Zirve publishing house
In April 2007, three Christians were murdered in Malatya .
Refugee camp during the corona pandemic
In the course of the Syrian civil war , the Turkish government opened the borders for refugees to Greece in February and March 2020 after the breach of the EU-Turkey agreement . As a result, Greece closed its land borders with Turkey, so that the stranded refugees near the border set up a tent camp on Turkish territory. After the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in March 2020 , a containerized refugee camp was built near Malatya , mainly accommodating those refugees who previously stayed in tents on the Turkish-Greek border.
- Seljuk madrasa , built by the Armenian architect Tagavour son of Stepan
- The Malatya Archaeological Museum on Fuzuli Caddesi in the city center
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Malatya
The backbone of local public transport in Malatya is the Malatya trolleybus , known locally as trambus , which opened in March 2015 . There are also city buses , which are also operated by the local transport company Motaş .
The İnönü University was founded in the 1975th
The most famous sports club is the Malatyaspor football club .
sons and daughters of the town
- Euthymius von Melitene (377–473), Christian ascetic and saint
- Dionysius bar Salibi († 1171), Syrian Orthodox theologian and bishop
- Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus (1226–1286), polymath and Maphrian of the east of the Syrian Orthodox Church
- Ermeni Sülejman Pascha (1607–1687), Ottoman Grand Vizier of Armenian origin
- Şevket Müftügil (1917–2015), lawyer
- Ertuğrul Oğuz Fırat (1923–2014), composer, painter and poet
- Asim Orhan Barut (1926–1994), American theoretical physicist of Turkish origin
- Turgut Özal (1927–1993), State and Prime Minister (1983–1989)
- Memet Kilic (* 1967), German-Turkish lawyer and politician (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, MP a. D.)
- Recai Kutan (* 1930), politician
- Metin Gür (* 1939), German-Turkish journalist, publicist and non-fiction author
- Mehmet Güler (* 1944), painter, graphic artist and book illustrator
- Kemal Sunal (1944-2000), actor
- Yüksel Özkasap (* 1945), singer
- Emine Sevgi Özdamar (* 1946), German-Turkish writer, actress and theater director
- Çetin Alp (1947–2004), singer and participant in the Eurovision Song Contest 1983 in Munich
- Tamer Serbay (* 1947), visual artist
- Hrant Dink (1954–2007), Armenian journalist, editor of the Agos newspaper and victim of a right-wing attack
- Murat Karaaslan (* 1955), German-Turkish writer
- Nursel Köse (* 1961), German-Turkish actress, author and cabaret artist
- Suzan Gülfirat (* 1963), German-Turkish journalist and publicist
- Gülseren Demirel (* 1964), German politician (Bündnis90 / Die Grünen)
- Canan Bayram (* 1966), German-Turkish lawyer and politician (Alliance 90 / The Greens)
- Mustafa Ceviz (* 1966), soccer player and coach
- Gülsel Özkan (* 1966), film director and screenwriter
- Bülent Korkmaz (* 1968), football player and coach
- Bilkay Öney (* 1970), German SPD politician of Turkish origin
- Ayşe Polat (* 1970), director
- Döndü Kılıç (* 1976), Turkish-German director
- Rabia Kazan (* 1976), Turkish journalist
- Özlem Demirel (* 1984), Turkish-German politician (Die Linke) of Kurdish origin
- Taylan Eliaçık (* 1984), football player
- Osman Fırat (* 1984), football player
- Erkan Sekman (* 1984), soccer player
- Mehmet Topal (* 1986), soccer player
- Mehmet Güven (* 1987), soccer player
- Emrah Tuncel (* 1987), football player
- Kaan Timuçin Konuk (* 1990), football player
- Ahmet Topal (* 1993), football player
- Theodor Nöldeke: Sketches from eastern history , A. and C. Black, London and Edinburgh 1892.
- Gerhard Rexin: Melitene . In: Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3rd edition, Vol. 7, 1998, Col. 85.
- Bernd Andreas Vest: History of the city of Melitene and the surrounding areas. From the eve of the Arabs to the end of the Turkish conquest (around 600–1124) . 3 volumes, Verlag Dr. Kovač, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8300-2575-7 .
- www.nufusu.com , accessed April 13, 2020
- Peter Balakian : The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response . HarperCollins, New York 2003, ISBN 0-06-055870-9 , pp. 86 .
- Catholic Encyclopedia : Melitene. Retrieved May 2, 2007 .
- Hakobyan, Tadevos Kh. "Մալաթիա" (Malatya), Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia . vol. vii. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1981, p. 145
- Murder of Christians: Defendants are released from March 10, 2014 in German Turkish Journal: dtj-online.de
- DER SPIEGEL: After the opening of the border in Turkey: Greece suspends asylum law for one month - DER SPIEGEL - politics. Retrieved March 8, 2020 .
- Marion Sendker, Maximilian Popp, Steffen Lüdke, DER SPIEGEL: Refugees in Turkey: "The world has forgotten you" - DER SPIEGEL - Politics. Retrieved April 6, 2020 .
- Maxim Yevadian: Les Seldjouks et les architectes arméniens , Les Nouvelles d'Arménie Magazine, No. 156, October 2009, page 73 f.