|Residents :||203,017 (December 31, 2016)|
|Area :||253.644 km²|
|Population density||800.4 inhabitants / km²|
|Height :||0-209 m|
|Postal code :||8000-8034|
|Telephone code :||(+359) 056|
|License plate :||A.|
|Administration (status: since November 2007)|
|Mayor :||Dimitar Nikolov|
|Ruling party :||GERB|
Burgas , also Bourgas [ bʊrˈɡas ] ( Bulgarian Бургас ), is the fourth largest city in Bulgaria with 203,017 inhabitants (as of 2016) . The city is the administrative seat of the Burgas Province of the same name and the Burgas municipality . As an industrial and port city , it is the economic, cultural and political center of the entire south-east of Bulgaria.
West of the city is LUKoil Neftochim, the largest oil refinery in Southeast Europe and the largest employer in Bulgaria. Due to the good transport connections by road, rail and water, Burgas is one of the most important transport hubs in the country. The port of Burgas is the largest port and the only crude oil port in Bulgaria and the home port of the Bulgarian overseas fishing fleet, the Black Sea Navy and the coast guard . The city is the center of the Bulgarian fishing and fish processing industry. The Burgas airport is named after the airport Sofia of Bulgaria's busiest airport.
Burgas is a well-known city for tourism beyond the region. The geographic location with several under nature conservation standing lakes and the Black Sea as well as the ancient and medieval settlements and festivals attract not only visitors from the Balkan countries , but from all over Europe and Asia to. The Cathedral of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius and the Poda Nature Reserve are included in the list of 100 national tourist objects in Bulgaria. The Sweta Anastasia Monastery on the offshore island of the same name is the only surviving medieval island monastery in the Black Sea .
Burgas is located in the Burgas Plain , east of the Upper Thracian Plain in the Bay of Burgas , on the western coast of the Black Sea. In the bay of Burgas is the small inhabited island of Sweta Anastasia , which is also part of the urban area. The bay and the city are the westernmost point of the Black Sea.
The port city is surrounded by the Black Sea and three lakes, Lake Burgas , the Mandra Lake and Lake Atanasovsko which together with other waters of the lakes Burgas Lakes form. Between Lake Mandra and Lake Burgas is the 209 meter high Warli Brjag , the highest point in the city. The largest district, Meden Rudnik , also belongs to this area . The Burgas Lake is located between the districts of Gorno Eserowo , Dolno Eserowo , Slawejkow , Akacijte and Pobeda . The Sornitsa , Isgrew , Lasur and Sarafovo districts lie on the shores of Lake Atanasov . The districts of Banewo and Wetren are located in the foothills of the Balkan Mountains . The Pobeda and Akacijte districts and parts of the South Industrial Zone are located on the Kumluka spit, located between the Black Sea and Lake Burgas . Another spit with dunes , which is part of the city beach, separates Lake Atanasov from the Black Sea.
The following cities and municipalities, all of which are in the province of Burgas, border the city of Burgas:
The urban area of Burgas consists of the core city and the districts (or districts) and these districts . The districts and quarters have grown historically, were incorporated as previous municipalities, joined the city after a referendum or were added to the city during municipal reforms. In addition to the inner city (center), the following districts belong to the core city: Bratja Miladinowi , Wasraschdane and Lasur. The districts Meden Rudnik, PR Slawejkow, Sorniza, Isgrew and the districts Akacijte, Gorno Eserowo, Dolno Eserowo, Losowo , Pobeda, Sarafowo and Kraimorie are also counted among the other residential areas . The former municipal villages Banewo (with the mineral baths of Burgas) and Wetren have been districts of Burgas since 2009 .
Administratively, the city of Burgas is divided into six territorial directorates (TD). These include nine districts (Pobeda, Banewo, Losowo, Wetren, Akacijte, Sarafowo, Dolno Esserowo, Gorno Esserowo, Kraimorie), seven districts (Meden Rudnik, Sorniza, Isgrew, Slawejkow, Bratja Miladinowi, Wasraschdane and Lasurers), two settlements and Alatepe residential area), the city center and the island of Sweta Anastasia. The TD Wasraschdane includes Pobeda and Akacijte as well as the Meden Rudnik and Gorno Eserowo, which lie between Lake Burgas and Lake Mandra. Isgrew, Sornitsa and Sarafowo are united in the TD Isgrew and are located on both sides of Lake Atanasov. The TD Primorie includes the city center, the Wasrashdane and Kraimorie districts, which have access to the sea, the fishing settlement in the Bay of Tschengene Skele , the Rossenez Park, the Alatepe villa settlement ( ) and the island of Sweta Anastasia. In TD Oswoboschdenie are the Slawejkow and Losowo as well as Banewo and Wetren located north of Lake Burgas. The TD Sora includes the centrally located Lasur and Bratja Mladinowi, the TD Dolno Eserowo only consists of the district of the same name.
The climate in Burgas is dry and temperate continental with sea influence. The summer is hot, but thanks to the proximity to the sea with a constant breeze, it is still pleasant. The average daytime temperatures are 28.4 ° C and the sea is 24.7 ° C. The number of sunny days in summer is between 24 and 27 with 10 to 11 hours of sunshine a day. Due to the influence of the Black Sea, autumn is long, warm and with little rain compared to the rest of the country.
The winter is mild and mostly without snowfall . The daytime temperatures averaged 8.1 ° C during this time of year, those of the sea 7.4 ° C. Spring usually comes a month later than in the rest of the country and is shorter.
Climate data from Burgas
Ecology / environment
In the 1980s, air and sewage pollution was a major problem. The causes were a lack of environmental policy and non-compliance with ecological standards on the part of the industry established during the communist era . The purification systems for sewage were not expanded in the planned economy , the existing ones were not able to cope with the rapid population growth and were neglected. At the end of the 1980s, industrial wastewater, reinforced by that of the former refugee camps, led to an ecological catastrophe in Lake Burgas. The animal populations in what was once the richest lake in Bulgaria were almost completely destroyed. The Black Sea coast was also affected several times by the leakage of small amounts of crude oil from oil tankers and by the sewage from the petrochemical plants. During this time, the entire urban area was exposed to constant air pollution from excessive concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), fine dust and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), which were mainly caused by emissions from the refinery and other chemical companies. In 1996 there were protests in the city about the ecological situation.
With the end of communism, several projects to improve the city's ecology were launched. In 1992 the ecology department was set up in the city administration , which coordinates the projects and monitoring in this area. In addition, stationary and mobile monitoring and control units have been set up since the early 1990s. The five stationary air monitoring stations used today in Burgas are the only fixed stations in the country. The monitoring and control system is the only one in Bulgaria that can identify individual emitters. Between the end of the 1980s and the end of the 1990s, several nature reserves were established and, since 2005, over 220 million leva (approx. 110 million euros) have been invested in projects to improve the sewer system, water supply and water processing in the city. Among other things, an additional wastewater treatment plant was built in 2010 in the largest district, Meden Rudnik, and smaller districts were connected to the central sewage system. In 2012, the expansion of the sewage system in Meden Rudnik began.
In addition to structural change and investments to curb air and wastewater pollution by the companies concerned, these measures enormously improved the ecological situation of the city and the surrounding area. Nevertheless, above-average concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are still found in the air, especially in the Dolno Eserowo and Losowo districts. However, these values have a downward trend and are explained by a certain meteorological situation in which the wind carries air particles from the nearby refinery. The refinery, the furniture manufacturer Kronospan and the increasing motor vehicle traffic are among the largest emitters. As Burgas is an important transport hub, several projects are planned for transit traffic.
In 2008 a referendum was held on the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline in Burgas . 96.75 percent of the voters spoke out against the construction of the oil pipeline. The first referendum in the modern history of Bulgaria was not binding for the Bulgarian government, however, as the turnout was only 27.09 percent and 51,225 valid votes.
In 2010, the city administration received EU support worth 70 million euros for a project to integrate public transport. This enabled the outdated fleet of the municipal transport company Burgasbus to be completely renewed, the network of trolleybuses to be expanded and up to 20 km of bicycle paths to be built, which made Burgas a pioneer in this field in Bulgaria. In November 2011, the city council announced its goals within the Covenant of Mayors to increase energy efficiency and use sustainable energy sources . Burgas wants to reduce energy consumption by 27 percent and CO 2 emissions by 25 percent by 2020 and increase the use of renewable energy by 26 percent. In the same year, Burgas was named the most environmentally friendly city in Bulgaria for its commitment to the environment and sustainable development.
The rivers Aytoska, Rusokastrenska, Sredezka, Isworska and Tscharlijska flow through the city. The first two flow into Lake Burgas , the Sredezka and Isworska into Lake Mandra and the Tscharlijska into Lake Atanasov . Of the three lakes that surround the city, Lake Atanasov has the highest salinity, followed by Lake Burgas. In contrast, there is only fresh water in Lake Mandra, although it is connected to the Black Sea by a natural channel. Lake Burgas and Lake Mandra are so called Limane . They were created by the damming of river waters and a post-glacial rise in sea level, which led to the flooding of the estuary. Lake Burgas, the largest Bulgarian lake, covers an area of 27.6 km² and Lake Mandra covers 10 km². The water volume of the two lakes is 19 and 11 million cubic meters, respectively.
Lake Atanasov is a natural lagoon . The lake is divided into a north and a south part (also called northern Atanasow Lake and southern Atanasow Lake) by an artificially constructed dam. The Black Sea motorway, which connects the city center with the districts north of the lake and the airport, as well as Burgas with Varna, runs over the dam. The two partial lakes are connected to each other and to the Black Sea by several channels. Although the lake has been declared a reserve, salt extraction by the Burgas Chernomorsky Solnitsi is not prohibited. Archaeological finds show that salt has been extracted there since ancient times.
The Strandscha Mountains with the nature park of the same name extend south of the Mandra Lake . The lake is separated from its natural flow into the Black Sea by a dam. It is used to irrigate agricultural land. The outflow of the lakes follows the natural canal after the dam and forms a liman in the Unsungeren nature reserve. The lake drains through the Poda Canal in the nature reserve of the same name and flows into the Black Sea Bay of Poros.
The Burgas Mineral Spring is one of the oldest mineral springs used in Europe in the Wetren district. The city is supplied with water from the Kamchija reservoirs in the Balkan Mountains and Jasna Poljana in the Strandscha Mountains as well as small local, mostly underground water sources.
Flora and fauna
There are numerous nature reserves and areas in need of protection in the vicinity of the city, including a. the important breeding and resting areas of Poda, Mandra Lake, Burgas / Waja- and Atanassow Lake. You are in the project wetlands Burgas (English: Burgas Wetlands) incorporated. For this purpose, the Burgas and Atanasov lakes as well as the nature reserve Poda were added to the Ramsar list . Numerous protected bird species nest and overwinter in the lake landscapes around Burgas, such as pelicans , herons ( night , railing , silk , silver and purple herons ) and cormorants . A large part of the world population of other migratory birds such as the pygmy pinto and the white-headed duck overwinter there. The eastern north-south migration route of migratory birds , the Via Pontica , runs through the city and over the lakes , which attracts bird watchers and ornithologists from all over Europe. Eight main routes of the stork migration unite over Burgas and there several hundred thousand white storks , pygmy shags, Dalmatian pelicans and red-necked geese as well as all European limicole species and almost 30 different species of birds of prey can be observed there.
In the Bay of Burgas and in the Burgasse lakes, around 140 different fish species have been identified, some of which can be seen in the regional museum. At the southern exit of the city there is the nature reserve Poda with a publicly accessible bird observation point. 255 bird species have been identified there, which corresponds to 67 percent of the entire bird world in Bulgaria. There are 317 species of birds in the Atanasov Lake Nature Reserve. Of these, 83 species are on the red list in Bulgaria and over 170 species are of European importance. The smallest mammal in the world, the Etruscan shrew and, since 2010, greater flamingos can also be found there .
According to legend, a species of bear called the Burgas bear is said to live in the vicinity of Burgas . According to Bulgarian media reports, there have recently been isolated encounters between humans and bears in the greater Black Sea area, the last time in August 2005. Hikers in the lake-rich region around Burgas reported direct visual contact with Burgas bears. The last undoubtedly existing bear in the Burgas region was hunted by local hunters in a wooded area near Burgas on September 24, 1874.
Several nature reserves border the urban area of Burgas or are part of the city. The nature reserves Atanasov and Mandra Lakes, which have existed since 1980, now have an area of 1,002.3 hectares after several expansions. In 1997, a large part of the Burgas lake and its shores were declared a nature reserve with an area of 379 hectares. Other nature reserves are: since 1990 the area of the mouth of the river Isworska , with an area of 150 ha, since 1989 the nature reserve Poda, with an area of 100.7 ha, since 1995 the area of Tschengene Skele , with an area of 191.19 ha , the Korijata nature reserve with an area of 11.6 hectares, established in 1995 and the Bay of Mandra Lake Usungeren declared a nature reserve in 2005 . The natural attraction Wodenizite , which has a protected area of 73.6 hectares, has also been a protected area since 1995 . The largest Bulgarian nature park, the Strandscha Nature Park, extends south of the city .
In some of the protected areas, international projects with German and Swiss participation are carried out. The Bulgarian-Swiss Society for Species Protection supports the Burgas Wetlands program . In 2009, together with the German Federal Environment Foundation and the Alfred Toepfer Foundation, another bird watching station and several breeding platforms were put into operation in Lake Atanassow. When Bulgaria entered the EU, parts of the nature reserves were included in the European Natura 2000 network.
There are several versions of the origin of the place name Burgas. Most of them refer to the Latin word Burgos or the Greek Πύργος (Pyrgos), which come from the same language family and have the meaning of tower, watchtower, castle or castle hill (→ Burgus ). Other versions derive the city name from the German borg (mountain). Kiril Wlachow added a possible Thracian origin with Bulgarian пюргос / pürgos (German: Wallburg). Finally, there is talk of a Roman burgus, which, according to an inscription, was built during the time of Antoninus Pius (138-161), or under the governor of Develtum Iulius Commodus Orfitism and in later times became a synonym for the city that developed from it. The location of this castle is unknown today. The name of the Spanish city of Burgos has a similar etymology .
First settlements in the early days
Several prehistoric and ancient settlements from the Chalcolithic to the Late Bronze Age are known in the hinterland of Burgas . At the beginning of 2008 more than 250 artefacts were found during excavations in the area of Solna Niwa (German: Salzacker), ten kilometers from the city center, near Lake Atanassow , the oldest of which date back to about 6000 BC. To be dated. The finds, including ritual objects belonging to a priest-king, bear witness to the developed agriculture , cattle breeding and salt extraction of the inhabitants of that time. The artifacts from Solna Niwa are believed to be the oldest ever found on the Black Sea coast and older than those from the Varna burial ground . They underline the prehistoric importance of the place.
A Thracian settlement in the Sladkite kladenci area served from the 6th to the 2nd century BC. BC probably as an emporion (trading center) of the Greek Apollonia . On the hill of Schiloto in the Meden Rudnik district there was an old Thracian fortress, which protected the nearby copper mines of Thracian princes at Warli brjag . A temple of the god Apollon Musagetes (Apollon the leader of the Muses) was built there. Tyrsis was another Thracian settlement located southwest of Burgas and built in the early 2nd century BC. Was destroyed. Archaeological investigations of the later mineral baths Aquae Calidae also prove Thracian pre-settlements. Under the rule of the great king Dareios I , the Thracian settlements came under Persian rule. After the Persian invasion was warded off and the Odrysen Empire was founded , the settlements became Thracian again.
Burgas emerged from several settlements on the Black Sea coast and in the coastal country, mainly from Deultum , Aquae Calidae and the later Pirgos . Deultum was initially a Thracian settlement on the western bank of Lake Mandra at the mouth of the Sredezka River . Their name Deultum (also Develtum, Debeltum, Debeltus or Develt) means in Thracian between two lakes (located) . Between 383 and 359 BC The place was again part of the Odrysen Empire under Kotys I. However, the importance of the neighboring Greek cities of Apollonia and Mesembria , which were founded in the 7th century, hampered the growth of the smaller settlement in ancient times . Until 340 BC The Macedonian King Philip II conquered the Thracian settlements.
Development from Roman times to the Middle Ages
72 BC The general Lucullus secured the region permanently for the Roman Empire . Shortly before AD 77 , a colony for veterans of Legio VIII Augusta was established east of the Thracian Deultum by the Roman Emperor Vespasian . The name Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultensium was later carried over to the Thracian city. During this time it became the second most important city in the Roman province of Thracia and the center of the lands between today's Burgas Bay and the Strandschagebirge. There a junction of the Roman military road via Militaris met the Via Pontica , which connected the coastal cities along the Pontos Euxeinos ( ancient Greek Πόντος Εὔξεινος for Black Sea). In the city center of Burgas, Roman traces can be proven with coin finds from the 1st to 4th centuries AD. To the southwest of today's train station are the remains of a Roman station .
Later, on the southern slopes of the nearby Hemus Mountains (Balkan Mountains), the place Aquae Calidae , a medicinal bath with water-rich mineral springs, which has been proven to be regularly visited by Byzantine emperors (including Maurikios ) and empresses, was built. The area of today's city also includes the earlier settlements of Pirgos , Kastiakion , Poros / Foros , Skafidia and Rossokastron . Pirgos is recorded under the name Pudizos in the Tabula Peutingeriana .
In the middle of the 2nd century, during the reign of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius , the fortress Poros and a road station (statio milliaria) with a port were built on today's Faros peninsula in the Kraimorie district. They secured a smaller bay on the Via Pontica, which is now separated from the Black Sea by a headland and which in late antiquity and the Middle Ages formed a safe harbor for develty and skafidia . There was a small monastery next to the fortress. Some historians suspect that it was the rebuilt monastery of St. George, founded by the Byzantine imperial family in the 13th century . It is not known whether Develtum like Aquae Calidae and the entire region was destroyed or conquered by the Goths around 270 . In 376 the Goths defeated an elite Roman unit near Develtum .
After the division of the kingdom of 395 of the Roman Empire the region belonging to the Eastern Roman Empire (later Byzantine) to. Under the rule of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (527-565) Aquae Calidae was secured by a fortress wall. In 708 the Bulgarian ruler Terwel defeated the Byzantine emperor Justinian II in the battle of Anchialos, immediately north of today's Burgas, and thus the Sagore region with Aquae Calidae and Develtum was able to incorporate into the Bulgarian Empire for the first time. Under the Bulgarian ruler Krum , the Sagore came permanently to the Bulgarian Empire . In this context, the Bulgarian ruler had the Bulgarian-Byzantine border wall Erkesija built. According to tradition, the Bulgarian Khan Boris I should be in or near Develtum in the presence of the Byzantine emperor Michael III in 863 . have been baptized. As a tribute to the Eastern Roman ruler, he took the baptismal name Michael and then dedicated his reign to the goal of Christianizing his empire. Around 970 the region came under Byzantine rule again. In 1093 Alexios I Komnenos stationed troops to secure the eastern passes of the Balkan Mountains in Aquae Calidae.
In 1206 Aquae Calidae, now known as Thermopolis , was destroyed by the Latin Emperor Heinrich (see Fourth Crusade ), but was later rebuilt by Bulgarians and Byzantines. In 1270 Poros was mentioned in a document from the Patriarchate of Constantinople . In 1304 the Battle of Skafida took place near Poros , in which the Bulgarian Tsar Todor Swetoslaw defeated the Byzantines and conquered the southern Black Sea coast. In 1332 the Bulgarians under Tsar Ivan Alexander succeeded the Byzantines under Emperor Andronikos III. to beat again near Burgas in the Battle of Rusokastro . At the beginning of the 13th century, the region was sacked by the Catalan Company . In the 13th century, the Byzantine poet Manuel Philes mentioned Burgas as Pirgos in his works .
Ottoman rule and first documentary mention
Develtum and Pirgos were conquered by the Ottomans under Sultan Murad I around 1367/1368 and later sold to Byzantium. Around 1453 they came under Ottoman rule for centuries together with the other nearby coastal cities as one of the last cities in today's Bulgaria. It was Deultum destroyed; the city was unable to recover in the following centuries and no longer played a role in Ottoman history. Thermopolis and Pirgos were preserved and were expanded as baths for the Ottoman sultans. In Poros , the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II built a Çiftlik ( something like a farm) for his court . For a long time the former fortress Pirgos existed only as a fishing settlement and part of the Çiftlik of Iskender Pasa ; it was mentioned in several Ottoman tax registers as part of the Aidos Kaza (approximately administrative district). Although Pirgos suffered from water shortages in the following centuries after the destruction of the ancient aqueducts , the place served as a naval base for the Ottoman fleet for Balkan campaigns. Fresh water was brought into the city on horse carts and stored in large vessels near the port.
At Poros , which became part of the Anchialo Kaza, a lighthouse was built for shipping. In the middle of the 16th century, the Ottoman traveler Hajji Kalfa mentioned the place as the first major port after the Bosporus under the name of Burgas. After the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the place developed as a shipbuilding center. Another traveler, Evliya Çelebi , reported in 1656 about two ports in town, one near Poros for the large ships and another in Pirgos in the area of today's port for the smaller ones. As the Ottoman chronicler Hacı Ali reported in his campaign diary Fethname-i Kamaniçe , the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV moved in 1672/73 in the Ottoman-Polish War (1672–1676) over Thermopolis . When Armenians were forcibly relocated from the fighting region during the campaign of 1673 , some settled in Burgas. In 1675 the Armenian Archbishop Mardiros Krimeci visited them in Pirgos .
In the 17th century Greek fishermen settled from nearby Anchialos. The place expanded to what is now the urban area and grew into a small fishing village. He was named Ahelo-Burgas , Pirgos or Borgos . The village of Atanasköi (later Atanassowo, now the Isgrew district) was also established during this period . The population earned its livelihood mainly by fishing and growing grain .
Lafitte-Clavé , who visited the region in 1784, described Burgas as strategically important and the largest city in the bay he first mentioned as the Bay of Burgas , noting that it was previously known as the Bay of Poros . Lafitte-Clavé called the lake to the west of the city Burgas Lake and its outlet Burgas . Several Western diplomats, including Wenzel Edler von Brognard (1786) and Claude-Charles de Peyssonnel (1787) reported at that time that Burgas one Kasaba (Small Town) with 1,100 to 1,200 homes and an important commercial center and trading center for agricultural goods from Eastern Thrace was . Burgas is the center of the coast of Ahtopol to Gyozeken and own his own measure of grain , the Burgas- Kile .
In the Russo-Ottoman War (1828-1829) , the fortified city was captured on July 12, 1829 by Russian troops with the support of the local population. The Turkish-Muslim residents fled in advance. In the brief period that followed, the city was the base of the Russian fleet . At that time, the Russian administration only had 475 houses, two mosques ( Cilesis zâde Mustafa Cami and Gazi Paşa Camii ) and one church ( Holy Assumption ). 212 houses belonged to Turkish residents and were abandoned. The church was used by Greeks , Bulgarians and Armenians alike. When, after the Peace of Adrianople, it became known that the region should remain in the Ottoman-Turkish Empire, the Christian residents moved away with the Russian army in front of the advancing Turks. They mainly settled in Bessarabia . A small part returned to Burgas in the next few years. In 1836 the German general Helmut von Moltke visited the city and left the oldest known city map.
In the 1850s, Crimean and Caucasian Tatars were settled in Burgas. They built the Azizie mosque with an attached school. In 1853 Austrian merchants laid the foundation stone for the Catholic Church. During this time, the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz lived and worked in the city. In the 1860s, Burgas again became an important trading center and transshipment point for agricultural goods from eastern Rumelia and finally ousted Anchialos. With the administrative reforms of the Tanzimat in 1864, the Ottoman Empire was reorganized. This made Burgas the center of a Kaza in Sanjak Sliven . In the same year, the Ottoman government settled Circassians in the nearby villages of Mugres (now Gorno Eserowo), Yakezli (now Debelt) and Aivadcik (now Djulewo). In 1863 the city had approx. 3000 inhabitants, half of them were Muslim citizens (Turks, Tatars and Circassians). According to a French investigation of the Ottoman Black Sea ports, Burgas was the port with the second highest turnover of goods after Trebizond in 1865 .
Many Bulgarians from the Balkan towns of Kotel , Elena , Sliven and Stara Sagora and the beach villages settled in Burgas in the following period. Influenced by the ideas of the Bulgarian rebirth, the Bulgarians initiated the fight against the dominant Greek language in schools and churches. In 1865, the first Bulgarian school, the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius School , and in 1869 the first modern Bulgarian Orthodox Church of the same name were consecrated there.
In 1873 an Ottoman census for Burgas showed 682 houses and 1,753 male residents. At that time the city was divided into a Turkish quarter, which is now located between the port entrance and the Hotel Primorez, a Greek quarter to the west of the Turkish one around the Church of the Holy Mother of Jesus and a Bulgarian one around the current cathedral of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius . The houses and the mosque of the Tatars followed to the southwest of the Bulgarian quarter. Although the Bulgarian population in Burgas did not take part in the fighting for political independence as in the April uprising in 1876, important communication channels and arms deliveries from the Inner Revolutionary Organization ran through the port city . The revolutionary leaders Vasil Levski and Panayot Chitow visited the city several times.
Port of Eastern Rumelia and Union of Bulgaria
In the Russo-Turkish War of Liberation of 1877/78, the safe harbor of Burgas was used as a retreat by the Turkish and Tatar population of Eastern Bulgaria as well as by deserters and irregular Ottoman troops ( Başı Bozuk ). At the end of 1877, the Ottoman army sent a 300-man force of the regular armed forces with the steamer Selime to protect the population and the port from marauding gangs. On January 28, 1878, the armed forces withdrew with the entire Turkish and Circassian population from the city in the direction of Constantinople. On February 6, 1878, the Ottoman-Turkish rule over the city formally ended. On this day, after the Edirne armistice , Burgas was captured by Russian units led by General Lermontov. A Bulgarian community was founded the very next day and Niko Popow was elected as the first Bulgarian mayor. At that time, Burgas had around 3,000 inhabitants. The Russian army was billeted in the former Turkish quarter, set up a hospital and stayed in the city until mid-1879.
After the Berlin Congress of 1878, however, Burgas was again part of the Ottoman Empire and incorporated into the newly constituted autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia . As a result, the first refugees from Eastern Thrace settled and a small part of the Turkish population returned to Burgas, but never regained their pre-war strength. At the same time, a unity committee was formed against the decisions of the Berlin Congress in Burgas and throughout the country. This set itself the goal of preventing the return of the Ottoman administration to Eastern Rumelia by all means and to unite all Bulgarian areas in the long term. The Burgas Committee disguised itself as a sports club and was called Morski Orel . The sports club was later the local committee of the Bulgarian Secret Revolutionary Central Committee , which united the unity committees in Eastern Rumelia.
At that time, Burgas was a small port town with no running water and no sewage system . The water was brought into the city by carts or water carriers from several freshwater springs in the area. The city was divided into a Greek, a Bulgarian and a Tatar district as well as a Roma district . With the departure of the Turkish population, their mosques in the city were destroyed. City council decisions were announced in Bulgarian , Greek and Ottoman . Despite the lack of water, the city was an important trading center, the only major port in Eastern Rumelia and the administrative center of one of the six departments. The economic development attracted refugees to Burgas from the Bulgarian areas of Thrace and Macedonia, which were still under Ottoman direct rule . In 1880 the Tschitalischte Probuda was opened. The first weekly newspaper in Burgas appeared on July 20, 1885 under the name Burgaski westnik .
The city remained Ottoman until September 1885 as the Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia after a military coup with the Principality of Bulgaria merged . The unification of Bulgaria, however, was disapproved of by Austria-Hungary and Russia , while Great Britain supported the principality. In the following Serbian-Bulgarian war , citizens from Burgas also took part under the leadership of the Unity Committee. Although the Peace of Bucharest of 1886 restored the status quo , Russia was not satisfied and Tsar Alexander III. refused to recognize the Bulgarian Prince Alexander von Battenberg as ruler of enlarged Bulgaria. For its part, the Ottoman government demanded that the port be placed under Ottoman administrative sovereignty as a prerequisite for the normalization of the disrupted relations after the unification, which was rejected by the Bulgarian prince.
At the beginning of May 1886 a conspiracy by the pro-Russian forces in Burgas under the leadership of the Russian Colonel Nikolai Nabokow against Alexander von Battenberg failed . Although the Bulgarian Prince Alexander I was overthrown in an officer's coup initiated by Russia in August , the Bulgarian government of Stefan Stambolow was able to prevail against Russia. Another military revolt initiated by Russia in Burgas in October was suppressed by the central government with the help of the Aytos Company under the leadership of Major Kosta Paniza .
Economic upswing, refugees and the Ilinden-Preobraschenie uprising
From the late 19th century, Burgas developed into an important economic center. The city's first development plan was approved in 1891. The oriental cityscape changed after the western model, above all through the newly erected public buildings: the city library was founded in 1888, the sea garden was laid out in 1891 and the cathedral of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius was built in 1897 . In 1895 Georgi Ivanov opened the first printing house in Burgas, followed by the printing house of Ch. Weltschew in 1897, which in 1900 changed its name to Printing House Brothers Weltschewi . The formation of one of the largest Armenian communities in Bulgaria in the former Turkish quarter can also be traced back to this time . The opening of the railway line to Plovdiv on May 27, 1890 and the sea port in 1903 were important stages in this boom and led to the rapid industrialization of the city. In the period thereafter, 151 factories were established. These included the sugar refinery founded by Avram Tschaliowski , the Great Bulgarian Mills by Ivan Chadschipetrov and the Kambana oil and soap factory . In 1900 the mineral springs were included in the urban area. In 1907 the first freshwater pipeline leading from the Balkan Mountains into the city was built, which was expanded between 1910 and 1912.
Bulgarian refugees from Macedonia have settled in the city since the 1880s. Most of them, however, only came from the area around today's northern Greek city of Giannitsa between 1923 and 1925 , which they had to leave as part of a population exchange between Greece and Bulgaria after the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine . On January 29, 1895, Macedonian and Thracian Bulgarians founded the refugee organization Pirin Planina on the initiative of Christo Stanischew . Later other organizations were added, such as the Macedonian charity organization Dimitar Michajlow , the cultural, educational and charitable association of the Macedonian women Mentscha Karnitschewa and the Macedonian youth organization Pelister . The Thracian Bulgarians then founded the Edirne expellees association Strandscha on December 15, 1896 . During the first congress of the Thracian refugee organizations between February 19 and 21, 1897, they formed the Bund of Thracian Associations Strandscha and decided to found revolutionary committees. These should resume the armed struggle in the Bulgarian areas of the Ottoman Empire.
With the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate by the Sultansferman in 1870 , the Bulgarian Orthodox Church regained its independence. Several places on the western Black Sea coast, including Burgas, remained under the ecclesiastical authority of the Greek Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was not until 1900 after long protests that the Ecumenical Patriarchate handed over the last churches and monasteries to the Bulgarian Church. This did not happen peacefully everywhere; the Greek hegumen of the Sweta Anastasia monastery wanted to sell the church treasure beforehand . This attempt led to unrest in the city and only through the intervention of the Bulgarian government could pogroms against the Greek population by Macedonian Bulgarians be prevented.
The concentration of refugees and the proximity of the Ottoman border meant that in the run-up to the Ilinden-Preobraschenie uprising (1903) in Eastern Thrace, Burgas became an important logistical base of the BMARK . In the vicinity of the city, near today's village of Rossenowo , training camps , weapons and provisions stores were set up. The leading ideologist of the BMARK, Goze Deltschew , visited Burgas several times in 1900 and restored the structure of the organization in the region. He set up an illegal bomb factory in which the explosives for the bombings of Thessaloniki were produced (1903). Many fighters ( Komitaji ) of the uprising moved from Burgas with their Cheetas (companies) to the Ottoman Empire (→ Petrowa Niwa ). On September 2, the Hungarian ship Vaskapu burned down while entering the Bay of Burgas after a failed bomb attack by the BMARK. After the bloody suppression of the Ilinden-Preobraschenie uprising, Burgas became the main place of refugees; Refugee camps have been set up in the vicinity.
In 1906, the actions of the Greek Andarten in Macedonia led to unrest and pogroms against the Greek population in the city and the surrounding area, which was overcrowded with refugees. In the following time the Greek church and school in Burgas were expropriated. However, there were still an Armenian, a Turkish and a French private school in the city. In the following years, the Greek population mainly emigrated to Constantinople. In the same year, the commercial school founded in 1905, today's commercial high school, moved into the premises of the former Greek school.
Balkan Wars, First World War, interwar period
In the First Balkan War , Burgas was shelled by the Ottoman fleet on October 18, 1912 , when they set up a sea blockade in the bay in front of Burgas. The sea blockade was lifted on November 8th of the same year. After the defeat of Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War, the city was overcrowded with refugees and at the end of the First World War their numbers increased again. In 1918 the Cistercian order, which looked after the refugees in Burgas, founded a boarding school for girls. In 1920 the city became Bulgaria's most important grain export port again and already had more than 21,000 inhabitants. In 1921 the German School was opened at Kiril and Metodij Str. 45 , a year later the Swiss AG for Trade and Industrial Values in Glarus received a 25-year concession for the industrial use of Lake Atanasow with salt pans for salt production. After the Ilinden-Preobraschenie uprising, the Treaties of Sèvres , Neuilly-sur-Seine and Lausanne as well as the Balkan Wars and the World War, the rapid development of the city was additionally caused by large waves of refugees from ethnic Bulgarians displaced from Macedonia and Thrace in what is now northern Greece and the Turkey pushed forward. Due to the same treaties, the last Greeks left the city in 1929. According to information from Thracian displaced persons' associations , more than 60,000 Thracian Bulgarians , mainly from Eastern Thrace, were admitted to the Burgas district during this period .
In 1924, Deweko (now HemusMark AD ) was founded in Burgas, the first pencil factory in south-eastern Europe, which in 1937 became the official supplier to the Bulgarian court of tsars. In 1925 a specialized high school for mechanics and technology opened its doors. A large market hall was opened the following year. As a result of the cold spell in the winter of 1928/29, the bay of Burgas iced over at the end of January and beginning of February, so that the offshore island of Sweta Anastasia could be reached on foot. In 1934 Burgas already had 34,260 inhabitants.
Burgas from the middle of the 20th century
During the Second World War , Red Army troops occupied the city on September 9, 1944, and shortly afterwards the entire country. After the Communists came to power in 1945, the German and Italian schools and the Volksuniversität were closed. and nationalized over 160 factories, shops, baths and other private property. Total nationalization hampered economic development in the city for decades and the inability of the new rulers to run the business led to a collapse in the food supply and a shortage of everyday goods in the city in the first post-war years.
After the end of the war, the Hagana organized several ship convoys for the European survivors of the Holocaust , who sailed from Burgas for Palestine . Around 12,000 people, including the city's Jewish population, emigrated with these convoys. At that time, in addition to the baths in the old Thermopolis, there were six public baths and a seaside resort in the city.
Since the 1950s and 1960s, several companies in the oil and chemical industry have settled in Burgas as part of the state-decreed planned economy . Industrialization brought additional population growth with it and a German school was reopened in the 1960s. Between 1970 and 1973 a new development plan was adopted and the city was expanded and rebuilt according to the project of the architecture studio IPP Glawproekt according to the socialist model. In the following years, the districts of Isgrew, Sorniza, Slawejkow and Meden Rudnik were built, in which buildings from this period still shape the cityscape. In the Slawejkow district , the longest block of houses in Bulgaria with 25 staircases, which was awarded the title Socialist Pride , was built until the 1980s . The city's central market hall replaced a new two-story building. It has been called Krasnodar ever since .
In 1976 the village of Kara Bair was incorporated into the Meden Rudnik district. It is the largest quarter of the city and is connected to the city center by a four-lane road that runs along a dam on the banks of Burgasse. The districts of Kraimorie , Sarafowo , Banewo , Marinka and the surrounding municipal villages of Twardiza and Isworischte emerged from the former refugee camps . On June 21, 1978, the terrorists of the June 2 movement, Till Meyer , Gabriele Rollnik , Gudrun Stürmer and Angelika Goder, were arrested by German officials in Burgas and then brought to the Federal Republic .
Development in the Post-Communist Era
After the end of communism in 1989, the architecture and appearance of the city changed. Nevertheless, today's cityscape of Burgas, especially in the periphery, is shaped by the expansion of the city during the communist era, when the former refugee camps were converted into modern residential areas. In winter 1996/97 found in Burgas, as across the country protests against the government under the Zhan Videnov used hyperinflation instead. In 1998 the port city became the seat of one of the five Bulgarian local courts. In contrast to other major Bulgarian cities such as Plovdiv or Varna , there was no drastic population decline in Burgas after the fall of the Wall. Burgas is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. In 1992 the city had 190,057 inhabitants, in 2007 there were already 229,250 people. In 2009 the former villages of Banewo and Wetren were incorporated into the city, so that the population rose to 231,059.
In spring 2010, floods caused by melting snow and days of rain led to flooding in the districts of Podeba, Dolno Ezerowo and Akazijte and the road to Meden Rudnik. On July 18, 2012, seven people, including five Israelis, were killed in a terrorist attack at Burgas Airport . Another 32 were injured, some seriously.
The further development of the city is also influenced by its location between the Black Sea in the east and the Burgas lakes and the industrial area. In October 2010, the expansion and construction of Burgas Airport began. In the same year it was decided to expand the city in an easterly direction between the lakes. Bridges should lead across the lakes to relieve traffic in the city center. A ferry service between the districts and a ring road are also under discussion. In summer 2011 the renovation of the city center and the old casino was completed. In this context, the Super Burgas plan is discussed. Based on the model of Barcelona, it is intended to open the city towards the port and based on the model of Hamburg towards the lakes, and make part of the port facilities accessible to tourists and residents. The first work began in September 2011. To open up the city to the waters, a new building and development plan for the city was approved by the municipal council in July 2011 and construction of a passenger port began in the autumn of the same year .
Since the first census carried out after Bulgaria became a member of the European Union was subject to EU requirements, in 2011 it was possible for the first time not to answer questions about ethnic and religious affiliation or about the mother tongue. In Burgas, for example, only 181,116 citizens answered the question of ethnicity, of which 171,898 identified themselves as Bulgarians , 3,800 as Turks , 1,330 as Roma and 666 stated another ethnic affiliation ( Germans , Russians, etc.). Fearing pervasive discrimination, the Roma prefer to belong to the local majority population and often identify accordingly. In doing so, they influence the number of Turks and less so the number of Bulgarians. The actual number of Armenians living in the city could not be determined by the census either.
Population numbers depend on the respective area. The figures are census results (¹), estimates (²) or official updates from the statistical offices (³).
The city council of Burgas consists of the mayor and the number of 51 city council members required by the municipal code. The city council is re-elected every four years, the next election is in 2015. Since the last local elections on October 23, 2011, the distribution of seats in the city council has been as follows, with a turnout of 53.4%:
|Political party||Election result 2011||+ / - *||Votes||Seats||+ / - *|
|GERB||46.90%||+ 25.22%||44,255||28||+ 14|
|NFSB||11.64%||+ 11.64%||10,979||7th||+ 7|
|Bulgarian Socialist Party||10.12%||+ 3.15%||9,552||6th||+1|
|Union of Democratic Forces||4.16%||+ 1.53%||3,922||2||(=)|
|Sredna ewropejska klasa||2.91%||- 1.51%||2,748||2||- 1|
|Movement for Rights and Freedoms||2.54%||+ 0.14%||2,401||2||(=)|
|LIDER||2.52%||k. A.||2,376||2||+ 2|
|Dwischenie za social humanisam||2.04%||k. A.||1.925||1||+1|
* Changes to the 2007 local elections
Mayor since 1990
After the democratic changes in November 1989, Nikola Aleksandrov was proclaimed the city's first democratic mayor in December. He held this post until September 1990, when he was replaced by Atanas Demirew. Demiriev held the office until his death in May 1991. The first modern democratic local elections, won by opposition leader Prodan Prodanov of the Union of Democratic Forces , took place in October. His mandate ended in November 1995 and was marked by political confrontation with the former rulers and financial problems. Prodanov was beaten in the local elections in 1995 by the candidate of ex-communists Joan Kostadinov , who also make up the central government.
Kostadinov was confirmed in his office in 1999 and 2003 and has long been considered the “longest ruling mayor of modern times” in Bulgaria. In 2007 he ran again for the mayor's office as a candidate of the Union of Thracian Associations , but could not prevail. The runoff election on November 4th was won by the GERB party candidate, Dimitar Nikolov, with 63.55 percent, ahead of Valery Simeonov, the candidate of the nationalist coalition and owner of Bulgaria's largest cable television operator, Skat TV , with 36.45 percent of the vote. The turnout in the municipality of Burgas was 42.30 percent. Dimitar Nikolov was supported as a candidate by all democratic forces, including the Union of Democratic Forces in Burgas.
In the local elections in 2011, Dimitar Nikolov was confirmed as Lord Mayor. The GERB politician won the elections in the first ballot with 70.86 percent of the vote and again received support from the other democratic forces in the city. The runner-up Valery Simeonov as a candidate for the national conservative NFSB convinced only 11.25 percent of the voters.
In 2004, the office of ombudsman, completely independent from the administration, was introduced in Burgas. After several attempts, a majority for a candidate was only found in the city council in December 2011. The lawyer Tanjo Atanasov was elected as the city's first ombudsman. The Ombudsman can request information and inspection of files and documents from the administration in ongoing administrative proceedings. The Ombudsman cannot intervene in legal proceedings.
Coat of arms and city colors
The coat of arms of Burgas shows several historical facts on a blue shield. The lion symbolizes the bravery of the urban residents. Its fish tail symbolizes the abundance of fish in the waters around Burgas. The lion carries a tower in his hands, symbolizing the old castle, of which only one tower remained and which gave the city its current name. Above the blue sign are two caravels symbolizing the port. The blue color of the shield represents the waters around Burgas and the sea.
The colors of the city of Burgas are blue and white .
Consulates and representations as well as membership in international associations
Turkey has its consulate general in Burgas . The following countries have further diplomatic missions there: Estonia , Georgia , Israel , Romania , Russia , the Czech Republic , Ukraine , Hungary and Belarus . In 2004 the Black Sea Border Coordination and Information Center was opened in Burgas . It emerged from the regional cooperation of the Black Sea riparian states ( BSEC ). The center collects information about illegal activities in the Black Sea region and promotes the exchange of information between the coast guards of the neighboring countries.
The municipality of Burgas is a member of 12 international organizations, including Eurocities , ICLEI and BALCINET , a network of over 30 Balkan cities . The community has an office at the European Union in Brussels.
Burgas works with thirteen official partner cities and regions as well as other cities around the world , particularly in the areas of ecology, urban planning and education:
|Moscow Oblast, southwest||Russia||Partner region|
|San Francisco||United States, California||project-related cooperation|
|Yantai||People's Republic of China||Twin town|
Economy and Infrastructure
In the 21st century, Burgas is one of the most important economic and industrial locations in Bulgaria. The Burgas region is highly industrialized. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Burgas region ranks third behind Sofia City and Stara Sagora and thus well above the overall Bulgarian average. Unemployment is the lowest in the whole country at 4.3 percent, so full employment is achieved in the summer months . Approx. 16,700 companies have their headquarters in the city. Important economic sectors are trade, industry (food production, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical industry) and services as well as tourism and transport.
Burgas is the center of the Bulgarian fishing and fish processing industry. Up to 80% of the Bulgarian fish catch is handled there. The largest cold store in the country is located in the port of Burgas for this purpose. The largest Bulgarian fish processing factory is Slavyanka , smaller companies in this industry are Tschernomorski ribolow , Atlantic Group and Krez Mar Seafoods. The largest companies in the food industry include the confectionery manufacturer Pobeda , the Burgasko Piwo brewery , the large bakeries Burgas hljab and Hlebozavoda , and the large winery Festa Holding .
The export is mainly carried out by the chemical and oil industry, wood, fishing, textile and cable industries as well as by the wine and spirits manufacturers. The chemical and oil industries include LUKoil-Neftochim and HemusMark AD . With its processing capacity of 176,800 barrels of crude oil a day, the LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas refinery , built in 1964, is the largest in Southeast Europe. Since 1999, it has belonged to the Russian group LUKoil , which at the end of January 2012 announced further investments of 1.5 billion US dollars and the creation of 3,000 new jobs by 2015.
With Promet Steel, the only Bulgarian manufacturer of reinforcement elements made of ribbed steel is located in Burgas . The steel mill has a capacity of 0.8 million tons per year. The large companies in the mechanical engineering industry include the Burgas shipyard, the Burgas ship repair plant, the freight wagon manufacturer Transwagon , as well as Elkabel and Marie Bentz. Companies in the wood processing industry are Kronospan , Detelina and Dograma, which mainly process wood from the Strandscha and Balkan mountains.
Agriculture is characterized by the cultivation of wine and grain. In 2010 the most modern fruit and vegetable market in Bulgaria was opened with an area of 1.6 hectares . It has 3500 m² of covered area and is built according to EU standards. Several large industrial zones are being planned in which international and green economy companies are to be located. Voestalpine's investment plans with a volume of up to five billion euros have been on hold since the economic crisis in 2009. The first intermodal terminal in Bulgaria is being built to complement the industrial zones .
The construction industry is not one of the most important economic sectors in Burgas, but three of the largest Bulgarian construction companies are based there: Pons Holding AD , Transstroy and Eurobuilding Engineering .
In the vicinity of the city there have been the largest wine-growing regions in the country since ancient times , as well as large salt , iron , copper , lignite and gold mines . The region has been known for salt and ore mining since prehistory . Today it is the only Bulgarian region where salt is extracted from sea water.
A revolutionary change in the development of the cityscape and the use of the city with far-reaching consequences for the quality of life in the city is the expansion of the city in an easterly direction and the creation of three large shopping centers, Burgas Plaza , Galleria Burgas and The Strand. All major Bulgarian retail chains are present in the city. The free trade zone in Burgas is the only one on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.
Shipping had a formative importance in Burgas for centuries. Despite the structural change, it is still an important economic and labor market factor today. Burgas is connected to Poti , Novorossiysk and Port Kawkaz by regular ferry services across the Black Sea . The regular passenger ferry connections to the tourist centers and to Istanbul in the 1970s and 1980s were discontinued after the fall of communism. From June 2013, the traffic with two hydrofoils , which run four times a day to Sozopol and Nessebar and once a week to Varna, was resumed.
The port area of the city of Burgas is divided into three ports: the port of Burgas (port east, port west, container terminal and marina), the fishing port and the oil port south of the city, near Kraimorie . Smaller ports can be found in the Kraimorie and Sarafowo districts . The port of Burgas is the largest overseas and fishing port in the country. There, 60 percent of Bulgarian imports and exports of goods are handled by sea.
There is also a container terminal , the Burgas shipyard and the ship repair yard in the port . The ports of the last two, like that of the Transstroy company , have a special working regime. The port of Burgas has been expanded with a large marina and an additional container terminal to cope with increasing exports.
Burgas Airport was opened for civil aviation in 1947. Between 1962 and 1963 a reinforced concrete runway with a length of 2600 meters was built, which was extended to 3200 meters between 1977 and 1979. Before the license was granted in 2010, the airport took up an area of 2,600. The terminals for domestic flights and the international (?) Terminal for departure were completed in 1974, the terminal for arrivals in 1992. In 2006, the Bulgarian government awarded a 35-year concession for Burgas airport as part of the privatizations for EU accession the German Fraport AG , which wants to expand it further. There are scheduled flights from Burgas nationally twice a day to Sofia and Varna, and internationally several times a week to London , Moscow , Budapest and Tel Aviv . In addition, Burgas Airport is used as a reserve airport for the airports of Plovdiv , Varna and Sofia , for private flights and, in the summer months, for charter flights. In 2011, a total of 2,253,320 passengers were counted in Burgas, an increase of 19 percent over the previous year.
Burgas has a very well developed infrastructure and is well connected to the trunk road network. It lies at the beginning of the Pan-European Corridor No. 8 and the longest national road in Bulgaria , the I / 6, which connects the Black Sea to the North Macedonian border via the capital Sofia . These transport corridors are also part of the TRACECA corridor, which connects Europe with Central Asia. Burgas is also the starting point of the A1 , which connects the city with Sofia, and the A5 , which is currently under construction , which is to connect the city with Varna. In the distant future, a ring road will direct transit traffic out of the city and another highway will connect Burgas with Istanbul . The European roads 87 and 773 , as well as the national roads I / 9 , II / 79 and II / 99 run through the port city .
Local public transport is well developed in Burgas: in addition to two trolleybus routes (T1 and T2), there are 28 bus and 6 Marshrutka routes . The route length is 510 km. Regional long-distance traffic is also carried out by bus lines from the two bus stations. From the Jug (South) bus station next to the main train station, there are connections to all coastal towns in the Burgas province, to Burgas Airport (line 15) and to Varna. The Zapad (West) bus station next to the Old Train Station is the hub for transit connections and inland. Bus routes to Sofia and in summer to Istanbul leave every hour from both bus stations. The city center is accessed by a fine-meshed bus network. The city's transport company is called Burgasbus . Other transport companies are Komfort OOD and Burgasvolan 95 , which manage routes within the city, as well as M-Bus and Enturstrans , which are mainly used outside of the city.
In 1890 the railway line to Sofia was put into operation. During the Second World War , the German Wehrmacht built another railway line from Burgas to Varna. In 1939 the section to Pomorie was officially opened by the Bulgarian king. The regular service there was given up in the 1980s. Today Pomorie is connected to the Bulgarian railway network via Burgas, but only freight trains from the nearby salt and coal mines run towards Burgas. In the 1980s the railway line to Sredez was opened.
Today Burgas has six passenger stations, the Zentralna gara (Hauptbahnhof), the stations Vladimir Pavlov (Old Station), Sarafovo , Solnizi , Towarna gara and Gorno Eserowo in the homonymous district, and four marshalling yards. Daily train connections from Burgas Central Station to all major Bulgarian cities are supplemented by international connections to Moscow , Prague , Budapest and Krakow . In 2011, the modernization and expansion of the Burgas-Sofia railway line began as a high-speed line, which is due to be completed in 2013. [obsolete] Next to Sofia, Burgas is to become a central component of the future Connecting Europe core transport network of the European Union in Bulgaria. The journey time on the 428-kilometer route to Sofia is six to seven hours. One of the seven rail freight transshipment points in Bulgaria is located in Burgas.
In addition to the national print media appearing in the country, a number of local newspapers and magazines are published in Burgas. These include the daily newspapers Tschernomorski Far , Burgas Dnes i Utre and Faktor , the weekly Kompas and Soleno Morsko , the Wochenanzeiger Alo Burgas and the magazines More and Virginia .
There are a number of local radio and television stations. Bulgaria's largest cable TV operator, Skat TV, is based in Burgas. Other cable TV operators are TV Mix , Far Tv and Kanal 0 . In addition to the municipal radio, Radio Burgas , Radio Glarus , Radio Juschen Brjag , Radio Maja and Power FM also broadcast from the city. In June 2012 the Bulgarian national radio opened its eighth regional program with the local station BNR Radio Burgas and also broadcasts from the port city.
Burgas is the health center of Eastern Bulgaria. The city's clinics look after the entire southern Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the southeast of the country in emergencies . Among the major clinics are the First and Second Municipal Hospitals , the Deva Maria and Life Hospital private hospitals, and the balneological sanatorium in the Burgas Mineral Spring. In addition, the city has an eye clinic, a stomatology , a psychiatry , an oncology clinic, a military hospital and other smaller clinics. At the moment (January 2012) another hospital and a children's clinic are being built in the Meden Rudnik district.
Education and Research
The first University of Burgas, the People's University of Burgas, was founded in 1924 by the women's association Samosasnanie (self-confidence). The initiative came from the chairwoman of the association and women's rights activist Scheni Patewa . At the Volksuniversität, children of the destitute and refugees could get a higher education. When the communists came to power, the People's University was closed.
The Assen Slatarow University of Burgas was founded in 1963. It is state-run and offers more than 26 courses leading to a Bachelor's or Master's degree . The university is divided into three faculties, three colleges and a department for foreign languages. The three colleges: Technical College, Medical College and Tourism College function as autonomous structures based on the British college model. The Assen-Slatarow University of Burgas also has a library with more than 250,000 volumes, a computer center, a central research laboratory unit in which 10 different research laboratories are integrated (including the research laboratory for rubber ( rubber ) or the research laboratory for mathematical chemistry), a book publisher and a university printing house. The university cooperates closely with the LUKoil Neftochim refinery and is a member of the network of Black Sea universities .
The Free University was founded in 1991. It is divided into four faculties and a Cisco Networking Academy run with Cisco Systems . The Free University has a library, a computer center, several research laboratories and is a member of the network of Balkan universities .
The American University in Bulgaria also has a campus in Burgas .
There are all types of Bulgarian schools in Burgas. The public educational institutions include 22 primary schools, nine secondary schools and high schools, eleven vocational high schools (or vocational colleges), six specialized high schools and one seaman's school. There are also several privately owned schools of all types.
The Goethe-Gymnasium Burgas is a German-speaking high school with teachers from Germany. In addition, the business school is working with the Austrian Ministry of Education and with the support of the German city of Bensheim on the ECO NET and ecological water protection projects. The students of the academic -mathematical high school Akademik Nikola Obreschkow regularly win international school competitions and other awards. The other most important educational institutions include the high school The Holy Brothers Cyril and Methodi , the English-language grammar school Geo Milew , the grammar school for foreign languages Wasil Levski , the grammar school for architecture; the technical high school, the music high school Pantscho Wladigerow and the technical vocational colleges for chemical technologies, mechanics, shipbuilding and fishing.
Libraries and Archives
In addition to the university libraries, there is the city library founded in 1888. It bears the name of the Bulgarian revolutionary poet Pejo Jaworow and is one of the oldest in the country. The city library has (as of 2004) over 600,000 media units (books, audio books, video and music carriers); 70,500 volumes of Bulgarian, Russian, English, German and other foreign periodicals and all editions of Darschawen Westnik (Bulgarian State Gazette) published since 1883 . The personal archive of the poet Petko Rossen with over 3000 monographs and over 300 periodicals is kept in the library. Other small reading rooms and several Tschitalischte (cultural centers) with smaller libraries are located in some of the city quarters.
The State Archives Directorate is located in Burgas , one of the 27 regional directorates of the State Agency Archivi . It was founded in 1952 and today has a reading room, library, photo laboratory and a microfilm laboratory. The management maintains 4157 archive holdings with around 286,000 units, 661 private archives, 524 memories, over 6800 photographs and over 100,000 negatives (as of 2005).
Culture and leisure
Theaters, opera and culture houses and art galleries
Burgas has a playhouse , a children's and puppet theater , an opera house , a philharmonic orchestra and several art galleries . Burgas is one of the few cities in Bulgaria that has an opera and ballet theater, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the pedestrian zone. In 2000, the Burgas State Opera and Philharmonic were merged into one institution. The Philharmonic became a state institution in 1947, but its beginnings were in 1910 with the establishment of the Rodni swuzi Music Association . The Philharmonie uses both its own stage and that of the opera house. The Burgas State Children's and Puppet Theater, founded in 1954, is also located in the Opera House. The playhouse is located next to the old courthouse in the old town center of Burgas. It opened in 1882 with the performance of Malakowa by the writer Petko Slawejkow and has been named after the actress Adriana Budewska since 1953 .
Burgas is one of the few Bulgarian cities with a functioning youth culture center. It is also used by the Strandscha folklore ensemble . The ensemble was founded in 1965 and consists of a choir, orchestra and dance group. In 2011 the former seaside resort casino was renovated and converted into a cultural center. Exhibitions on military history and issues are held in the officers' club. As small cultural centers with space for events, exhibitions and club work, there are several Tschitalischte and the house of the petrochemist .
The city is known in the Bulgarian art scene for its numerous galleries. The city art collections are housed in the Petko Sadgorski City Gallery . It is located in the former synagogue built between 1905 and 1910 by the Austrian architect Friedrich Grünanger . After the Communists came to power and the Jewish population emigrated after the Second World War, the building was nationalized and reopened as the city gallery on April 7, 1947. Other well-known galleries are the gallery of the Art Association of Burgasser Painters , the Nesi Gallery , the Burgas Gallery and the Eti Gallery .
The Historical Museum is located in the city center at 31 Lermontov Street , opposite the First Police Station. The museum was founded in 1925 and in addition to the exhibitions on the recent history of the city has a rich collection of ancient coins and one in the form of a crypt -developed Ikonengalerie with works from the south of Bulgaria and the present-day northern Turkey.
The Ethnographic Museum is located in the house of the former mayor of the city, Dimitar Brakalov . The building was built around 1873 in the typical architecture of the Bulgarian Revival period. There is a permanent exhibition of Bulgarian costumes and jewelry of the city's residents. The majority of the exhibition comes from the home regions of the numerous refugees in what is now Greece and Turkey.
In the Archaeological Museum there are exhibitions on the older history of the city, the region and the marine theme from the Thracian and Roman times to the Ottoman rule. The results of the archaeological excavations in the vicinity, which have been intensified in recent years, are also there. The central exhibition area and the museum administration are located on Aleko Bogoridi Street in the pedestrian zone. The museum was founded in 1912 as the Debelt Archaeological Society .
The diversity of flora and fauna of Burgas and the region has been brought together in three permanent exhibitions of the city's natural science museum. The youngest museum is the house museum of the poet Petya Dubarova . It was founded in 1995 and is the organizer of the annual literary competition of the same name.
The city is known for its musicians and music festivals. The most popular Bulgarian group Familia Tonika , the conductor Emil Tschakarow and the world-famous opera diva Rajna Kabaiwanska come from Burgas . The audience is considered to be one of the most demanding in Bulgaria. In the alternative scene, the city is known as the home of Bulgarian Melodic Death Metal , which is also represented internationally by bands such as The Revenge Project , Dark Inversion , Necromanncer and Vrani Volosa .
In addition to the city festival, the ecclesiastical feast day of St. Nicholas on December 6, several festivals and events of various genres take place in Burgas, especially in summer. Some festivals, the Sofia Film Fest on the coast , the Burgas International Folklore Festival, the Burgas and the Sea Music Festival , Burgas Blues & Jazz Festival and Spirit of Burgas , the Poets' Days Petya Dubarova , the Biker Meeting , one of the largest Bulgarian motorcycle meetings , and the traditional celebrations to honor the patron saint of the city take place every year.
The festival of German and Austrian classical music takes place at the end of April. The international regatta Burgas Sailing Week takes place at the beginning of May . In the same month the national literary competition Petya Dubarova , the international theater festival Erata na Vodoleja and in the third week of the month the international sailing regatta Port Burgas Sailing Week are held. On May 24th, as in the whole country, parades of the schools to honor the Bulgarian (Cyrillic) alphabet and the Slav apostles Cyril and Methodius will take place.
The month of June begins with the opening of the Sand Sculpture Festival on the city beach, which lasts until the end of September. Also in June the Bourgas Summer Culture Days - Summer, Sea and the Festival of Classical and Opera Music Emil Chkarow are celebrated. On the evening of June 30th, people gather on the Black Sea coast to see the sunrise on the morning of July 1st. This remnant from the hippie era of the 70s on the Burgasser city beach is also called July Morning .
In the summer of July, the Pejo-Jaworow Poetry Days follow, and on the last weekend of the month, the Burgas Swimming Marathon .
At the beginning of August the national music competition Burgas and the Sea and the Burgas Blues & Jazz Festival take place. On the second weekend of the month, the scenes of the contemporary music festival Spirit of Burgas will be set up on the city beach. From August to October, the Petko Zadgorski City Gallery hosts the Friends of the Sea art exhibition . The anniversary of the Ilinden-Preobraschenie uprising is celebrated from August 19-20, but the main commemoration is held in the Petrowa Niwa region south of Burgas . The International Folklore Festival and the National Week of the Sea also take place at the end of August . In September, the international theater festival On the Beach is held.
The Haunted Shores metal festival takes place on the last weekend in November . On the day of the city festival, the protector of the city, the sea and the sailors, St. Nicholas, is honored and, in addition to a large number of events, the winners of the title "Honorary Citizen of Burgas" are announced. The Burgas Cup international dance competition is also held in December . One week before Christmas, the winners of the Helikon Literature Prize will be announced.
Sports and sports facilities
The city has a large number of sports facilities. The main sports halls are Zala Isgrew , Zala Bogoridi , BZ Lukoil Neftochimic and Zala Mladost , the latter being a multifunctional hall. In 2009 a new multi-purpose hall with a size of 2,585 m² was opened in the Meden Rudnik district and named after the first Bulgarian Olympic gold medalist Nikola Stantschew . In 2010 the Isgrew sports facility was inaugurated in the district of the same name. In January 2011 the city administration announced the construction of a large sports hall. This is to be built in the area of the former army base of the 1st Black Sea Brigade and attract events of European and international importance. It should have a capacity of approx. 7000 seats and be called Arena Burgas . In December of the same year, the Slawejkow sports facility in the district of the same name was inaugurated. In it is the largest artificial climbing wall in Bulgaria.
There is great enthusiasm for football in the city and across the country. The most successful football clubs include FC Neftochimic and FC Chernomorets Burgas . FC Chernomorets plays in the B Grupa , in its stadium of the same name. FC Neftochimic, the 1997 runner-up and three-time cup winners, are also currently playing in B Grupa and play their home games in the Lasur Stadium.
In addition to the two big football clubs, there are other smaller clubs with stadiums in the Kraimorie, Banewo, Dolno Eserowo and Sarafowo districts. These include FC Master, FC Olimpik, FC Wetren, FC Spartak and FC Sweti Nikola. Other former clubs that play in the third Bulgarian football league are FC Morska Fauna, FC Port Burgas and PFC Kosmos
In 1971, the city hosted the European Youth Basketball Championships and a year later the European Women's Basketball Championships next to Varna. The BK LUKoil Neftomchimic Burgas is one of the strongest teams in the Bulgarian women's basketball league and multiple Bulgarian champions and cup winners.
In the Bulgarian men's volleyball league , Burgas is represented by VK Lukoil Neftochimic , Bulgarian champion from 2007 and cup winner in the 2007/2008 season.
Every year at the beginning of May an international regatta takes place in the Bay of Burgas , which is organized by the Yacht Club Port Bourgas . On July 30, 2011, after a 15-year break, the Burgas International Swimming Marathon took place.
From September 10 to 19, 2011, the international RS: X windsurfing frigates took place in front of Burgas , which were part of the European championship in the Olympic class and which served to qualify for the world championship. The Windsurf Burgas windsurf club is located in the northern section of the city beach of Burgas .
A rowing competition was held for the first time in Bulgaria in 1924 in Burgas . Ten years later, women were also allowed to take part in the competition in Burgas for the first time. Today two of the few rowing teams in Bulgaria, the RC Lukoil Burgas and the Chernomorets Burgas rowing club, are based in Burgas. The athletes from RC Chernomorets usually complete their training sessions in the waters of Burgasse.
There are two water polo teams in Burgas , the WBK Chernomorets and the WBK Neptun .
The Burgas Cycling Club , founded in 1905, is not only the strongest in Bulgaria, but also one of the best in all of Southeast Europe . He has international successes not only on the racetrack, but also on the road. The cycling club is the organizer of the international cycling race Grand Prix Bourgas . Burgas is a regular stage destination of the Tour of Bulgaria .
There is a dirt jump facility with three different levels of difficulty in Park Ezero .
Burgas is one of the few cities in Bulgaria that offers excellent thermals for paragliding . One of the starting options is in the sea garden, directly above the central area of the city beach. Another at the foot of the Warli Brjag mountain in the Shiloto area in the Meden Rudnik district. The start takes place there at 209 m above sea level.
There are also two motocross facilities in the city, one in the Meden Rudnik district, where parts of the Bulgarian motocross championship are held every year, and the second in the Poroi area not far from the Sarafovo district.
Sights and remarkable buildings
The dynamic economic and cultural development of the port city has also been reflected in its architecture since the end of the 19th century. Although the architecture of the quickly built refugee shelters and the architecture of the socialist years characterize the city quarters and former municipal villages today, 264 buildings from different Bulgarian and European styles have been declared cultural monuments in Burgas .
The main streets Alexandrowska and Aleko Bogoridi cross at the town hall and characterize the center of Burgas and form the longest pedestrian zone in Bulgaria. The southern course of Aleko Bogoridi Street from the town hall bears the name Ferdinandova in memory of Tsar Ferdinand I. On the right and left and in the immediate vicinity of the pedestrian zone, in addition to numerous shops, cafes, restaurants and bars, most of the city's sights are concentrated. So begins the ul. Alexandrowska front of the station (Czarina-Joana Square), performs at City Hall with the Town Clock, on bedesten , the monument of Russian soldiers at the district court and the church Ivan Rilski past and ends at the Free University of Burgas. The street that bears the name of Alexander of Bulgaria is also home to the former buildings of the Agricultural Bank (now Bulbank ) and the Bulgarian National Bank (now the National Social Security Institute ), as well as the 71-meter-high Hotel Bulgaria. Many of the sights have been restored in recent years. About the Aleko-Bogoridi road leads to the Archaeological Museum, the Sea Garden and the beach promenade.
Fortifications and border walls
The remains of the ancient city of Develtum are located west of Burgas near the village of Debelt. The colony for veterans of Legio VIII Augusta , founded during the reign of the Roman Emperor Vespasian , is the only colony of free Roman citizens on today's Bulgarian territory. In the centuries that followed, the colony grew into one of the richest cities in the Haemimontus province . The area has been archaeologically investigated since 1925. The necropolis , the city thermal baths , parts of the ancient and medieval fortress, the medieval customs office and extensive coin treasures, statues, inscriptions and ceramics were uncovered. The finds can be viewed in the Archaeological Museum in Burgas. In 1965 Develtum was declared an architectural and architectural monument and in 1980 the area was declared an archaeological reserve. Since the 1980s, the Archaeological Museum in Burgas has been operating a branch in addition to the main excavation site, which also houses a small museum. The Develtum archaeological reserve was awarded the European Heritage Label by the Bulgarian state in 2010 .
To secure the port of Develtum , the double fortress of Poros was built in antiquity . The remains of this fortress can be found on the peninsula of the same name in the Kraimorie district. The peninsula was used by the Bulgarian Navy until the 1990s. For this reason it has not yet been possible to research it extensively. Parts of the fourth-century southwest and northwest walls were excavated in 2008 in the Poda area. The masonry is 2.10 to 4.20 meters thick. The remains of a monastery from the 13th century were found at the highest point of the fortress area. Among the artifacts exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Burgas is an inscription of the Roman Emperor Gordian III. in ancient Greek.
The remains of the ancient and medieval fortress Aquae Calidae and Thermopolis are located in the area of today's mineral baths of Burgas in the Banewo district at the foot of the Balkan Mountains. 1206 plundered the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade under Henry VI. the city and destroyed it. The imperial scribe stated: “It was a very beautiful city, in a good location, with many hot springs - the best in the world. We took good prey from it ” . In the next few years the springs were expanded again, but were devastated by the Catalan Company in the 13th century . The first excavations were carried out by Bogdan Filow in 1910 . Large-scale excavations have been taking place since 2008, which by 2010 uncovered an area of over 3,800 m², including the ancient thermal baths, the north gate and parts of the fortress walls with a thickness of 5 meters that can be visited. In July 2011 an area of 36,000 m² was declared the Thermopolis archaeological reserve .
The Erkesija was a medieval border wall on the Bulgarian-Byzantine border. It was built by order of the Bulgarian ruler Krum in the 9th century and extended from today's Burgas to Simeonowgrad on the Mariza river in the Thrace plain . Its length was 140 kilometers. The border wall parted shortly before Pirgos and its sections reached the banks of today's Burgas and Mandra lakes. A well-preserved piece is located between the Develtum archaeological reserve and the Gorno Esserowo district.
The Cathedral of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius is dedicated to the Slav apostles Kiril and Methodius and is located in the city center opposite the school of the same name. It was built between 1897 and 1907 by the Italian architect Ricardo Toscani. It is different from all churches built during the Bulgarian Revival . The church is a three - aisled cross - domed church in an east-west orientation. The central apse with the altar and the richly decorated altar wall are in the eastern part of the church. The naos divides the church into three naves, each supported by two rows of five marble columns. The central and largest dome is located above the main nave ; There are another four small domes above the two side aisles. The narthex on the west side is wider and higher than the central building. The main entrance is on the west; other smaller entrances on the north and south sides are only opened for special ceremonies. Masters Mitjo Tzanew from Drjanowo and Kuzman Dimitrov from Macedonia were also involved in the construction. The wall paintings are made by the painters Gjudschenow and Koschuharow, who were also involved in the painting of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia. Part of the cross of Christ has been kept in the cathedral since 2009 .
The Church of the Holy Assumption , also known as the Church of Our Lady or Greek Church , is the oldest Orthodox church in the city. The previous building was destroyed during the Russo-Ottoman War from 1828 to 1829 and is dated to the beginning of the 17th century. With the return of the Christian population, the main building of today's church was erected in the Greek quarter in 1840. Until the Church of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius was built in 1869, it was also used for services of the Bulgarian Orthodoxy. In 1906 the Greek church was taken over by the Bulgarian population in response to similar events in Greece. The church was expropriated, placed under the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and renamed the Ascension of Christ . In 1952 the church was restored and it got its previous name back.
In 1673 the Armenian community built the Surp Haç (Church of the Holy Cross) with Bulgarian support . It has been rebuilt several times, most recently in 1855 when the bell tower was built. The single-nave hall church typical of Armenian architecture is today a place of worship and a cultural monument. On the west side of the church is the memorial erected in 1990 for the Armenians killed in the genocide of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.
The construction of the Church of St. Ivan Rilskis is closely connected with the expansion of the city after the liberation from Ottoman rule and the flow of refugees after the Balkan Wars (1912-13). In 1913, Alexandar Goergiew-Kodschafalijata left land for needy refugees and poor people in the city as well as for the construction of a church in today's Bratja Miladinowi district . Construction work began a year later. Additional donations came from the Association of Reserve Officers and the local population. The building was completed and inaugurated in 1934. The iconostasis is 3 meters high and 11.5 meters wide. The wall paintings were made by master Nikolai Koschukharov. In 1951 the former wooden bell tower was replaced by a new one, which is located to the left of the entrance to the church. There are four bells hanging there, the largest weighing around 100 kg. On November 1, 1971, relics of the Holy Martyr Vakch were solemnly buried in the church.
Other church buildings are the Bulgarian Orthodox Churches of the Holy Trinity , the Holy Birth of Mary and Saint Pimen Sografski, as well as the Roman Catholic Churches of the Holy Assumption and the Holy Mother of God . The Holy Mother of Jesus Monastery is located between the Meden Rudnik and Gorno Eserowo districts.
The mineral baths of Burgas
The mineral baths of Burgas ( Bulgarian Бургаски Минерални Бани / Burgaski Mineralni Bani) are located around ten kilometers from the city center in the Banewo district . The warm therapeutic baths were already known in ancient times under the name Aquae Calidae and later under Thermopolis (from the Greek θερμός / thermos = warm and πόλις / polis = city) among the Thracians , Greeks and Romans . In the 16th century, the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman I the Magnificent had baths ( hammam ) built on the Roman foundation walls , which still function. In 2012 the Ottoman baths are to be extensively restored.
Today's baths are located in the middle of a spacious landscape park on the southern slope of the Balkan Mountains and are a balneological health resort of national importance. The mineral water has a temperature of 41 ° C. It flows with a yield of 36 liters per second and has excellent drinking and taste qualities. The water is suitable for treating the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system, gynecological diseases, and for therapies after fractures and trauma. There is a physiotherapy clinic, a health resort clinic, drinking water sources, an outdoor swimming pool with a hydrothermal pool, sanatoriums and rest homes.
The sea garden and other green spaces
The city has many parks and green areas, the sea garden is a monument of national importance. The largest park in the city was defined in the first development plan from 1891 and extends about five kilometers along the city beach. The steep bank, on which the sea garden winds, opens up a wide view of the entire coast and the bay of Burgas. A major contribution to the development of the park in the center of Burgas was the takeover of the park management by Georgi Duchtew in 1910 , who then designed the Royal Gardens in Sofia. From the terrace you can see the whole bay: in the north to the town of Pomorie , in the south to the town of the artists Sozopol and to the eastern foothills of the Strandscha Mountains.
In the park are the former casino and the open-air theater popularly known as the summer theater, with 2000 seats and a movable roof. Many events take place there in summer, for example the international folklore festival and the Burgas Summer Jazz Festival , as well as opera and theater performances, hit evenings and rock concerts.
The park is home to many works by Bulgarian and international artists. The international flower exhibition Flora takes place there every spring and autumn . The Pantheon of Burgas, a memorial to the Bulgarian soldiers and volunteers who died in the wars, is located near the exhibition grounds . The sand sculpture festival has been held annually since 2008 from June to October in the northern marine park near the city beach with sand sculptures by well-known international artists.
The southern part of the sea garden is the venue for the MTV music festival Spirit of Burgas , which takes place annually in the second week of August.
In the city center is the Borissowa gradina park (about Boris Gardens ), also known as Knjas- Borisova gradina . He is after the Bulgarian Tsar I. Boris named. The park is enclosed in the square of William Gladstone , Aleksandar Stambolijski , Knjaz Boris I and Tsar Kaloyan streets ; its park avenues were laid out in the form of a ship anchor. The municipal youth center is located in the northern part of the park, and a tennis and soccer field in the southern part.
In addition to the Sea Garden and the Boris Garden, there are five other large parks in the urban area: the Kapcheto Park (87 hectares ) on the eastern slope of the Warli Brjag peak, the Kraimorie Park (412.6 hectares) along the Black Sea coast, the Brjastovets-Draganowo-Izworishte Park (818.3 ha) on the southern slope of the Balkan Mountains and the Ezeroto Park between Lake Atanasov and the districts of Isgrew and Sornitsa. In the Rossenez Park, which lies south of the city in the direction of Sozopol in the foothills of the Strandscha Mountains and along the Black Sea coast, there is the fishing settlement and the Alatepe villa settlement.
Beach casino and pier
Beach casino and pier are part of the sea garden. The first bridge was built in 1936 next to the newly built public beach baths. It was a steel framework construction. The bridge was connected to the beach promenade and the casino by a stone staircase. The beach casino was built according to the plans of the German-Bulgarian architect Dimitar Fingow and inaugurated in 1938. The opening was one of the most important events in what was then the Kingdom of Bulgaria. In the 1980s, the old bridge was demolished and the previous steel and wood construction was replaced by a reinforced concrete construction . At the end of the bridge a quay was built for smaller tourist boats and fishing trawlers. In the winter of 2010/11, the casino was completely refurbished and converted into a three-story cultural and event center. One level is used as an exhibition space for the Burgas museums. One of the main pedestrian streets in Burgas, Aleko Bogoridi Street, ends at the old casino. The bridge is one of the city's landmarks.
The regional customs office building was built in 1911 as the last administrative building on the station forecourt. The project comes from the Austrian architect Weinstein; The Bulgarian-Austrian architect Georgi Fingow was in charge of the construction . Stylistically, the building is a mixture of later neoclassicism and eclecticism . The customs office building was restored in 2005. In 1927, the town hall was built, also in the neoclassic style, on the site of the first city library, which was destroyed by fire in the early 1900s.
The current district court building was built together with the monument to the Russian soldier and the house of the petrochemist in the 1950s as the party headquarters and center of the Communist Party of Bulgaria with several meeting rooms on the central Trojkata square in the city center. The square was previously called Baba Ganka , named after the merchant's wife Ganka Chadschipetrowa , who campaigned for the refugees in the 1900s. After the democratization of Bulgaria, the party building was first handed over to the newly founded Free University, which moved into its new building in 2004, which was voted Building of the Year by the Bulgarian Chamber of Architects in the same year. In December 2009 the first virtual court process in Bulgaria took place in the Burgas District Court.
The monument to the Russian soldier was erected between 1952 and 1953 and is popularly known as Alyosha . It depicts a Soviet soldier on an 18-meter-high foundation with his left hand raised. The bronze reliefs at the foot of both sides of the foundation depict scenes from the Second World War.
The 72 meter high radio and television tower of Burgas, built in 1993, is located on Dunav 1 street , next to the technical high school. The tower is architecturally based on the Eiffel Tower in Paris and is also known as the Eiffel Tower on concrete feet .
The fundamental point of the city of Burgas is the work of the sculptor Radostin Damaskow and gives the exact coordinates of the port city. The copper plate shows a trident (Ψ) as a symbol of Neptune , three fish as a symbol for Jesus Christ , the Argonauts' ship for the port and shipping and a laurel wreath as a symbol of the rich history of Burgas. The work was installed in 2011 as part of the redevelopment of the inner city at the intersection between Kiril and Methodius streets and Aleksandrovska streets in the central pedestrian zone.
Burgas is the birthplace and place of work of numerous prominent personalities, for example the opera diva Rajna Kabaiwanska or the composers Georgi Schagunow , Anestis Logothetis and Emil Tschakarow . Other intellectuals with ties to Burgas are the writers Djado Blago , Petko Rossen , Anton Straschimirow , Anton Donchev and Nedjalko Jordanow ; the poets Stefan Tinterow , Christo Fotew , Petja Dubarowa and Recep Küpçü ; as well as the painters Georgi Baew and Damjan Zaberski . Among the most famous athletes who have won Bulgarian and international championships several times are the European champion in the 100-meter hurdles Svetla Dimitrova and mainly wrestlers and footballers. These include the Olympic champions Nikola Stantschew , Prodan Gardschew and Atanas Komtschew as well as the footballers Slatko Jankow , Ilija Gruew , Radostin Kischischew , Dimitar Dimitrov . The actors Apostol Karamitew , Georgi Kalojantschew and Tontscho Tokmaktschiew and the poet Kostas Varnalis spent their childhood in Burgas .
Due to the short terms of office, few mayors had a lasting influence on the development of the city well into the 20th century . Well-known politicians who were active in the port city are Ivan Chadschipetrov , Dimitar Stefanow and the MEP Stanimir Iltschew . Other politicians who come from Burgas are Rumjana Schelewa (Bulgarian Foreign Minister), Rumen Ovcharow (Bulgaria's Minister of Economic Affairs) and Ginjo Ganew ( Bulgaria's first ombudsman ). The will of the merchant and landowner Alexandar Goergiew-Kodschafalijata enabled the establishment of the Brjata Miladinowi district and the Church of St. Ivan Rilski.
- Ivanka Nikolova, Filip Panaiotov (Ed.): България. 20 век (Eng. Bulgaria. 20th century ), TRUD Publishers, 1999.
- Jan de Boer: Apollonia Pontica and its Emporia, Ports of Trade? In: Murielle Faudot et al. a. (Ed.): Pont-Euxin et commerce. La genèse de la "route de la soie". Actes du IXe Symposium de Vani (Colchide), 1999. Presses Universitaires Franc-Comptoises, Besançon 2002, ISBN 2-84627-079-1 , pp. 131-135.
- Miroslaw Klasnakow: Селищна могила Бургас. Сезон 2009 (German: The settlement hill Burgas. 2009 season ). In: Българска Археология 2009 (German Bulgarian Archeology 2009 ), Sofia 2010, pp. 10-11.
- Ivan Karajotow , Stojan Rajtschewski , Mitko Ivanov: История на Бургас. От древността до средата на ХХ век. ( Istorija na Burgas: od drevnostta do sredata na XX vek , German: History of the city of Burgas. From antiquity to the middle of the 20th century. ) Publishing house Tafprint OOD, Plovdiv 2011, ISBN 978-954-92689-1-1 .
- Stojan Rajtschewski : Старият Бургас. (German: The old Burgas ), Verlag Zahari Stoyanov, 2011, ISBN 978-954-09-0266-1 .
- Atanas Sirkarow: Архитектурата на Бургас 1878-1940. (German. The architecture of Burgas 1878-1940 ), Verlag Baltika, Burgas 2010, ISBN 978-954-8040-29-7 ( table of contents (PDF)).
- Municipality of Burgas City (English)
- Municipal Council (Bulgarian)
- Burgas Oblast website (English, Bulgarian)
- Map of the city Burgas (English)
- About the history of the city and its surroundings (English, Bulgarian)
- More information about the city and the Burgas region
- Website with information and pictures about the Burgas lake landscape (English, Bulgarian)
- Stanimir Dimitrov: Banewo and Wetren are part of the city of Burgas. Darik Radio, January 29, 2009, accessed January 29, 2009 (Bulgarian).
- CMP Consulting: Development plan of the city of Burgas for the period 2007–2013. (PDF; 2.2 MB) (bulg. План за развитие на Община Бургас за периода 2007-2013). (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 31, 2012 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Organization of the city of Burgas. Website of the city of Burgas, accessed on 23 August 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Free University of Burgas: Geographic location, landscape and climate of Burgas. Retrieved September 8, 2011 .
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Osteuropakunde: Osteuropa: Zeitschrift für Gegenwartsfragen des Ostens , Volume 47, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1997, p. 329.
- Francis W. Carter, David Turnock: Environmental problems in Eastern Europe in Routledge natural environment - problems and management series , 2nd edition, Verlag Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-13757-8 , pp. 58-59.
- Nikolova / Panaiotov, p. 37, p. 504.
- Lidia Cholpanova, Nikola Kazanski, Ralitsa Tsacheva: Bulgarian environmental projects 1992–1995 , Pensoft Publishers, 1995.
- David Turnock: The East European economy in context: communism and transition , Routledge, 1997, p 333rd
- Diana Bedrosjan: Burgas realized several projects in the field of ecology. Darik Radio, March 10, 2011, accessed March 13, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Municipality of Kameno: Development plan for the municipality of Kameno. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 6, 2012 ; Retrieved January 9, 2012 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Another 23 million leva for the sewage system in Meden Rudnik. Darik Radio, accessed February 20, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Burgas implements several projects to relieve traffic. (No longer available online.) News portal burgasnews, February 3, 2012, archived from the original on June 23, 2012 ; Retrieved February 8, 2012 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Turnout too low - referendum failed. News portal bourgas-news.com, accessed on January 8, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Georgi Schetschew: Burgas wants to save energy. Capital Online November 7, 2011; Archived from the original on November 9, 2011 ; Retrieved November 8, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Burgas is the greenest city in Bulgaria. Darik Radio, November 7, 2011, accessed December 13, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- The Annotated Ramsar List: Bulgaria. The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. Ramsar Convention, archived from the original on October 19, 2013 ; Retrieved November 14, 2011 .
- Official project page: The wetlands of Burgas. Retrieved September 1, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Spatiawildlife: Early autumn migration tour. The tour ended up with 170 bird species as well as 32 species of butterflies! Retrieved September 1, 2011 .
- Information about the fauna of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Poda Nature Conservation Center, archived from the original on September 11, 2011 ; retrieved on September 1, 2011 : “300,000 white storks and 30 species of birds of prey in the city and its surroundings. The Burgas region has become a “hotspot” for bird watchers from all over Europe. ” Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Birdnet - 5/05 - Spectacular bird migration in Bulgaria. (PDF; 26 kB) (No longer available online.) Association for the Promotion of the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds e. V., archived from the original on January 31, 2012 ; accessed 4 January 2012 : "There unite eight Hauptzugrouten and each year some 300,000 white storks, all European Limikolenarten and almost 30 different birds of prey fly over the city." info: The archive link is automatically inserted and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Wetlands in Bulgaria. (PDF; 253 kB) Species diversity on the migration route “via Ponticum”. (No longer available online.) Association for the Promotion of the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds e. V., archived from the original on January 31, 2012 ; accessed on January 4, 2012 : “In the immediate vicinity of the southeast Bulgarian coastal town of Burgas are the four internationally important breeding and resting areas of Poda, Mandra Reservoir, Vaya and Atanasov Lakes.” Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Wesselin Maksimow: Layered Pink Flamingo. Darik Radio, accessed November 30, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Jordan Jowkow: Balkan legends (translation from Bulgarian) . Berlin 1959, p. 147f.
- Kurt Floericke: Bulgaria and the Bulgarians. Stuttgart undated (around 1915), p. 75.
- Atanasovsko Lake. Important bird areas. Specialized website on bird protection in Bulgaria: Birdsinbulgaria.org, accessed on December 20, 2011 (English).
- Specialized website for bird protection in Bulgaria: Birdsinbulgaria.org: Mandra-Poda-Usungeren-Complex. Important bird areas. Retrieved December 20, 2011 .
- Burgas Lake. Important bird areas. Specialized website on bird protection in Bulgaria: Birdsinbulgaria.org, accessed on December 20, 2011 (English).
- Chengene Skele. Important bird areas. Specialized website on bird protection in Bulgaria: Birdsinbulgaria.org, accessed on December 20, 2011 (English).
- Cf. Tacitus : Note III, 26, 2; CIL ; VIII, 2546CIL ; VIII, 2548Sergio Zamora: El origen del español. El Castellano, 1999, archived from the original on September 3, 2014 ; Retrieved September 1, 2010 (Spanish). ; Peter Soustal: Thrakien (Thrace, Rhodope and Haimimontos) , Tabula Imperii Byzantini Volume 6, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-7001-1898-8 , p. 234, quotation: According to an inscription (154/155 AD) from Pantschewo are established in Thrace for the protection of the province under Antoninus Pius (138-161), respectively the governor C. Iulius Commodus Orfitismus burgi and praesidia , and especially the per fines coloniae Flaviae Deultensium ; Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 7.
- Iris von Bredow : Burgas. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 2, Metzler, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-476-01472-X , Sp. 855.
- Wesselin Maksimow: Burgas - crossroads of ancient civilizations . Darik Radio, accessed August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Unique find completely twisted the story of Burgas. dnes.bg, accessed August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- See Regional Museum Burgas: History of the City of Burgas. (PDF; 1.3 MB) Retrieved January 26, 2012 (Bulgarian). ; Burgas Regional Museum: History of the city of Burgas. Retrieved August 26, 2011 (English, abstract).
- Faudot, Murielle / Fraysse, Arlette / Geny, Évelyne: Pont-Euxin Et Commerce , Institut des sciences et techniques de l'Antiquité, Presses Univ. Franche-Comté, 2002, ISBN 2-84627-079-1 , pp. 110-126 and 130-135
- Klasnakow, pp. 10-11.
- Ivan Wenedikow: Thrace . In: Gold of the Thracians. Archaeological treasures from Bulgaria . Zabern, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-8053-0435-8 , pp. 11-19.
- Iwan Karajotow, Stojan Rajtschewski, Mitko Iwanow: History of the city of Burgas (Bulgarian История на Бургас), 2011, ISBN 978-954-92689-1-1 ; Summary
- Vladislav Škorpi, Karel Škorpil: Някои бележки върху археологическите и историческите изследования в Тракия. (PDF; 9.8 MB) Staatsdruckerei Ostrumelia, Plovdiv, 1885, p. 92 , accessed on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Wesselin Makswimow: Interview with Zonja Draschewa, head of the Museum of Archeology in Burgas about the fortress. Darik Radio, accessed August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 60–65.
- Herwig Wolfram: Die Goten: from the beginnings to the middle of the sixth century: draft of a historical ethnography , Verlag CH Beck, 2001, p. 130.
- The old Bulgarian border wall "Erkesija". geopan.org, accessed August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill. Leiden Vol. 1, p. 1325 f. (Article: Burgas)
- Iskender Pasa efkavendan Pirgos iskelesi , Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 62.
- Daniela Dimitrova: Un batiment public et un parc comme amorce à l'extension de la ville de Bourgas, BG. (PDF; 5.6 MB) enoncé théorique pour le projet de master 07. Retrieved on October 2, 2011 (French): “La première information détaillée sur la ville Bourgas de XVII siècle vient de l'épiscope Mardiros Krimeci qui dit seulement deux choses à propos de Bourgas "
- See: Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 68, 274, 297 and André-Joseph Lafitte-Clavé, M. Duverne de Presle: Reconnoissance nautique et militaire du Golfe de Bourgas, au Nord-Est de Constantinople. In: Annales des sciences et des arts. Volume 3. Colas, 1810, pp. 58-59.
- Etudes historiques. A l'occasion du XIII Congrés international des sciences historiques - Moscou, août 1970. Acad. Bulg. des sciences, 1970, pp. 243 and 252.
- his impressions were collected between 1753 and 1756; See Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 67, 280; and Claude Charles De Peyssonnel: Traité sur le commerce de la Mer Noire. Volume 2, Cuchet, 1787, p. 151.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 301.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 69, 75, 90.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 112-113.
- Wael B. Hallaq , Donald Presgrave Little: Islamic studies presented to Charles J. Adams , publisher BRILL, 1991, p 211th
- Website of the School of Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius: History of the School of Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 17, 2010 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Online edition of the newspaper Faktor: History of the City of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 13, 2016 ; Retrieved on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian): “Първото българско училище в Бургас било открито през 1865 год. от даскал Петко от Атанаскьой “ Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 76, 109, 133-134; 198-201
- Burgas . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 12, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 654.
- Regional library Pejo Jaworow Burgas: The liberation of the city of Burgas. Retrieved September 8, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 135-138.
- Stefan Pejkow, Petranka Dimitrova: The first mayor of Burgas - Niko Popow. Morski Vestnik, accessed 21 November 2011 (Bulgarian): "... След Берлинския договор (13 юли 1878 г.) в града се завръщат турските бежанци, преселват се българи от Източна Тракия, околия Малкотърновска ..."
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 173–180.
- Vesselin Maksimov: В "Пробуда" няма да рахатясат. Darik Radio, accessed December 15, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 220–228.
- Cf. Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 180–190; Simeon Radew : The Builders of Modern Bulgaria (from the Bulgarian "Строителите на съвременна България") Volume 2: The Regency (Bulgarian Регенството), Verlag Sahari Stoyanov, Sofia, 2004.
- See: Ulf Brunnbauer : Mountain Societies in the Balkans: Economy and Family Structures in the Rhodope Mountains (19th / 20th Century) , Böhlau Verlag Wien, 2004, p. 104; Duncan M. Perry: Stefan Stambolov and the emergence of modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895 , Duke University Press, 1993, pp. 85-86, pp. 114-115, p. 142, pp. 146-147.
- See: Duncan M. Perry: Stefan Stambolov and the emergence of modern Bulgaria, 1870–1895 , pp. 85–86, pp. 114–115, p. 142, pp. 146–147; Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 180-190; Simeon Radew: The October Uprising in The Builders of Modern Bulgaria (from the Bulgarian "Строителите на съвременна България") Volume 2, Verlag Sahari Stoyanov, Sofia, 2004, pp. 480–484 ; Dimitar Ivanov: Стефан Стамболов - от перото до ятагана , TRUD Publishers, 2005, p. 86.
- See: Armenian community in Bulgaria. Archived from the original on September 25, 2009 ; Retrieved September 25, 2009 (Bulgarian). ; Ruth Leiserowitz: The Unknown Neighbors: Minorities in Eastern Europe in Political and Contemporary History , Ch. Links Verlag, 2008, p. 264.
- Article Bulgaria. In: Meyers Konversationslexikon. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- RJ Crampton: A concise history of Bulgaria , Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 121.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 210–220.
- Nikolova / Panaiotov, p. 300.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 190–201.
- According to the complaint of the Greek Metropolitan of Anchialo in the Filipopolis newspaper , issue 30 of July 27, 1901; Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 199.
- The Montreal Gazette: Ship blown up on Black Sea. The austrian Streamship Vaskapu Met whit disaster. September 3, 1903, accessed November 3, 2011 .
- Балканская война 1912–1913 годов на море (сборник) , ЛеКо publishing house, Saint Petersburg, 2005, ISBN 5-902236-20-7 , pp. 11-14.
- Chimia. Volume 3 , Swiss Chemical Association, 1949, pp. 33-35.
- Thracian organization "Anthim the First": Refugees in Burgas. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009 ; Retrieved July 25, 2009 (Bulgarian).
- Official website of Koh-i-noor: History of HemusMark AD. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 24, 2012 ; Retrieved September 1, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 236.
- Regional Library Pejo Jaworow Burgas: Бургас. Retrieved September 8, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Portal decommunization: Chronology of Bulgarian Communism (bulg. Хронология 1944–1947). Retrieved on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian): “ 9 септември 1944. В условията на започнала съветска окупация .... Съветските войски Рокупация .... Съветските войски Бур завземаг. "
- Burneva / Murdsheva: German as a foreign language (s) of Bulgarian universities in Hiltraud Casper Hehne: The restructuring of courses "German as a foreign language": problems and prospects; Conference November 17th - 19th at the University of Hanover , Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2006, p. 238.
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, pp. 246–250.
- Gaby Coldewey: Between Pruth and Jordan: Memoirs of Czernowitz Jews. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2003, p. 105.
- Idith Zertal: From catastrophe to power: Holocaust survivors and the emergence of Israel , University of California Press, 1998, pp. 118–120, 139, 208, 298.
- Nikolova / Panaiotov, p. 323.
- Gerald Knaus: Bulgaria , Verlag CH Beck, 1997, p. 144.
- Eckhart Dietrich: Attacks on the constitutional state: the Baader / Meinhof gang, the June 2nd movement, the revolutionary cells and the Stasi in the West Berlin operational area (from original judgments with explanations and comments) , 2009, p. 84.
- Ben Fowkes: The post-communist era: change and continuity in Eastern Europe , Verlag Palgrave Macmillan, 1999, p. 176.
- Nikolova / Panaiotov, p. 214.
- See: Wesselin Makswimow: Отводняват Комлука, язовири преливат. Darik Radio, accessed February 13, 2010 (Bulgarian). and В Елхово градят дига край прииждащата Тунджа, езерото Вая преля в Бургас. News portal mediapool.bg, accessed on February 14, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Bourgas airport expansion and overhaul to cost 20M leva. the sofiaecho, accessed October 19, 2010 .
- Nick Iliev: Super Bourgas project is launched. the sofiaecho, accessed June 30, 2009 .
- Diana Bedrosjan: Super Burgas with the first intermodal terminal in Bulgaria. Darik Radio, accessed December 14, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Bulgaria: Population by ethnicity. (xls; 758 kB) Census 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013 ; Retrieved January 27, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Eminov, Ali, 1997: Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria. London, ISBN 1-85065-319-4 .
- History of the city of Burgas. Zone Bulgaria, accessed February 14, 2010 .
- Burgas . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 12, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 654.
- Burgas. In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 3. 1905, p. 619 , accessed on August 25, 2011 .
- Dimitar Sterew: Бургас. (No longer available online.) In: На път. Мисли, случки и впечатления. Publishing house Г.П. Иванов, 1908, archived from the original on April 5, 2016 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- National Statistical Office: General information on the city of Burgas. January 23, 1959, accessed December 21, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Jan Filip: Encyclopedic Handbook on the Prehistory and Early History of Europe: With the participation of numerous scholars and scientific institutions , Volume 1, Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy, 1966, p. 186.
- National Statistics Office: Inhabitants of Bulgaria 1985. September 1, 1987, accessed on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Central residents ' office Bulgaria: data from the residents'offices 1999. 1999, accessed on August 24, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Central residents ' office Bulgaria: data from the residents'offices 2008. 2008, accessed on August 24, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Central residents ' office Bulgaria: data from the residents'offices 2009. 2009, accessed on August 24, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Central residents ' office Bulgaria: data from the residents'offices 2011. Retrieved on March 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Central Election Commission: Final results of the 2011 local elections in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 26, 2011 ; Retrieved October 31, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Central Election Commission: Final results of the 2007 local elections in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 24, 2011 ; Retrieved September 7, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the city of Burgas: Mayor of the city of Burgas. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Rosiza Amelewa: Dimitar Nikolow is the new mayor of Burgas. Darik Radio, accessed November 4, 2007 (Bulgarian).
- Stefka Kruschkowa: The new mayors in the Burgas Oblast. Darik Radio, November 5, 2007, accessed February 8, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Center for the Study of Democracy: Институцията омбудсман в Европа и България: правна същност и практика (in German, about 4 , 2004: The Institution of the Ombudsman in Bulgaria , P. 72.
- Tanjo Atanasov is elected first ombudsman in Burgas. News portal chernomorie-bg, accessed on January 26, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city of Burgas: Ombudsman of the city of Burgas. Retrieved January 26, 2012 (English).
- Zonja Draschewa, head of the museums in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Information portal burgasinfo, archived from the original on January 11, 2012 ; Retrieved September 8, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. (PDF; 443 kB) The Black Sea Synergy - A new initiative of regional cooperation. European Commission, April 11, 2007, accessed August 25, 2011 .
- Website of the city of Burgas: The city of Burgas today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city of Burgas: Membership of the city of Burgas in international organizations. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city of Burgas: Town partnerships of the city of Burgas. Retrieved February 14, 2020 (Bulgarian).
- partner cities. (No longer available online.) City of Gent, formerly in the original ; accessed on February 14, 2020 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the city of Burgas: Burgas municipality. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Бургаски фирми от риболовния бранш са против ИАРА да е във Варна. Darik Radio Burgas, accessed March 16, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Official website of Port of Burgas: The cold store at the Port of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 26, 2007 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Norman Polmar: The Naval Institute guide to the Soviet Navy. 5th edition. United States Naval Institute, Naval Institute Press, 1991, p. 447.
- Markus Bey: Hau the Russians. Bulgaria revoked Lukoil's license and turned off the fuel tap itself. derstandard.at, July 29, 2011, accessed on February 8, 2012 (Bulgarian): "Lukoil Neftochim in Burgas, built in 1964, is the largest refinery in the Balkans (176,800 barrels of crude oil a day)"
- Andreas Heinrich: Global influencing factors on corporate behavior: the corporate governance of the Russian oil and natural gas sector , LIT Verlag Münster, 2004, p. 152.
- Russia's Lukoil Pours USD 1.5 B in Hydrocracking Facility in Bulgaria. News portal novinite.com, January 25, 2012, accessed January 26, 2012 .
- Technip official website: Technip awarded a major refining contract in Bulgaria. Press release. January 25, accessed January 26, 2012 .
- Peter Eggert: Previous and future supply of the Eastern European countries with the steel refiners manganese, chromium, nickel and molybdenum in issue 161 of contributions to structural research , Verlag Duncker & Humblot, 1995, p. 129.
- Official website of Transwagon: Transwagon company website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 28, 2012 ; Retrieved August 24, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Nikolova / Panaiotov, p. 565.
- Hugh Johnson: Der kleine Johnson 2008 , Verlag Graefe Und Unzer, 2007, p. 279.
- Bulgaria: New fruit and vegetable market according to European standards in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Specialized portal for fruit trade fruchthandel.de, archived from the original on November 28, 2011 ; Retrieved December 9, 2010 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Bulgaria's Burgas Mayor: Investors Eager for New Industrial Zone. News portal novinite.com, accessed on March 18, 2011 .
- Wladi Jakimowa: "Фьост Алпине": Надяваме се да изберем България. News portal mediapool.bg, September 8, 2008, accessed on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian, website with information on the business location Burgas).
- Operational Program on Transport 2007–2013: 'Presentation Super Burgas. (PDF; 9.0 MB) Ministry of Economy, Transport and Tourism, accessed on August 24, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Diana Bedrosjan: Burgas is to get the first intermodal terminal in Bulgaria. Darik Radio, December 14, 2012, accessed August 24, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Official website of Pons Holding: Pons Holding AD. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- Official website of Transstroy: Transstroy company website. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Official website of Eurobuilding Engineering: Eurobuilding Engineering company website. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- Official website of Burgas Plaza: Burgas Plaza Shopping Center. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 4, 2011 ; accessed on August 24, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Globe Trade Center SA: The Galleria Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved August 24, 2011 (Bulgarian, from Globe Trade Center SA's website). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ZBS EOOD: The Strand. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 18, 2012 ; accessed on June 15, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Official website of the Free Zone Bourgas: Official Site. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- The boat ferries "Kometa" should resume their journeys. Travel portal bgizlet.com, accessed on May 23, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the Bulgarian Hydrofoil. Retrieved on July 16, 2012 (website of the operator of the hydrofoil “Kometa”). ; From June 1, 2013 the passenger ferry connections will start again from Burgas. Retrieved May 25, 2013 .
- see article about Burgas port
- Burgas Airport website: Burgas Airport. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- 19 percent more passengers at Burgas Airport. (No longer available online.) Online edition of Monitor newspaper, archived from the original on March 13, 2014 ; Retrieved on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian): "19 на сто повече или общо 2 253 320 пътници отчете летище Бургас за 2011 г." Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the city of Burgas: List of municipal companies. Retrieved August 24, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Tassew, Jordan / Lepoew, Milcho: Perspectives for the development of the transport hub Burgas (from the Bulgarian Перспективи за развитие на транспортен възел Бургас). Online version of the Bulgarian Railway Magazine, 2011, accessed on September 14, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Ivan Bogdanow: Our strategy for the railway infrastructure of transport corridors IV and X. Interview with Milcho Lambrew, director of the company "Railway Infrastructure". In: Ikonomika magazine. money.bg, April 12, 2010, accessed March 16, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- European Commission: “Connecting Europe” - good connections for Europe: The European Union's new core network for transport. Press release from the European Commission. October 19, 2011, accessed January 17, 2012 .
- Ognjan Georgiev: Interview with Ioannis Geivelis, responsible expert for Bulgaria in “Connecting Europe”. Capital Online, January 13, 2012, accessed January 17, 2012 (Bulgarian): "... проектите, които могат да бъдат финансирани, са Видин - София - софия - с вразк, турската Бицръазкан връазкан връазкан връазкан връазкан връазан турската (Бицрската Бицръас)
- , decision of the EU Commission of July 22, 2009.
- Krassimira Filcheva: 85 години вестник Черноморски Фар. (No longer available online.) Thracian organization Anthim the First, April 17, 2005, archived from the original on May 16, 2008 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Skat TV website: About Skat TV. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Radio and TV stations in Burgas. Predavatel, accessed January 2, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- БНР откри осмата си регионална радиостанция в Бургас. (No longer available online.) Bulgarian National Radio, June 1, 2012, formerly in the original ; Retrieved July 20, 2012 (Bulgarian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Burgas city administration: Health care in Burgas. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Другата есен ще заработи модерният медицински център в "Меден рудник". news.burgas24.bg, October 20, 2010, accessed December 15, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Biography of Scheni Patewa. (No longer available online.) Infoportal bialobratstvo, formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 19, 2012 (Bulgarian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Snescha Stojanowa, chairwoman of the women's association Samosasnanie : Biography of Scheni Patewa. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 19, 2012 (Bulgarian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- List of educational institutions in Burgas. uchilishta.guide-bulgaria.com, accessed December 5, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the Burgas City Administration: Education in Burgas. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Bulgarian Boy 'Crowned' Best Teen Mathematician in World. novinite.com, August 1, 2012, accessed August 1, 2012 .
- Website of the city library Pejo Jaworow: Information about the city library Pejo Jaworow in Burgas. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- List of Chitalishte in the city of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Chitalishte Foundation , archived from the original on January 21, 2012 ; Retrieved January 19, 2012 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- State Agency Archivi: Territorial Directorate State Archives-Burgas. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 19, 2012 (Bulgarian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Theater Andriana Budewska: History of Theater Adriana Budevska. Retrieved October 21, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Biserka Gramatikowa: Из композиционното творчество на Георги Шагунов. Isgrew magazine, accessed October 21, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Theater in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved October 21, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Official website of the youth culture center. Burgas Youth Cultural Center, accessed on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- The folklore ensemble Strandscha . Internet portal horeografia, accessed 10 November 2011 (Bulgarian): "Професионален фолклорен ансамбъл" Странджа "е създаден през 1965 г ... Ансамбълът е съставен от три основни формации: женски хор на основата на открито народно пеене, солисти, оркестър от народни инструменти и смесен танцов състав "
- List of Chitalishte in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Internet portal chitalishte.bg, archived from the original on January 21, 2012 ; accessed on December 5, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Petko Sadgorskis City Gallery. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the Burgasser Painters Art Association : Burgasser Painters Art Association. Retrieved December 5, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- The Historical Museum of the City of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Ethnographic Museum of the City of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Archaeological Museum of the City of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Natural Science Museum of the City of Burgas. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved September 2, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Petja Dubarowa House Museum: Information about the Petja Dubarowa House Museum. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 29, 2011 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- CD review: Heresy by Vrani Volosa. (No longer available online.) Monstersandcritics.de, archived from the original on August 25, 2011 ; Retrieved November 11, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the city of Burgas: Sofia International Film Festival - "Na brega". Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- Sand Festival in Bulgaria. Online editing of Der Standard, accessed on August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). , Website of the city of Burgas: Festival of sand sculptures. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- Official website of the Burgas i Moreto National Music Competition : Burgas i Moreto National Music Competition. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city of Burgas: International Folklore Festival. Retrieved August 25, 2011 .
- Festival "Haunted Shores". (No longer available online.) Specialized portal Pro-rock.net, archived from the original on November 15, 2012 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the city of Burgas: List of honorary citizens of the city of Burgas. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- A new sports hall was built in Burgas. econ.bg, accessed on March 16, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city administration of Burgas: The new sports town was inaugurated by the mayor. April 2, 2010, accessed March 13, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Строят нова спортна зала в Бургас. (No longer available online.) Stroimedia.bg, archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved March 16, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Stefka Kruschkowa: The Slawejkow sports facility is inaugurated (from the Bulgarian: Откриват спортен комплекс "Славейков"). Darik Radio, archived from the original on December 17, 2011 ; Retrieved December 20, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Stefka Kruschkowa: The new sports bijou from Burgas (from the Bulgarian: Новото спортно бижу на Бургас). Darik Radio, December 11, 2011, archived from the original on December 17, 2011 ; Retrieved December 20, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Website of the city of Burgas: List of sports clubs in the city of Burgas. Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Petar Ivanov: Burgas has more football teams than Varna. (No longer available online.) Football24.bg, archived from the original on October 18, 2013 ; Retrieved July 1, 2014 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The LUKiol Neftochimic volleyball club. Bulgarian Volleyball Association, accessed January 23, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Над 70 участници плуваха в маратона от острова до Бургас. Darik Radio, accessed July 30, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- 2011 Bourgas RS: X Open Class Windsurfing Championships. (PDF; 1.2 MB) (No longer available online.) RS: X association, archived from the original on November 20, 2011 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Korzits and Kokalani's Top Leaderboard At RS: X Europeans. International Sailing Federation, accessed September 19, 2011 .
- History of Bulgarian Rowing. (No longer available online.) Bulgarian Rowing Association, archived from the original on July 27, 2011 ; accessed on August 25, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Official website of the Burgas Cycling Club: History of the Burgas Cycling Club. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 26, 2011 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the Paragliding Club Skynomad: Paragliding in Burgas. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 4, 2011 ; accessed on August 25, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Burgas Cup dance competition: Official website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved August 25, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- New Bulgarian University: The Develtum National Archaeological Reserve. (PDF; 73 kB) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 17, 2012 ; Retrieved December 6, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Burgas Archaeological Museum: Предшественикът на съвременния Бургас - античната и средновековна крепост в м. Пода - нос Форос. Retrieved October 31, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Градът с топли извори (from Bulgarian: The city with the warm springs). Dnevnik Online, September 25, 2008, accessed October 31, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Rosiza Ameewa: Further information on the Turkish baths. darikradio.net, accessed December 22, 2010 (Bulgarian). and Wesselin Maksimow: The old fortress walls came out underground. Interview with Zonja Draschewa, head of the museums in Burgas. darikradio.net, accessed December 22, 2010 (Bulgarian).
- Бургас с правила за опазването на защитените зони и паметниците. econ.bg, accessed October 31, 2011 (Bulgarian): "Министерството на културата вече определи границите на археологическия резерват - 36 дка, върху които се намира древният град с прочутите терми "
- Margarita Koewa: Prawoslasnite Hramowe po balgarskite Zemi . Marin Drinow Verlag, Sofia, 2002, p. 437.
- Iwan Karajotow: Biography of Ricardo Toscani. morskivestnik.com, accessed December 7, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Cathedral of the Holy Brothers Kiril and Methodius . (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Elena Dimitrova: PM Borissov takes to Burgas a Piece of the Holy Cross. (No longer available online.) Online edition of Sandart newspaper, archived from the original on August 20, 2011 ; Retrieved December 7, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- PM to present at the reception of part of the Holy Cross in Burgas. focus news agency, archived from the original on December 6, 2009 ; Retrieved December 6, 2009 (Bulgarian).
- Karajotow / Rajtschewski / Iwanow, p. 297; Sirkarow, p. 216.
- The Armenian Church. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Община Бургас ще почете паметта на Александър Георгиев – Коджакафалията (in German about 97 years since the death of Alexandar Kodschafalijata). (No longer available online.) Infoportal Dnesplus.bg, archived from the original on October 19, 2013 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Church of Ivan Rilski. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved August 27, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Wesselin Maksimow: Information on the archaeological excavations and the former Turkish baths. Darik Radio, accessed October 21, 2009 (Bulgarian).
- Teodora Karoleewa: Turkish company is sponsoring the restoration of Aquae Calidae and the former Turkish baths with 500,000 leva. Darik Radio, January 25, 2012, accessed February 12, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Festival of Sand Sculptures: Official website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 26, 2010 ; Retrieved June 29, 2010 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Dimitar Fingow. In: arch INFORM ; Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- Diana Bedrosjan: Казиното - голямото завръщане и новото начало. Darik Radio, March 26, 2011, accessed March 27, 2011 (Bulgarian).
- Regional customs office building. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 19, 2012 ; Retrieved September 30, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Regional customs office building. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved September 30, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The first “virtual” court process in Bulgaria (from the Bulgarian Първо "виртуално дело" в България). mediapool.bg, accessed on January 31, 2012 (Bulgarian).
- Building of the Free University. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved September 30, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The monument to the Russian soldier. (No longer available online.) Burgas City Information Center, archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved September 30, 2011 (Bulgarian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The radio and television tower of Burgas. predavatel.com, accessed November 9, 2011 (Bulgarian): "Радиорелейната и телевизионна станция Бургас се намира на улица Дунава № улица Дунава в1 улица Дунава радана. Кулата е изградена през 1993 г. Географски координати: 27 ° 28′15 ″ E / 42 ° 30′30 ″ N, надморска височина (кота терен): 30 м., Височина ма ": 72 кулат.
- Пъпа на Бургас. (No longer available online.) Burgas-portal.com, formerly in the original ; accessed 9 October 2011 (Bulgarian): "..." Пъпа на Бургас "... Става дума за произведението" Нулевия километър "на скулптора Радостин Дамасков, което отбелязва точните координати на града и неговата 42 ° 29'43,1 ″ Северна ширина и 27 ° 28′18.2 ″ източна дължина. Символите, които са изобразени на медния диск са жезълът на Нептун, рибите на Хрисг вос, коравабт на Нептун, рибите на Хрисг вос, коравабт “.
- Р. Дамасков: Лавровият венец е задължителен за "Пъпа на Бургас". Interview with Radostin Damascov. (No longer available online.) Burgasnews news portal, archived from the original on June 23, 2012 ; accessed 9 October 2011 (Bulgarian): "Символите, естествено, са морски .... Като започнем от аргото и хубавото черноморско корабоплаване от едно време , минем през Нептун - жезъла му .. лавров венец, с който е увенчан нашия град от древни времена. До ден днешен това е градът на творци, сериозни културни и спортни завоевания, заради интелигенц " was not automatically checked : the archive link was not automatically checked." Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.