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Different piercings on the face

Piercing (from English to pierce [ pɪəs ] "pierce, pierce", from old French percier and vulgar Latin * pertusiare from Latin pertundere , pertusus "pierce, break through") is a form of body modification in which jewelry in the form of rings or bars on various Places on the human body through the skin and underlying fat or cartilage tissueis attached through. Although the practice itself is old, the term piercing did not establish itself until the mid-1990s.

History and culture

Burmese woman with stretched earlobes
Adivasi woman in India with pierced ears and nose

The targeted piercing of various parts of the skin and body such as lips or ears as traditional body jewelry has been practiced by numerous cultures and ethnic groups for thousands of years . The earliest evidence in the form of jewelry or drawings can be dated back to 7000 years. In addition to the decorative function, it is mostly a matter of demarcation from other tribes , spiritual rituals or the symbolic representation and celebration of a change in maturity or social status. Most surface piercings , such as the corset piercing or the Madison piercing , on the other hand, are new releases from the late 1990s.

Traditional piercings

Indian woman with nose and ear plugs

Piercings in the ear lobes, the nostrils and the nasal septum, the lips and the genitals have been handed down to the natives of America, Africa and Asia. The jewelry of these cultures was made of wood, quartz , mother-of-pearl , clay, horn and bone and simple metals. First ear piercings are in Egypt around 1550 BC. Demonstrable. The death mask of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun shows him with widened ears. Also in Buddha statues or relics of the Aztecs enlarged ears are shown.

Traditional stone sculptures of the Olmecs are evidence of elongated ear holes. Furthermore, ear piercings, lip plugs and septum jewelry from Central American peoples such as the Purépecha , the Zapotecs and the Aztecs are known.

Mursi woman with lip plate and stretched earlobes

With the Mursi in the south of Ethiopia , pierced or incised and widened piercings in the lips and earlobes, as well as plate lips, are part of the ideal of beauty . The bigger the plate, the more respectable the woman is. Today the unusual jewelry also serves as a tourist attraction. In India, some women traditionally wear plugs in their earlobes and nostrils. According to Hindu belief , children are pierced as part of the Karnavedha ritual to protect them from disease.

There are only few references to pre-medieval piercing traditions for Europe. One of the few surviving relics is an approximately 2600 year old Celtic bronze mask from the Hallstatt period with ear piercings on both sides.

Spiritual piercings

According to reports from Spanish conquerors from the 16th century and traditional stone reliefs, ears, tongues, cheeks and genitals were pierced in Central America as an offering and for internal cleansing.

The festival of the nine emperor gods has been held annually in the Thai city of Phuket since 1825 . During the first nine days of the ninth month of the Chinese calendar, the numerous participants put themselves in a state of trance as part of an evocation of the gods and during a procession stab swords, branches, iron rods or everyday objects with sometimes considerable diameters through cheeks, tongue or other parts of the body. They act as the medium of the nine guardian spirits and are viewed as possessed by them during the ritual.

Ritual at the Thaipusam festival

A similar tradition is celebrated annually in Malaysia in January / February at the Thaipusam Festival .

The participants start to prepare for the festival months in advance with the help of a teacher, where they put themselves into a trance state, stick hooks or skewers through different parts of the body and then, colorfully decorated and with accompanying offerings, a procession to a temple of God Compete for Subramaniam to fulfill a vow to wash away sins or to ask for health and happiness. Blood leaks out of the wounds relatively rarely, some of which are disinfected with ashes.

The sun dance is a ceremony by various Indian tribes of the American prairie and plains , in which the dancers pierce the skin on their chest or back and put wooden stakes tied with cords through them. The strings are tied to a tree around which the Indians dance for four days from sunrise to sunset without shade, food or water. This tradition has been taken up by the movement of the Modern Primitives under the name Body-Suspension .

Piercings in Western Culture

In some cases, various piercings, such as the nipple piercing , are said to have been found in Europe in earlier centuries and were largely limited to small, mostly courtly circles, which were later forgotten. However, such claims usually refer to untrustworthy sources such as erotic literature or the mostly fictitious stories of the piercer Doug Malloy . Proof that many of the modern piercings actually have a long European tradition is still pending. Only piercing the earlobe was widely used. Until the early 1970s, however, ear piercings were only accepted by women in western culture and were mostly pierced by themselves or by a jeweler. The only exception was the carpentry profession , who traditionally have an ear pierced with a carpenter's nail as part of the rolling . In the 1960s, hippies in particular brought ear and nose piercings from their hippie trails to India into western culture.

Punk with a tunnel piercing and a safety pin as an ear piercing

The gay scene also experimented with piercings as early as the 1970s, for example an earring in the right earlobe was attributed to gays as a distinguishing mark for a long time. As early as the 1950s and 1960s, as a pioneer , Fakir Musafar experimented intensively with body modifications of older cultures in order to gain spiritual experience. The American Doug Malloy , who was in contact with him, established body piercing shortly afterwards in a smaller group of the homosexual and fetish scene . In his studio for “skin and body jewelery” in Aschaffenburg and later in Frankfurt / Main, the tattoo artist Horst Straßenbach carried out body piercings since the late 1940s. Längenbach met Jim Ward “The Gauntlet” in Reno in 1975 and they exchanged their experiences. Although the first piercing shop opened in 1975 with The Gauntlet in Los Angeles , this fashion began to spread in California in the 1980s when the modern primitive movement emerged. The customs that are widespread among indigenous peoples were consciously adopted in order to modify their own bodies . This mainly included tattoos , piercings or scarification, and later branding . The magazine PFIQ was founded in 1977 and established itself as a forum and platform for the scene.

At the beginning of the 1990s, piercing was mainly limited to the punk - and here in particular the crustcore scene and the BDSM scene, and spread from there over the course of a few years. Piercing hit the headlines in 1993 when actress Alicia Silverstone got a navel piercing in a music video for the band Aerosmith . The video won the MTV Video Music Awards and, thanks to the piercing that was unusual at the time, attracted wide coverage. As a result, there was strong demand for navel piercings, a trend that passed to other piercings in the following years. From the mid-1990s, piercing increasingly became a phenomenon of youth culture, partly through the establishment of subcultures such as punk or techno, in which facial piercing had been widespread for a long time and was promoted by numerous stars such as Lenny Kravitz , Tommy Lee or the NBA - Player Dennis Rodman , who appealed to a wide mainstream audience.

Nowadays, piercing has largely established itself as a fashionable-cultural phenomenon in modern western society.


Proportion of people with at least one piercing (other than earlobes) per age group (Great Britain, 2005)
Distribution of 506 piercings (Germany, 2008)

Modern piercings are especially popular with younger people. According to a representative survey by the University of Leipzig in Germany in 2009, nine percent of all women and three percent of all men had a piercing. Among the 14 to 24 year old women the proportion was 35 percent, among the 25 to 34 year old women 22.5 percent. Men were most frequently pierced between the ages of 25 and 34 years (9.3 percent). A study published in 2008 from the Regensburg area (data presumably collected in 2005) found a piercing in 8.6 percent of all respondents: 12.0 percent of women and 4.1 percent of men. More than half of the people with piercing (52.8 percent) were younger than 18 years. The most frequently modified part of the body was the auricle, followed by the navel and nostril. According to a study published in 2017 by the University of Leipzig, around a third of women between 14 and 34 years of age had pierced, while the proportion of men of the same age was 14.4 percent. In the meantime, more than 5 million men and women have pierced in Germany alone.

In 2005, scientists from the Health Protection Agency of the National Health Service and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine carried out a survey of piercings in the UK on 10,503 adults from different regions of the country. It was found that ten percent of the respondents were pierced (earrings were not included), the average number of piercings (among the pierced people) was 1.71. The proportion was higher in women and in younger people, around half of the women in the 16- to 24-year-old age group had at least one piercing. The most frequently mentioned body parts for piercings were navel (33 percent), nose (19 percent), ear (13 percent except earlobe / lobe piercing), tongue (9 percent), nipples (9 percent), eyebrows (8 percent), Lip (4 percent), genitals (2 percent) and other parts of the body (3 percent). The navel piercing was the most common piercing for women, and the nipple piercing for men.

Current trends and developments

Young man with stretched earlobes, labret and nipple piercings

The profession of piercing is subject to constant development. While a large number of piercings go back to millennia-old traditions ( nostril piercing , labret piercing , apadravya etc.) which are only rediscovered in western culture, on the other hand a large number of piercings ( lip band , industrial or nefertiti piercing ) or techniques ( Microdermal ) has been reinvented for fashion reasons.

Piercing is subject to fashions and trends. The first piercings that appealed to a wider audience in the 1990s were eyebrow, tongue and navel piercings , although the first two variants are now in lower demand. The lip band piercing invented by Steve Haworth in the 1990s is also used less frequently these days. The laterally offset labret , the tragus , the septum piercing and the widening of the earlobe are currently enjoying increasing popularity. For women, the Madonna piercing , which emerged from the labret, is a "trend piercing". The same applies to the nipple piercing , which has been popularized by some stars and is currently one of the most popular piercings in the USA . The spread of genital piercings is increasing and these are more and more common, especially among young adults. In addition to the generally growing interest in piercings, this is due to the increasing presence of nudity in the media, the aestheticization of this area of ​​the body and the removal of pubic hair , which has now become the norm . The psychologist Ada Borkenhagen speaks of a "social trend towards intimate shaving and genital piercing" among young people. The Leipzig scientist Aglaja Stirn said:

"And so it is not surprising that more and more women are interested in the option of having corrections made in the genital area through surgical interventions or to provide it with a piercing, since this area has become more accessible to the eye."

- Aglaya forehead

Piercings in the mound area (such as the Christina piercing or the Nefertiti piercing ) are enjoying increasing popularity with women, but genital piercings are also increasingly in demand with men.

Overall, it can be said that since the 1990s, at the latest since the turn of the millennium, piercings have undergone a change in meaning in the Western European culture. While piercings were previously regarded as a visual mark of distinction, as an expression of rebellion and counterculture , they have increasingly become a part of everyday culture, they are "only body jewelry".



Methods of pricking

Before the piercing, the entry and exit points are marked with a felt pen - here with a nipple piercing

The body part to be pierced is first disinfected in order to avoid infections. If necessary, the area is freed from hair beforehand. The entry and exit point of the puncture canal is usually marked with a pen and fixed with piercing pliers . This has two ring-shaped clamps on the head through which the piercing needle can be attached to the marked point and passed through. In Europe, piercings are usually done with a peripheral venous catheter . The needle is protected by a plastic or Teflon cover. After the needle is passed through the skin, it is removed. Only the coating remains in the branch channel. With the help of this cover, the jewelry is pulled through the puncture channel. In tight places that are difficult to access, a receiving tube is often additionally held up when piercing in order to generate counter pressure and intercept the needle before it could injure tissue lying opposite the puncture channel.

Sticking a tongue piercing with a venous catheter
Pricking a helix piercing

In the United States, piercers usually use a special piercing needle made of surgical steel with a cavity. The jewelry is inserted directly into the needle and then inserted into the connective tissue when it is pushed through.

For ear or Nostril piercings , the ear piercing gun is often used outside of piercing studios, for example at jewelers . Serious piercers reject this procedure, however, as there is a risk of the tissue tearing or splintering on the cartilage . In addition, the pistol cannot be completely sterilized. In addition, the ear studs used here are unsuitable for first use.

Another method is the so-called dermal punch . Tissue parts with a diameter of up to eight millimeters are punched out with a hollow needle. This is mainly used to insert larger jewelry into cartilage tissue. Because tissue is completely removed and not displaced, punctured piercings heal better because the jewelry exerts less pressure.

Indigenous peoples usually carry out piercings traditionally with suitable natural materials such as thorns or sharp animal bones . On the Pacific islands, for example, the pointed ends of the sweet potato plant are used.

Pain when stabbing

Often raised concerns concern the pain associated with the lancing process . The painful stimulus when the cannula is inserted can be perceived with different intensities. Different piercings differ according to the degree of pain when piercing.

This is influenced on the one hand by the length of the puncture canal and on the other hand by the type and sensitivity of the tissue through which the piercing runs. Piercings with a long canal are generally more painful. Accordingly, z. B. the piercing of a Christina piercing less than the piercing of a Nefertiti piercing , because the piercer covers a longer way with the needle and leads it through more slowly. Again, cartilage tissue , such as on the nostril, and cartilage-containing mixed tissue , such as in the lip area, are considered to be relatively sensitive to pain in relation to a piercing. Therefore z. B. Piercings through the ear cartilage (like helix , rook or tragus ) are more painful than a lobe piercing running through the earlobe (“classic” ear hole).

The sensitivity to touch of a part of the body should not be confused with the sensitivity to pain of the same. This is due to different nerve pathways and receptors for the different types of stimuli. Normal tactile stimuli on the skin surface (such as light pressure or caressing) are registered by mechanoreceptors - in particular the Ruffini corpuscles , the Vater Pacini lamellar corpuscles and the Merkel cells - and transmitted to the brain via corresponding neuron pathways. The pain caused by the insertion of the needle, on the other hand, is caused by receptors called nociceptors , which react to the tissue damage and pass the pain on to separate neuronal paths. The pain caused by the puncture is mainly caused by A-mechanonociceptors , the distribution of which is relatively even on the body surface. This explains why piercings in the genital area, although the tissue there is very sensitive to touch, do not generally have to be felt more painful than piercings in other areas of the body.


In principle, it is possible to numb the body part before the piercing is done . This can be done in two ways:

  • Regional anesthesia : A syringe is used to inject a subdermal (in the tissue) anesthetic . After a period of about five to ten minutes, the affected part of the body is numb. However, the following problems arise here: on the one hand, due to legal regulations, an injection may only be carried out by a doctor or a medical professional, not by a piercer. Furthermore, this form is not recommended, as the pain of the piercing is virtually only "exchanged" for comparable pain from the syringe and this form of anesthesia is associated with side effects and risks that are not appropriate to the pain of the piercing.
  • Surface anesthesia (topical anesthesia) : an active ingredient in the form of ointment or spray is applied directly to the surface of the skin, it is not sprayed. Products based on lidocaine , procaine or benzocaine are predominantly used. The problem with this form is that it is only suitable for mucous membrane tissue, as otherwise the deeper tissue layers cannot be reached and the piercing does not hurt any less.

For the reasons mentioned, anesthesia before the piercing is often avoided.


Since the wound of a new piercing is kept open by the jewelry inserted, a skin tube forms from the outside to the inside along the puncture channel that surrounds the jewelry. Initially, after any bleeding has coagulated, the blood circulation in the surrounding tissue is promoted, which often leads to reddening, swelling and warming in the first to second week. Blood clots are flushed out by secreted wound fluid. In the event of an infection, bacteria- fighting leukocytes ( pus ) can escape .

The duration of the healing depends on various factors such as jewelry material, hygiene, care and the pierced body part as well as general health and alcohol or nicotine consumption . While well-perfused mucous membranes and genital piercings heal more advantageously with regular contact with one's own urine, the process is more protracted with cartilage tissue, since cartilage does not have its own blood vessels, but is supplied with oxygen and nutrients by the overlying cartilage membrane.

Measures to accelerate healing

The piercing should be cleaned regularly with saline solution or an antiseptic such as octenidine during the entire healing phase, sources of additional germ contamination such as bathing in swimming pools or bathing lakes should be avoided.

One problem is irritation from regular movement or friction, according to which, for example, the healing of a navel piercing with permanent contact with the waistband or a hand weave between the fingers can be particularly problematic. Accordingly, for genital piercings, sexual intercourse should be avoided within the first four weeks , as this puts too much strain on the puncture canal (however, careful manual stimulation is possible after a few days). A condom should be worn until it has completely healed in order to reduce contamination from germs and mechanical influences (the jewelry rubs back and forth).

If the jewelry is changed within the first few weeks after the piercing, the healing process can also be negatively affected and the risk of infection increases.

Duration of healing of various piercings

The following table contains guidelines for the duration of the healing process for the various piercings:

picture Surname Duration
Ampallang cropped.jpg Ampallang about 3 to 6 months
Fourchette foto.jpg Fourchette about 4 to 6 weeks
Mundpartie.jpg lip about 4 to 8 weeks
BCR-prince-albert.jpg Prince Albert about 4 to 6 weeks
Labiaplasty with clitoral hood reduction and Princess Albertina piercing 1.jpg Princess Albertina about 2 to 3 weeks
Piercing micro banane.jpg Eyebrow about 6 to 8 weeks
Brian Guiche by Tommy T.JPG Guiche about 8 to 12 weeks
Lip frenulum piercing closeup.jpg Lip frenulum about 1 to 2 weeks
Pubic piercing.jpg Pubic about 8 weeks
Erl-piercing.jpg bridge about 8 to 12 weeks
Hafada piercing cutout.jpg Hafada about 4 to 8 weeks
Belly button piercing030a.jpg navel about 3 to 6 months
Septum.jpg Septum about 4 to 8 weeks
Piercing-Barbell-Nipple.jpg nipple about 2 to 6 months
Clitoris23.jpg Clitoral hood about 4 to 6 weeks
Nose piercing.jpg Nostrils about 6 to 9 weeks
Triangle piercing vulva.jpg Triangle about 4 to 8 weeks
Christina pierc.jpg Christina about 6 to 12 months
Genital piercing woman aeussere.jpg Labia Majora about 8 to 12 weeks
Cartilage Piercing.jpg Ear cartilage about 2 to 6 months
Foreskin piercing2.jpg foreskin about 4 to 8 weeks
Dydoe.jpg Dydoe about 3 to 5 months
Inner Labia Piercing Rings.jpg Labia Minora about 4 to 6 weeks
Circular barbell.jpg Earlobe about 4 to 8 weeks
Tongue piercing.jpg tongue about 2 weeks


If a piercing is removed before the end of the healing process, the piercing canal will stick together and then grow back together quickly and completely, so that jewelry can no longer be inserted later. A completely healed puncture canal, on the other hand, usually remains, which means that sebum deposits can continue to form in it. Often it narrows after removing the jewelry and grows together at the puncture and puncture points, which usually results in small point-shaped scars.

Jewelry and materials

Piercing jewelry: various pieces of jewelry and their names (the English terms have become established in the German-speaking area)

Screwable barbells (rods with two screwed balls at the ends) or ball closure rings with clamping balls are preferably used. These are available in different diameters and material thicknesses. Usually a piercing is done with a wire thickness of 1.2 millimeters.

750 gold , platinum , niobium , titanium , PTFE or medical stainless steel are suitable . For some time now, it has been possible to use 316L implant steel again for initial use.

In addition, jewelry made of numerous other materials such as glass and plastic or organic materials such as wood and horn is available. However, this should only be used when the piercings have completely healed.

Types of piercing by body area

Various ear piercings


An ear hole is usually understood to mean the piercing through the earlobe (9), but piercing jewelry can be attached to numerous other places in the auricle, whereby smaller ball closure rings are often used. These piercings usually take a long time to heal.

The helix (1) runs through the cartilage tissue of the ear edge and is one of the most common piercings in the auricle.

As Industrial (2) two opposite helix piercings are understood which are connected to a barbell.

The rook (3) can be stabbed in the Anti-Helix .

The daith (4) is pierced through the horizontal bulge in the auricle and is somewhat more difficult to pierce due to the small size of the area.

The tragus piercing (5) leads through the cartilage process at the entrance to the auditory canal. At this point the cartilage tissue is thinner than in the conch, but is more stressed due to the very small and narrow place when piercing and especially when using piercing jewelry.

The snug (6) runs through the inner bulge of the cartilage parallel to the edge of the ear.

The conch (7) sits directly in the inner or outer auricle. A larger diameter hole punched out by dermal punch can increasingly be seen at this point .

The anti-tragus piercing (8) is accordingly located on the cartilage process opposite the tragus.

Cheek piercings


In the 1990s, eyebrow piercing and labret piercing became particularly popular. The first is a surface piercing , although with the appropriate position and choice of jewelry, it is less under tension than other classic surface piercings.

Lip and mouth area

The labret piercing is usually worn centered with a labret pin below the lip. Piercings placed on the side, not centered, are also possible. If the canal runs vertically and emerges from the red lips, it is referred to as an Eskimo . Analogous to the classic labret piercing, a Medusa piercing is a centered plug above the upper lip.

The Madonna piercing is mostly worn by women and is positioned on the side above the upper lip. Visually, it is reminiscent of a painted birthmark such as was worn by Madonna or Marilyn Monroe .

The cheek piercing , also called cheek piercing, for which a labret plug is usually used, is relatively rare . The exit point of the piercing is on the cheek.

Piercings in the nose and lip area

In the mouth, the vertically pierced tongue piercing is most popular. The uvula piercing , which is pierced through the uvula, is rather rare and risky . The mandible piercing is also rarely seen . It sits vertically in the lower jaw area in the floor of the mouth below the tongue and emerges on the underside of the chin. The less problematic piercings in the oral area include the lip frenulum piercing and the tongue frenulum piercing .


Several special piercings are possible on the nose. Above all, the nostril piercing through the nostril has become established , which is usually what is meant when a "nose ring" is mentioned. It was first adopted by the hippie culture from India to the western culture.

However, in the piercing scene, the septum piercing through the nasal septum is more popular. It can pierce through the cartilage tissue or run beneath it.

The rare variants include the nasal length , in which a barbell passes through both nostrils and the nasal septum, and the Austin bar through the cartilage cap on the tip of the nose.

The so-called bridge piercing runs through the bridge of the nose, usually sits horizontally between the eyes and has to be pierced with particular care because of the facial nerves running there.

Body trunk

Nipple piercing

The nipple piercing is often worn as a decorative piercing and for sexual stimulation and is now as popular as the navel piercing, which is mainly worn by women .

Surface piercings such as the Madison piercing in the throttle pit , the hip piercing at an angle on the pelvis near the hip bones, as well as the hand weave between the fingers are rather rare due to the problematic nature of the corresponding parts of the body; The latter mainly because of the limited functionality of the hands. The corset piercing on the back consists of several symmetrically arranged rows of piercings, but is usually only pierced as a temporary artificial piercing.


Numerous piercing variants are possible in the genital area for men and women; most of them differ between the sexes due to their different anatomy . However, some piercings are possible for both men and women: the guiche and the relatively rare anus piercing . In a broader sense, the nipple piercing can also be counted among the genital piercings.

Genital piercings are increasingly in demand and are most common among young women. Studies in the United States found that 12-14 percent of college students (18-22 years old) had an intimate or nipple piercing.

For men as well as women, the main motif, as with other piercings, is the aesthetic aspect and the individualization of the pierced body region. In addition to their purely aesthetic function, some genital piercings also have the effect of exerting additional stimulation during sexual intercourse and thus causing an increase in stimulation. While genital piercings in women only have an effect on the wearer, genital piercings in men (especially Ampallang and Apadravya ) increase the sensation of pleasure for both partners. In traditional societies, genital piercing can be understood as a sign of attachment to a partner, similar to the wedding ring in western cultures.

Male genital area

Prince Albert Piercing

The Prince Albert Piercing (PA) is one of the most popular genital piercings for men . It runs from the urethra through the lower penis wall and is usually worn with a thicker material due to the increased comfort. The Ampallang runs horizontally, i.e. across the glans . Similarly, the apadravya sits vertically. The cross combination of both is known as a magic cross . The Reverse Prince Albert (also: Queen Victoria ) runs like an ordinary PA through the urethra, but emerges from the top of the glans and thus forms a "half apadravya".

A dydoe sits in the edge of the glans. While with the other piercings the healing is promoted by urine contact, it is a bit more protracted here.

The frenulum piercing runs through the foreskin ligament and is one of the most uncomplicated male genital piercings. The widening of this piercing in order to insert jewelry with a higher wire thickness is quite easy and increases the wearing comfort.

The pubic in the area above the base of the penis belongs to the surface piercings.

An oetang sits in the foreskin. It can be attached anywhere and is usually worn with a ball closure ring .

Piercings on the front area of ​​the scrotum are called Hafada or Scrotal and are also uncomplicated genital piercings in terms of healing and care. Transscrotal piercingon the other hand, refers to a body modification that creates a connection between the front and back of the scrotum. Since this is not done with a prick , but cut with a scalpel and then sewn against each other , the term piercing is technically incorrect.

Female genital area

Clitoral hood piercing

The most common forms of genital piercing in women are the clitoral hood piercing , the labia piercing and the Christina piercing .

In the labia piercing, a distinction is made between piercings in the inner and outer labia , which are exposed to different circumstances in terms of implementation and healing.

The Christina piercing is a surface piercing that is pierced vertically in the fold where the outer labia meet at the top.

The lower end of the Nefertiti piercing ends under the clitoral skin fold , similar to the clitoral hood piercing. It runs through the clitoral hood and the mons pubis .

Analogous to the Prince Albert in men, the Princess Albertina piercing runs from the urethral opening to the vaginal opening.

The clitoris piercing is one of the most stimulating genital piercings for women . The strong innervation of the tissue to be pierced makes it riskier and more painful to perform than other piercings. It can be pierced horizontally and vertically through the clitoris .

The Isabella piercing is placed vertically under the clitoris, while a triangle is placed horizontally. Both variants are very deep piercings.

A centered, vertical piercing at the lower end of the inner labia is called a fourchette .

The suitcase piercing , which runs between anus and vagina, is relatively rare and risky .


Expanded piercings

Extended lobe piercing with flesh tunnel
Surface piercing in the neck

In order to use jewelry with a larger diameter, a piercing can be carefully widened. This practice is best known from lobe piercing . In most cases, a conical expansion pin is used, which is coated with lubricant beforehand and carefully inserted into the puncture channel. The jewelry with a larger diameter is then attached to the end of the expansion pin and pushed afterwards.

In order to prevent protuberances, tears and similar side effects (frayed-looking praise, also called cat's ass, asshole effect, clearly visible when removing the jewelry), you must proceed with the greatest care and patience. Even if there are always overzealous people who bring a fresh praise to 20 mm within a few weeks, this is by no means recommended. As a guide, it is recommended to stretch by one millimeter every four weeks. This prevents the undesired side effects mentioned above. The stretched tissue then has enough time between these four weeks to calm down.

It should not be concealed that stretched jewelry requires more maintenance. Due to the enlarged surface, sebum, skin flakes and everyday, microscopic dirt are deposited, which leads to the typical smell of the stretched ear holes. So you should clean tunnels every day or switch to organic materials after completing the last stretching step and the complete healing of the stretched praise. Suitable materials for this are horn, bone, wood or mother-of-pearl. This prevents the development of this not really unpleasant, but clearly perceptible odor.

Lobes that are still in the stretching phase should also be massaged more often and well cared for. This keeps them supple and makes further subsequent stretching steps easier. After stretching, the lobe should be treated like a fresh piercing for some time.

Surface piercings

A surface piercing is a piercing in which the puncture and exit channels lie on the same plane. These are usually under tension and are repelled by the body more often than other piercings. With corset piercing , for example, several surface piercings are artfully attached in at least two rows on the back. In the case of the dermal anchor , small metal plates are implanted under the skin , which terminate above the skin with a thread onto which various attachments, such as balls, etc. can be screwed.

Play piercings

Play piercings with cannulas

The temporary application of so-called play piercings is particularly common in the BDSM sector . Here needles ( acupuncture needles or cannulas ) are placed on the body of the bottom , which are removed again after the end of the game . Sometimes thin chains or threads are attached to the elements connected to the body in order to connect them to one another and thus to fix the body in a defined posture as part of a bondage . The risk of injury is high here due to a possible unintentional tearing of the piercings. Light weights are often attached to body piercings, which convert the movements of the pierced bottom into pain stimuli. Genital piercings are also very common in the BDSM subculture. In addition to fetishism , the motivation for performing play piercings can be based on the increased release of adrenaline or the corresponding physical experience . Play piercings can also be stung for aesthetic reasons, for example as part of photo shoots.


Depending on how several piercings are combined or arranged with one another, these are to be referred to as orbital or venom piercings , or, in the case of several piercings arranged in the lip, as bites . Venom piercings are several plugs that run symmetrically to one another in the tongue.

In an orbital , two piercings are connected with a ring. For example, a ring can be passed through two opposite foreskin piercings. Similarly, the industrial piercing is characterized by the fact that a barbell runs through two helix piercings, as well as the nasal length that leads through both nostrils and the nasal septum.

Body suspension

With body suspension , the body is pierced with hooks to which ropes or chains are attached. The pierced is pulled up by these. Body suspensions are often part of special events ( conventions ). The body is exposed to particular stresses: severe pain, circulatory problems up to fainting, infections, back problems and tearing out are possible risks. Body suspension can be a thrill because of the adrenaline rush, but it can also be used as a personal challenge, special body experience or to increase awareness. Body suspension is also occasionally used in the BDSM area.

Possible problems and dangers

Professionally performed and well-cared for piercings usually do not cause any problems and pose no danger. Most of the problems mentioned occur only in rare exceptional cases or can be easily prevented by simple rules of conduct. Nevertheless, especially with a new piercing, possible problems or health complications should be considered.

Health problems

If a piercing is not done properly, it can lead to various complications. If it is stung under the influence of caffeine or alcohol and other drugs, as well as blood-thinning medication, the circulation and blood clotting can be impaired.

With all forms of piercing, local swelling and light bleeding can occur, which usually subside after a while. Piercings through the ear cartilage easily lead to inflammation. When piercing the eyebrow and the wing of the nose, extensions of the trigeminal nerve can be hit. Under certain circumstances, a piercing can lead to phlegmon .

Eye infections can in some cases be due to an infection in the piercing. Pathogens get to the hands of the pierced when changing or cleaning the piercing jewelry and from there when putting on or taking off contact lenses in the eyes, where they can trigger conjunctivitis , for example . Patients often postpone seeing a doctor if they are infected. Fearing the removal of the piercing, or at least comments, as some doctors see this as deliberate damage to the body, they turn to the piercing studio instead.

At temperatures below minus ten degrees Celsius, piercings made of metal jewelry that are worn openly can frostbite, as metal dissipates heat better than organic tissue. This particularly affects facial piercings.

Problems with piercings in the mouth area

Piercing damage to the central lower front teeth

Piercings in the mouth area (tongue, lip, lip frenulum) harbor a high long-term risk potential for teeth and the tooth support apparatus . The decorative button of a tongue piercing relatively often leads to traumatization of the tooth cusps located towards the tongue, which can lead to tooth fractures and death of the tooth pulp . The internal counterplate of lip piercings presses on the gums and the very thin alveolar bone below with every facial movement if the location is unfavorable . Since bones shrink under pressure, this can lead to tooth loosening or even loss of teeth. The same applies to piercings of the lip frenulum.

When using non-metallic jewelry, e.g. made of acrylic , horn or PTFE , the risk of tooth damage is lower due to the lower hardness of the material, but the risk of bone loss remains high.

Problems with genital piercings

A genital piercing that has not completely healed increases the risk of infection with sexually transmitted diseases, such as hepatitis B , hepatitis C or HIV , like any other open wound in the genital area . Wearing a condom is therefore recommended if the genital piercings have not healed .

With the Prince Albert Piercing , the ring is pulled through the exit of the urethra to the lower side of the glans of the penis. Rings that are too thin, up to around two millimeters thick, harbor the risk of the “cheese-cutter effect”: If the jewelry is mechanically stressed, it can cut through the fabric; the piercing pulls out resulting in a subincision . However, if the material is sufficiently thick, a Prince Albert can be quite resilient. If the rings are too narrow, crushing can occur.

Certain piercings can make pubic hair removal difficult (piercings of the outer labia, Nefertiti and Christina in women, Pubic and Hafada in men). When shaving or Brazilian waxing , it can be difficult to depilate the area immediately around the jewelry. Remaining hair is easier to remove there with tweezers. Especially with unhealed piercings, germs can get into the prick canal if the razor is not thoroughly cleaned after each shave. This is less of a problem with healed piercings because the jewelry can be removed prior to depilation.

Piercings in the perineal area can cause permanent inflammation due to prolonged sitting. Cases of Fournier gangrene after genital piercings have also been described.

Scarring of a surface piercing on the temple

Growing out of piercings

Under certain circumstances, piercings can be rejected by the body, grow out of the connective tissue and cause scarring. This happens particularly often with surface piercings that are under tension .

Piercings at security checks (metal detector)

According to the official declarations of the manufacturers, the devices that are used during security checks at airports and certain buildings do not react to piercings. The amount of metal in normal BCR or barbell jewelry is usually below the value specified as the alarm threshold, the metal content is usually less than in a zipper or a trouser button. However, if several piercings are close together or if larger jewelry such as a nipple shield is worn, this can trigger a metal detector . Thus, the triggering of a metal detector by nipple piercings is possible under normal conditions, but only with very sensitive devices.

In addition to the size and metal content of the jewelry, the type of detector (while the large frame detectors usually do not react to piercings, the mobile handheld devices are more sensitive) and the threshold values ​​set by the security staff are decisive. As a rule, a "beeping" piercing does not cause any problems, but it may be necessary to show the piercing to the security staff (depending on the position of the piercing in a separate room). The US Transportation Security Administration responsible for airport controls had to apologize publicly in March 2008 after she was forced to remove her nipple piercings before the flight in order to pass the security check.

Piercings and Imaging

Tongue piercing on an x-ray

In the medical field, imaging methods such as magnetic resonance tomography or computer tomography are increasingly being used, which enable a view into the interior of the body by means of targeted X-rays or strong magnetic fields . Piercings can be a problem here. However, this only applies to piercing jewelry made of ferromagnetic metal, other materials (acrylic, PTFE, titanium, organic substances) do not represent any restrictions.

In devices that operate with X-rays , such as a computed tomography scanner, a piercing can hide an underlying area and make it invisible for imaging (for example, a nipple piercing in a radiological examination can hide a tumor nodule in the immediate vicinity and leave it undetected).

In the case of devices that work with magnetic fields (magnetic resonance tomography) there is, on the one hand, the possibility that the jewelry will heat up strongly, on the other hand, a high tensile force is exerted on the jewelry, which in the worst case can lead to tearing. In order to avoid pain and injury, the jewelry should be removed beforehand (if it contains ferromagnetic metal).

Piercings and blood donations

Since infectious diseases transmitted through piercings can be passed on in the event of a blood donation, an interval of several months is required due to the diagnostic gap between a newly pierced piercing and the blood donation in order to rule out the risk of infection as far as possible. In each individual case, it must be taken into account whether the freshly pierced piercing had undesirable side effects such as inflammation. The minimum period between a piercing and the blood donation varies depending on the region and the institution carrying it out. ( See also: Exclusion criteria for blood donation )

Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding

Navel piercing

Problems with navel piercings can occur during pregnancy . In some women, the stretching of the tissue can lead to increased pressure on the piercing until it grows out. This can be avoided by using flexible PTFE jewelry . If this does not help, the jewelry (in the case of a healed piercing) can be removed until after the birth.

Genital piercings should be removed before birth. In this way, injury to the newborn and tearing off the jewelry can be prevented. This applies to all piercings in the area of ​​the vaginal entrance. A removal of Christina piercings may not be necessary, but this should be clarified with a doctor or midwife beforehand.

The fear that is sometimes expressed that a nipple piercing would impair the ability to breastfeed is not true. However, jewelry should be removed during breastfeeding.

Legal situation


In Germany anyone can get pierced. The piercing process is legally a criminal assault . Therefore, the client usually has to give a written declaration of consent before the piercing, which releases the piercer from legal consequences in this regard. However, this declaration is ineffective unless you have been fully informed about the risks of piercing prior to the procedure.

The piercer has a duty to advise. If the piercer does not point out possible negative consequences of the piercing, in particular any inflammation or nerve damage, this can be prosecuted. In a case in which a client was threatened with a partial amputation of the tongue, the piercer was sentenced to 300 euros in compensation for pain and suffering. ( District Court Neubrandenburg , AZ 18 C 160/00)

From a legal point of view, piercing is in a gray area. Who is allowed to do piercings and who is not is not clearly defined. The Administrative Court of Giessen came to the conclusion with its judgment of February 9, 1999 ( AZ 8 G 2161/98) that the piercing process, regardless of whether local anesthesia is used or not, may only be carried out by persons with the appropriate specialist knowledge. At least training as a naturopath is necessary to be able to set piercings.

The above judgment was confirmed in the next instance by the Hessian Administrative Court with judgment of February 2, 2000 (AZ 8 TG 713/99) insofar as at least for piercing with local anesthesia by injecting a narcotic , personnel with the appropriate competence (alternative practitioner, doctor) is assumed.

Piercing in minors

For minors under 18 years of age, written consent from a parent or legal guardian is sufficient, but not necessary. The decisive factor is the young person's mental maturity. Some studios do not pierce anyone under a certain age regardless of legal obligations. The professional association of paediatricians considers piercings and tattoos to be questionable and therefore calls for a legal ban on these interventions in minors. “Piercings and tattoos can cause inflammation, injury, and other complications. The legislature should protect minors from these violations of physical integrity and their often lasting consequences, ”said Dr. Wolfram Hartmann, President of the BVKJ e. V.

Contribution to the cost of complications

According to Section 52 (2) SGB V, doctors and hospitals are obliged to notify secondary diseases of medically unnecessary treatments . A piercing is such a medically not indicated measure. Patients with statutory health insurance are therefore to be given an appropriate share of the costs of a complication, including the daily sickness allowance .

In addition, there is no entitlement to continued remuneration in the event of incapacity for work , because the employer only has to bear the normal risk of illness for the employee.


In Austria, the person to be pierced must be 14 years old. In the case of minors, the consent of the legal representative is required if the piercing is not expected to heal within 24 days.

Other countries

In most western countries, piercings are only allowed to be done on persons under age with the written consent of their parents. In Australia genital piercings are generally only allowed from the age of 16.

EU nickel directive

According to the EU Nickel Directive (94/27) of June 30, 1994, jewelry containing nickel was not allowed to be used for the first time.

The guideline initially did not take into account the fact that it is not the nickel content, but its quantity that is decisive for allergic reactions. The 316L stainless steel , which was mostly used up to then, was therefore no longer permitted, as its nickel content of 10 percent to 14 percent significantly exceeded the values ​​specified in the guideline. Instead, titanium was used in particular. However, since the surface of titanium shows several unevenness even after intensive polishing , which favor the settlement of microbes and thus inflammation, steel was still considered to be a more suitable material for initial use despite the directive. On September 27, 2004 the guideline was changed to the effect that the upper limits for nickel are based on the release of nickel. Thus, stainless steel is again approved as a first plug.

Accordingly, stainless steel (316L), titanium , niobium and PTFE are suitable, i.e. materials whose nickel release does not exceed five nanograms per square centimeter per week due to abrasion.


With the increasing spread, inexperienced piercers also began to perform the piercing, whereupon the Association of Professional Piercers (APP) was founded in the USA in 1994, with the aim of establishing minimum standards for the trade. There are now other professional associations and lobby organizations. For example, the First Organization Professional Piercer (OPP e.V.) founded in 1997 . Among other things, the association committed itself to a recognized one-year training course as a piercer and would like to guarantee quality standards through strict admission requirements and controls of the members.

The European Association for Professional Piercing (EAPP) was founded in 2006 in order to “be significantly involved in the creation of new EU regulations and laws in the interests of its members”. Various seminars were also offered. The association changed its name to DGP in the following years and is no longer active (as of March 2019).

In 2015, the VPP - Verband Professioneller Piercer e. V. It is an association of highly specialized piercers. The self-formulated goals of the association include the extensive education of customers in all areas of piercings and body modification as well as the internal exchange, further training and support of the members among themselves. Furthermore, the association's own quality standards are to be created. The association organizes regular, Germany-wide get-togethers and was involved in the creation of the first European-wide recognized and EurasCert-certified hygiene training for piercers.

Piercing in Art

Sculptures "Jardin Punk"

In the garden of the Grande Bibliothèque of the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec there are three stone sculptures with the name “Jardin Punk” (German: “Punker Garden”) by the artist Roger Gaudreau, born in Rimouski in 1956. The stones are pierced with oversized piercing jewelry. The artwork was erected in 2005.


Luis Antonio Aguero, former piercing record holder

According to the Guinness Book of Records, the Brazilian Elaine Davidson is the most pierced woman in the world with over 2500 piercings . Previously, Luis Antonio Aguero, who lives in Cuba, was the record holder with over 300 piercings. The American Ed Burns set another record in 2010 when he had 1501 temporary piercings done in one day. The following year, the American Staysha Randall broke the world record with a number of 3200 temporary piercings. In 2012 the German Rolf Buchholz received an entry in the Guinness Book of Records as the most pierced man in the world with his 453 piercings.

See also

Portal: Body Modification  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of Body Modification
  • BMEzine - the world's largest online portal for piercing and body modification


Web links

Commons : Piercing  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Anne Schinke: Piercing in Germany: A historical-analytical view . Grin Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-638-69180-2 .
  2. ^ Body modification among the Mursi.
  3. Rolf Wilhelm Brednich, Heinz Schmitt (ed.) Symbols - On the meaning of symbols in culture: German Folklore Congress in Karlsruhe from September 25 to 29, 1995 , Waxmann Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-89325-550-8 , p. 363
  4. ^ Running the Gauntlet. ( Memento from July 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  5. a b c d e f Elayne Angel: The Piercing Bible: The Definitive Guide to Safe Body Piercing . ( Memento of October 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Crossing Press, ISBN 1-58091-193-5
  6. Piercings and tattoos: beautiful or ugly?  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Survey at apotheken-umschau.de@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.apotheken-umschau.de  
  7. Doctors newspaper online, October 6, 2009
  8. ^ Petra Gutsche, Gottfried Schmalz, Michael Landthaler: Prevalence of piercing in a German population . In: Eur J Dermatol m 2008m 18 (1), pp. 26–28.
  9. Petra Gutsche: Statistical survey on the frequency of piercings . Regensburg, Univ., Diss., 2005, DNB 978419146
  10. Study: Every fifth German is tattooed Leipziger Volkszeitung from September 22, 2017
  11. The piercing - from tradition to fashion trend. Retrieved February 27, 2019 .
  12. Body Piercing Popular In England, But Also Risky .
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  14. Cool tunnel in the lobe ( memento of the original dated November 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.rhein-berg-online.ksta.de
  15. Female Nipple Piercing - A New Style Icon ( Memento from November 2, 2007 in the web archive archive.today )
  16. Janet Jackson's Bare Breast Stunt Increases Body Piercing Interest ( Memento of the original from November 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / tattoo.about.com
  17. a b Show that you are different. The Upper Baden
  18. a b c We asked Martina Lehnhoff, expert for genital piercings: "With fresh genital piercing, sex is taboo". - Lifeline
  19. Piercings for adolescents: When the offspring succumbs to the trend! CleanKids magazine
  20. a b Intimate modifications in young people ( memento of the original from February 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - Federal Center for Health Education @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / forum.sexualaufklaerung.de
  21. Body hair removal is the trend among more and more young adults . Information service science of the University of Leipzig
  22. a b Through the skin .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Märkische Allgemeine@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.maerkischeallgemeine.de  
  23. a b Man and his metal: a solid connection. You can hardly shock anyone with piercings - intimate jewelry is becoming more popular .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Stuttgarter Zeitung@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.stuttgarter-zeitung.de  
  24. Suffering for Passion . mirror TV
  25. ^ A b Hogan, K. Rinard, C. Young, A. Roberts, M. Armstrong, T. Nelius: A cross-sectional study of men with genital piercings . (PDF; 251 kB) In: British Journal of Medical Practitioners , 3 (2) (2010), pp. 315–322, ISSN  1757-8515 .
  26. ^ Anne Schinke: Piercing in Germany: A historical-analytical view . Grin Verlag, 2007, ISBN 3-638-69180-2
  27. ^ A History of Body Piercing throughout Society
  28. Enjoyment of genital piercing - Freenet
  29. Body Piercing Info. (PDF)
  30. ^ C Caliendo, ML Armstrong, AE Roberts: Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings. In: Journal of advanced nursing , 2005, 49 (5), pp. 474-484, PMID 15713179
  31. G. Van der Meer, WW Schultz et al .: Intimate body piercings in women . In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology , 29 (4), 2008, pp. 235-239, doi: 10.1080 / 01674820802621874
  32. ^ E. Kasten (2007): Genital Body Modifications in Women. In: Der Gynäkologe , Volume 40, Number 6, pp. 489–500, doi: 10.1007 / s00129-007-1985-8
  33. R Rowan Childe: Male genital modification: A sexual selection interpretation. In: Human Nature , Vol. 7, 1996, No. 2, pp. 189-215, doi: 10.1007 / BF02692110
  34. Microdermal + Dermal Anchor ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wildcat.de
  35. Play-Piercing ( memento from March 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) at bodymod.ch
  36. Piercing - Under the Skin: Body jewelry with risks . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt
  37. H Krause, A Bremerich, M. Sztraka: Complications following piercing in the oral and facial region , Mund Kiefer Augenschir . , 2000, pp. 21-24, PMID 10662915 .
  38. Breast abscess after nipple piercing: overview of published case reports and demand for health policy consequences . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt
  39. L. Ekelius, H. Björkman et al .: Fournier's gangrene after genital piercing. In: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. Volume 36, Number 8, 2004, pp. 610-612, ISSN  0036-5548 . doi: 10.1080 / 00365540410017086 . PMID 15370675 .
  40. L. Ekelius, J. Fohlman, M. Kalin: The risk of severe complications of body piercing should not be underestimated. In: Läkartidningen. Volume 102, Number 37, 2005 Sep 12-18, pp. 2560-2, 2564, ISSN  0023-7205 . PMID 16200902 .
  41. Christina Aguilera - Travel problems due to intimate piercing
  42. Nicole Richie's Nipple Piercing causes alarm
  43. "Sorry" - woman had to remove breast piercing . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , March 30, 2008
  44. Information on blood donation ( Memento of the original from December 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.einfachlebenretten.de
  45. Who can donate blood? ( Memento from April 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) German Red Cross
  46. Nipple piercing: Piercing studio has to clarify in detail  ( page can no longer be accessed , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.juraforum.de  
  47. ^ Right Relaxed, youth website of the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection
  48. Press release of the professional association of paediatricians (BVKJ): Piercing for adolescents forbid - professional association of paediatricians
  49. Manfred Löwisch, Alexander Beck, Betriebsberater 2007, pp. 1960–1961
  50. For those with statutory health insurance, the health insurance company can restrict or refuse benefits in accordance with Section 52 (2) SGB V in these cases .
  51. ^ Ordinance of the Federal Minister for Economics and Labor on the rules for piercing and tattooing by cosmetics (beauty care) traders . On: ris.bka.gv.at on September 9, 2013
  52. Genital, nipple piercing ban for under 16s ( Memento from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  53. New Nickel Directive
  54. Materials and standards in the jungle of ordinances ( memento of the original from April 5, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.facit-facit.de
  55. Changes to the Nickel Ordinance (PDF)
  56. In Annex I of Directive 76/69 / EEC, point 28, Nickel, in the second column, point 1 is replaced by the following: “1. in all male studs that are inserted into pierced ears or other pierced body parts, unless the rate of nickel release from such male studs is less than 0.2 μg / cm² / week (release limit); ". from: PDF
  57. serious-piercing.de. ( Memento from March 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  58. ^ EAPP - professional association for piercers founded
  59. Jardin punk | Art Public Montréal. Retrieved January 31, 2017 (Canadian English).
  60. The craziest records of the fashion world Die Welt from August 6, 2007
  61. Wyoming: Thousand times pierced sets a record on Focus from April 13, 2010
  62. World record attempt: American woman gets 3600 piercings - Lifestyle - Bild.de
  63. Most pierced man is not allowed to enter Dubai Focus from August 17, 2014
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on August 24, 2007 .