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A naturopath (a term that appeared at the beginning of the 20th century and was generally introduced in 1928) is used in Germany to describe anyone who practices medicine professionally or commercially without being licensed as a doctor or psychological psychotherapist ( Section 1 of the Heilpraktikergesetz, which has been in existence since 1939 ). The practice of medicine as a non-medical practitioner requires state permission in Germany . The alternative practitioner exercises his profession independently and is one of the liberal professions within the meaning of Section 18 of the Income Tax Act .

In Switzerland an appropriate job description exists. The SBFI April 28, 2015 granted approval for the higher qualifying exam for Naturheilpraktikerin and naturopath . This created a title recognized and protected throughout Switzerland for four specific disciplines: Ayurveda medicine , homeopathy , traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional European naturopathy (TEN). The change in the law goes back to one of the core demands of constitutional article 118a complementary medicine, which calls for the creation of national diplomas for the non-medical professions of complementary medicine. Previously, there were inconsistent cantonal regulations on the practice of naturopathy. The federal examination is carried out by the ' Organization of Working World Alternative Medicine Switzerland (OdA AM)'.

In Austria , the practice of healing is reserved exclusively for doctors and - limited to the field of psychotherapy - psychotherapists. The exercise of the profession of alternative practitioner and the training for it is prohibited and punishable in Austria by the Doctors Act and the Training Reservation Act. This regulation has already been checked by the European Court of Justice and confirmed as conforming to EU law.

Differentiation from doctors and psychotherapists

The professional profile of the alternative practitioner includes the general practice of medicine and is expressed by the professional title "alternative practitioner". He differs from a doctor or psychotherapist in that no training is required for him and he practices medicine without a license to practice medicine (“without approval ”). His powers are restricted by laws and ordinances compared to those of the doctor. For example, it is not possible to prescribe prescription drugs or to do obstetrics or to treat certain infectious diseases in accordance with the Infection Protection Act.

Even when practicing psychotherapy, the alternative practitioner is restricted in his powers towards the psychotherapist. In contrast to psychotherapists, naturopaths may e.g. B. do not prescribe hospital admissions or patient transports and also do not prescribe rehabilitation measures or sociotherapy . Settlement with statutory health insurance companies is also not possible for alternative practitioners, and they are not allowed to use protected professional titles such as doctor or psychotherapist.


According to the Federal Statistical Office, there are around 45,000 alternative practitioners in Germany. There are various associations in which the alternative practitioners are organized. They represent the interests of alternative practitioners and offer advanced training events and services. Since most of the associations also maintain schools, they also provide training in addition to numerous independent providers. These are in alphabetical order

  • General German Heilpraktikerverband e. V. (ADHV)
  • Working Group of Anthroposophical Alternative Practitioners Professional Association (AGAHP)
  • Professional Association of German Naturopathy V. (BDN)
  • Association of German Heilpraktiker e. V. (BDH)
  • Association of German Heilpraktiker and Naturheilkundiger e. V. (BDHN)
  • Association of German Heilpraktiker e. V. (FDH)
  • Free naturopaths e. V. (FH)
  • Free Association of German Heilpraktiker e. V. (FVDH)
  • Union of German Heilpraktiker e. V. (UDH)
  • Association of German Heilpraktiker e. V. (VDH)
  • Association of Heilpraktiker Germany e. V. (VHD)
  • Association of Independent Alternative Practitioners V. (VUH)
  • Association of Christian Alternative Practitioners (VCHP)

These federal associations partly worked together on general, professional and medical-political issues within the framework of the organization The German Association of Alternative Practitioners (DDH). Since 2011, five major non-medical practitioners ' associations have been working together in the umbrella organization of German non-medical practitioners' associations (new: DDH).

Legal bases

Granting of permission

The Heilpraktiker is a profession regulated by the Heilpraktikergesetz in Germany. Although there is no mandatory standard training, there is a state-regulated examination, the written part of which is carried out uniformly and simultaneously in all health authorities. After the written exam has been passed, an oral exam is carried out by the respective health department as the state commissioned authority. The professional practice of medicine without being licensed as a doctor is only permitted with this permission according to § 1 Paragraph 1 HeilprG. The state authorities, which are based on the respective state legal implementation regulations, are responsible for issuing permits.

Conditions for permission are to § 2 (1 HeilprGDV) a minimum age of 25 years, one of the first regulation implementing the Heilpraktikergesetz High , the health adequacy and the "moral reliability", the doctor through a clearance or a police certificate can be detected.

In order to obtain the permit, the applicant must also undergo the above-mentioned written and oral examination of his knowledge and skills in order to determine whether the state of knowledge and skills offers any indications that a medical activity by him could lead to damage to human health ( § 2 Paragraph 1 Letter i HeilprGDV 1 as well as the Lower Saxony “Guideline for the implementation of the procedure for granting a permit according to the Heilpraktikergesetz”). The alternative practitioner examination is therefore a safety test and not a specialist examination in the sense of determining a specific level of training.

The review, which consists of a written (usually multiple-choice test ) and an oral part, includes: a. Questions about knowing about

Proof of completed training is not a requirement for a permit. The voluntary training at private schools takes about one to three years. The quality of the training is not subject to any state supervision.

The ban on granting foreigners an alternative practitioner permit, regulated in Section 2 (1) (b) HeilprGDV 1, is ineffective.

A special permit procedure applies to diploma and master psychologists who wish to acquire the alternative practitioner permit limited to the field of psychotherapy : They do not have to take a separate examination if they meet certain requirements.

Job title

The designation alternative practitioner is not one of the professional titles protected under Section 132a of the Criminal Code ( abuse of titles, job titles and badges ). While in the health professions and the academic medical professions, the professional practice results from the permission to use the corresponding professional title (example: law on the professions in physiotherapy ), the Heilpraktikergesetz binds the professional practice directly to the granting of a permit and does not provide for any explicit protection of the professional title. In contrast to the protected professional titles of the medical professions finally listed in the StGB, Section 1 (3) HeilprG regulates the use of the professional title of alternative practitioner as follows:

“Anyone who has practiced medicine up to now professionally and wants to continue to practice it receives permission in accordance with the implementation regulations; he bears the job title 'Heilpraktiker'. ""

When using the job title and any additions (e.g. acupuncturist , homeopath , chiropractor , osteopath ), care must be taken to avoid giving the impression of state recognition. This is especially true as opposed to members of the health care professions (eg. As speech therapists , midwives , physiotherapists ) or approval professions (eg. As doctors , psychotherapists , dentists ). In the same way, this also applies to job descriptions, such as those used on practice signs or in business directories.


In addition to the medical profession and the naturopathic profession, additional medical professions have developed, for example in psychotherapy and physiotherapy. These have completely independent and definable job profiles from the alternative practitioner. They did not emerge as subdivisions of the naturopathic profession. Here the comprehensive practice of general medicine, similar to a doctor, there only the practice of psychotherapy or physiotherapy as an independent branch of medicine, as auxiliary healing activities. Practice of medicine (including diagnostics) outside of this independent and delimited area is prohibited.

The Heilpraktikergesetz (Heilpraktikergesetz ) only regulates the granting of an unrestricted license to work in medicine without having to meet the requirements for the medical profession. However, it does not expressly prohibit the issuing of restricted permits for individual delimitable sub-areas. Here, an interpretation option was seen to share the alternative practitioner license, but not the previous and unchanged medical practitioner profession.

The innovation was and is that, on the basis of the Heilpraktikergesetz (Heilpraktikergesetz), different professions with different occupational profiles in medicine can be exercised independently. Therefore, the limited (sectoral) permit does not lead to the use of the professional title "Heilpraktiker" for all these different professions. The permit itself is not the same either. A full permit is very different from a partial, limited permit. This is not a technical approval for a subject. Expertise is not checked.

Sectoral non-medical practitioner permits (limited to one area) do not abolish the traditional profession of non-medical practitioner, who is allowed to practice medicine comprehensively. The legislature has not yet specified a separate job title for people with a sectoral alternative practitioner license. These people are not allowed to trade as alternative practitioners because of the risk of confusion. A mere additional activity is not sufficient, as the alternative practitioner with full permission may also carry out these activities and name them in the same way. However, the holders of the limited (sectoral) alternative practitioner permit are free to form their professional title without having to and be allowed to call themselves alternative practitioners. You can also do this from your specialty (and perhaps refer to the Heilpraktikergesetz). You are not allowed to violate any protected designations.

Since 1993, anyone with a limited (sectoral) alternative practitioner license has been able to practice psychotherapy independently and, since the end of 2006 in Rhineland-Palatinate and since the end of 2009 throughout Germany, physiotherapy . The terms "alternative practitioner (psychotherapy)", "psychotherapeutic alternative practitioner" (short form of "psychotherapeutic alternative practitioner"), which were regarded as harmless by the working group of the highest state health authorities (AOLG) until November 2008, do not make it sufficiently clear that there is only a limited alternative practitioner license and not for example, a fully authorized alternative practitioner who offers psychotherapy. Since November 2008, following from the judgments of the administrative courts since 2006, the AOLG has only used the still unclear designation "Heilpraktiker limited to the field of psychotherapy" or new "... to the field of" for legal clarity and patient protection Physiotherapy ”recommended.

In addition to the Heilpraktikergesetz ( Heilpraktikergesetz) there are legal and administrative regulations that are issued by the Federal Ministry of Health and the federal states ( Section 7 HeilprG). The Heilpraktikergesetz was last changed in 2016.

Professional code

In 1992 the associations agreed on a professional code of conduct for alternative practitioners (BOH), which is not legally binding for all alternative practitioners, but only applies to members as an internal law.

Confidentiality and right to refuse to give evidence

Non-medical practitioners are subject to the duty of confidentiality , which has arisen as a secondary obligation from the treatment contract since the Patient Rights Act came into force in 2013. The obligation to conclude a treatment contract also results from the Patient Rights Act. The duty of confidentiality results in a right to refuse to give evidence in civil proceedings in accordance with Section 383, Paragraph 1, No. 6 of the German Code of Civil Procedure . In contrast to doctors, psychotherapists, professional psychologists or other medical professions with a state-recognized academic final examination, non-medical practitioners are not subject to the obligation of confidentiality under criminal law ( Section 203 StGB ). The right to refuse to give evidence in criminal proceedings under Section 53 of the Code of Criminal Procedure , as it applies to doctors, psychological psychotherapists and clergy in their capacity as pastors, does not extend to alternative practitioners.


The work of the alternative practitioner is based on a treatment contract with the patient.

According to § 630a BGB, the amount of the remuneration is left to the free agreement between naturopaths and patients.

The GebüH, also GebüH85, published by the non-medical practitioners' associations, provides reference values ​​for most items for billing the patient. However, the fees mentioned there are from 1985, as the list has not been updated since it was set up. As a result, billing according to GebüH can no longer be economical for most alternative practitioners. In order to achieve economic efficiency, the maximum rates of the fee are exceeded as indicated in the treatment contract or determined analogously to the fee schedule for doctors (GOÄ). Services that are not included in the fee can be charged according to a similar service in the fee. It is also criticized that the application of the fee represents a price agreement that is prohibited by cartel law, since it lacks the legal force of a statutory fee schedule.

However, the fee framework does not represent a statement about the extent to which services are covered by private health insurance companies. The treatment costs for non-medical practitioners are mostly eligible for federal civil servants and are otherwise covered by private health insurances, provided that the agreed tariff provides for this. For some years now, clients with statutory health insurance have been able to insure cost reimbursement for alternative practitioner services through private supplementary insurance, as is customary for dentures and other special services. Since the beginning of 2005, almost all statutory health insurances have offered corresponding supplementary insurance, which is handled by private insurance partners. As a result of the health reform of 2003, the costs for non-prescription drugs, with a few exceptions, are generally no longer covered by health insurances - including most phytotherapy (plant therapy) and homeopathic drugs.

Since October 1, 2013, the IKK Südwest has been the first and z. Currently the only statutory health insurance in its statutes includes a reimbursement of services in the areas of homeopathy and naturopathic treatment, which were provided by a non-medical practitioner. The Ministry for Social Affairs, Health, Women and Family in Saarbrücken, as the supervisory authority, issued the approval if the alternative practitioner is a qualified service provider within the meaning of the statutes (association membership, etc.).


Like the entire health sector, the alternative practitioner is subject to the provisions of the Heilmittelwerbegesetz (HWG). This law applies to the advertising of medicines and other means, procedures and treatments. Since alternative practitioners often move within medical areas that are not scientifically recognized, the HWG affects them to a particular extent. Section 3, for example, prohibits statements about the effect of treatment methods that have not been proven under threat of punishment. In addition, according to § 11, no scientific reports or medical recommendations may be used in advertising “outside the specialist community”. The advertising of alternative practitioners is thus forced to strike a balance between the patient protection provided by the HWG, which prevents any not directly verifiable statement, and the interest of the alternative practitioner in informing about his treatment methods.

Fields of activity and methods

Non-medical practitioners with full licensing are allowed to determine physical and mental ailments and carry out their own therapy with physical treatments. They often use naturopathic or alternative medicine methods for diagnosis and therapy . They are not allowed to prescribe prescription drugs and narcotics . In general, every alternative practitioner can practice the procedures he has mastered ( freedom of therapy ). These can be conventional medical as well as naturopathic or so-called holistic procedures. Often, non-medical practitioners with full license use additional designations such as:

with the focus (not meant to be a limitation) on psychotherapy also:

The patient usually pays the bill for his treatment himself, with the exception of the partial reimbursement of certain treatment methods by some statutory health insurers and a larger number of private health insurers . The treatment relationship is therefore not regulated according to the GOÄ .

Non-medical practitioners are not allowed to take action in the case of notifiable illnesses , dentistry , radiation therapy and post mortem examinations, as well as in obstetrics . According to the Infection Protection Act (IfSG), naturopaths are not allowed to treat venereal diseases. This does not apply to diseases of the primary genital organs, provided they are not sexually transmitted. These include, for example, menstrual cramps , prostatic hyperplasia , ovarian cysts or endometriosis . Blood samples taken by alternative practitioners may not be used in court according to criminal procedure law.

Animal health practitioners do not need a permit, so that no minimum requirements have to be met here.


Critics note that alternative practitioners often prefer measures that have not been proven to be gentle , rather than medically proven therapies. Since the alternative practitioner is denied access to prescription drugs and these are often rejected out of conviction, treatment methods are usually used without scientifically proven benefits. Alternative treatment concepts such as commuting , iris diagnostics , applied kinesiology , homeopathy or anthroposophic medicine are often used even for serious illnesses without adequate education, even if a cure using these methods appears extremely unlikely. Naturopaths would not stop such measures even if they were unsuccessful or the disease worsened and would not refer the patient to a doctor even then. In addition, some alternative practitioners would exceed the framework set for them, for example by performing chiropractic on the cervical spine without adequate qualifications, and thus endanger the health of their patients. In particular, the often inadequate training of alternative practitioners is criticized. The Heilpraktikergesetz from 1939 does not provide for regulated training. Currently, 45 out of 60 questions only have to be answered correctly in a multiple-choice test in order to be approved as an alternative practitioner. In addition, the work of the alternative practitioners would then no longer be monitored and there would also be no binding professional ethics law . In contrast to doctors, alternative practitioners do not have to prove a sound training.

In individual cases it is criticized that an effective treatment is only used after the disease has worsened significantly. However, this criticism does not apply to serious alternative practitioners. In a test report from 2006 in Ökotest , in which a test person with an actual clinical picture presented to 20 randomly selected alternative practitioners and treated, these performed very differently. The tester rated four alternative practitioners as good and the treatment of five therapists as dangerous. Others would have worked carefully in collecting the findings and making diagnoses, “suggesting rather dubious therapies” that would not have done any harm, but would not have helped either. In its magazine “test” in 2008, the Stiftung Warentest came to an overall positive test result on the work as part of a random sample of 40 alternative practitioners. "The service and the advance information, the anamnesis, the diagnostics, the information about the therapy and the atmosphere of the conversation" were evaluated in the context of an initial interview.

In this context, the Heilpraktikergesetz (Heilpraktikergesetz) from the time of National Socialism in Germany is increasingly criticized. The main accusation is: "Alternative practitioners are allowed to practice without having to prove a corresponding qualification." Therefore, a change in the law is urgently recommended. It is also criticized that this law has hardly been changed in the almost 80 years of its history. The Heilpraktikergesetz was then changed in 2016. However, the fundamental problems persist.

The interdisciplinary Münsteraner Kreis , founded on the initiative of Bettina Schöne-Seifert , presented a memorandum for alternative practitioners in August 2017 , in which two proposed solutions are presented. On the one hand, the abolition of the alternative practitioner profession (abolition solution) and, on the other hand, the introduction of specialized "specialist alternative practitioners" as an additional qualification for existing health care professions (competence solution) are discussed. The position of this group of experts was disseminated in numerous media.

History of the naturopathic profession in Germany

Before World War II

The historical roots for the profession of alternative practitioner lie in empirical and lay medicine. Already in the Middle Ages there were “alternative practitioners” like lîbarzet Jörg Radendorfer from Vienna , who around 1496 in Frankfurt am Main had received perks ( courier and dispensing freedom ) that otherwise only academically trained doctors were entitled to, but after protests by imperial city doctors and pharmacist and the death of a patient from the patriciate were withdrawn from 1499, before he then worked in Nuremberg from 1500 to around 1503 as a naturopath with full courier and dispensing freedom until this activity was forbidden again. In 1928, the “Association of German Healers” in Essen became the “Large Association of German Heilpraktiker”. By 1931, 22 alternative practitioners' organizations had already been established, which, although it represented a great diversity of organizations, did not exactly promote professional political strength. In 1933, the National Socialist Reich Ministry of the Interior appointed the alternative practitioner Ernst Heinrich as commissioner of the alternative practitioners' associations. In the course of the National Socialist conformity , all alternative practitioners' associations were forcibly affiliated to the "Heilpraktikerbund Deutschlands". Membership as well as basic and advanced training were tightly regulated.

In August 1933 the journal "Der Heilpraktiker" appeared for the first time as an association organ, which is now established as an organ of the FDH federal association with "Volksheilkunde".

In 1934 Ernst Heinrich resigned from his position, and Ernst Kees was his successor. In “Der Heilpraktiker” the structure and the task of the Heilpraktikerbund is described as follows: “According to the leader principle, the entire initiative in the Heilpraktikerbund of Germany comes from its federal leader, party member Ernst Kees. All employees are therefore primarily executive bodies of the Federal Leader […] The Federal Leader was appointed by the Reich Interior Minister at the end of March 1934 on the proposal of the Fuehrer's deputy. The government and state assigned him the task of clearing the Heilpraktikerbund from all useless and unreliable elements that appeared unsustainable for the new state and whose elimination is in the interests of public health. "

In 1936, the naturopath was recognized as a freelance profession and was exempt from sales tax . After the Reichsärzteführer Gerhard Wagner described freedom of couriers and National Socialism as incompatible in 1937, a draft of a law on alternative practitioners was drawn up in 1938.

On February 17, 1939, the Heilpraktikergesetz (HeilprG) was announced with its First Implementation Ordinance (1st DVO). Despite the regulation of the profession, the Heilpraktikergesetz was planned from the outset as an extinction law for the profession of alternative practitioner, whereby there should have been a secret agreement between the Nazi leadership and the Reich Medical Association . In the original version of the law this is z. B. in § 2 clearly: "Anyone who has not previously practiced medicine without having been appointed as a doctor can only receive a permit according to § 1 in the future in particularly well-founded exceptional cases." The Nazi then had the especially well-founded exceptions - to decide on the stand organization. Section 4, which prohibits training, is also interesting: "It is forbidden to set up or maintain training facilities for people who want to devote themselves to the practice of medicine within the meaning of this law." In the 1st implementing regulation, applicants in § 1 only granted a deadline of April 1, 1939 to register for the granting of a permit. In § 2, permission was not granted, in addition to the known exclusions, "if he (the applicant) or his spouse is not of German or related blood," or "if he does not have civil rights". Incidentally, before the decision on the application was made, the German medical practitioners' association had to be heard.

On May 12, 1939, the "Heilpraktikerbund Deutschlands - Reichsverband" was given the name "Deutsche Heilpraktikerschaft" based in Berlin. From May 19 to 21, 1939, the 1st Reich Conference of the German Heilpraktikerschaft took place. The Second Implementation Ordinance (2. DVO) for the HeilprG led to the closure of the alternative practitioner schools and made any further training impossible. In 1943, all specialist training for alternative practitioners was banned.

After the Second World War

In 1946, alternative practitioner Carl Moser from Munich was appointed provisional head of the German alternative practitioners' association. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the continued validity of the Heilpraktikergesetz was secured on the basis of the Basic Law (1952 the prohibition of training was repealed as unconstitutional), in the GDR the Heilpraktikergesetz was replaced by the license to practice medicine. For East Germany, this meant that only those who were allowed to continue working as alternative practitioners were those who had received “permission to practice medicine without appointment” before May 9, 1945. New approvals were no longer granted. This meant that the profession of naturopath in the GDR was doomed to extinction. When the GDR collapsed in 1989, there were only 11 alternative practitioners there.

In Berlin, the German Heilpraktiker Section in the Free German Trade Union Confederation (FDGB) with its headquarters in Berlin-Charlottenburg came into operation on October 28, 1945. At that time, the board of directors included the naturopaths from Chrismar-Trott, Przygodda, Wiess, Gerling, Seidensticker, Bach, Müller, Linke and Fischer-Treuenfeld. In a letter dated April 30, 1946, the board of the specialist group refused to join the German Heilpraktikerschaft (Munich) and referred to the special situation in the “Soviet occupation zone”. According to its own information, the specialist group comprised approx. 1,200 alternative practitioners in the provinces of Brandenburg, Saxony, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg at the time of its establishment.

The practice of the union organization of alternative practitioners in the Soviet zone was regulated by the Alternative Practitioners Regulation of December 18, 1946 with the approval of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) . Section 1 of this regulation reads:

Section 1, Paragraph 1. The German Heilpraktikerschaft, the previous professional representation of Hp, has been dissolved. They are replaced by the trade union organizations of alternative practitioners in the countries and provinces.

Section 1 (2). The health department is responsible for the supervision of the Hp. It uses a chairman named by the trade union organizations of the Hp.

On May 14, 1947, a working group of the regional associations, the "German Heilpraktikerschaft", was founded with its seat in Munich. A completely new situation arose after the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany and the associated separation of the former Soviet occupation zone, the later GDR. It led to the dissolution of the original working group of the regional associations of German alternative practitioners in Munich. As a new organization, the "Deutsche Heilpraktikerschaft e. V." was established in April 1950 as the central instance of the regional associations of the Federal Republic founded between 1947 and 1949. V. ", today's" Association of German Heilpraktiker "(FDH).

In 1952, the restrictions on the previously applicable courier freedom were lifted as incompatible with the Basic Law.

The federal development of the Federal Republic of Germany had the consequence that further professional and professional associations for alternative practitioners quickly emerged. But also different professional and medical policy considerations of the profession made the development of further professional organizations necessary.

The number of alternative practitioners has increased over the past few decades. The number in Bavaria rose from around 11,000 in 2003 to over 23,000 naturopaths in 2015. According to the Federal Statistical Office from 2015, around 43,000 naturopaths (8,000 men, 35,000 women) worked in Germany, 27,000 of them part-time (3,000 men , 24,000 women).

The Heilpraktikergesetz and the Implementation Ordinance for the Heilpraktikergesetz (HeilprGDV) were changed in 2016. The federal states are now to submit proposals and new guidelines will be drawn up from them by the end of 2017.

See also


  • Janine Freder: The history of the naturopathic profession in Germany , Bonn: Verlag Volksheilkunde, 2003, ISBN 3-9807430-5-5
  • Franz-Josef Hücker: Permission to practice psychotherapy . In: Psychotherapie Forum, Supplement Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997 (Springer Vienna), pp. 264-271.
  • Thomas Faltin: alternative practitioner. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 554 f.
  • H. Reupke: On the history of the practice of medicine by non-licensed persons in Hamburg from the beginnings to the enactment of the “Heilpraktikergesetz” in 1939. Herzogenrath 1987.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Federal Naturopathic Practitioner is a reality. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Homeopathy Association Switzerland, May 4, 2015, archived from the original on August 16, 2015 ; Retrieved July 22, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Higher technical examination. Organization of the Working World Alternative Medicine Switzerland (OdA AM), accessed on August 24, 2015 .
  3. § 3 Paragraph 4 in conjunction with § 2 ÄrzteG 1998
  4. § 1 Training Reservation Act
  5. EuGHE I 2002, 6515, judgment of July 11, 2002, case C-294/00
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  11. Alternative practitioner review - attorney René Sasse, Dortmund. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 4, 2017 ; accessed on May 10, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Order of the Federal Constitutional Court of May 10, 1988 - 1 BvR 482/84 and 1166/85, BVerfGE 78, 179.
  13. § 132a StGB - individual norm. Retrieved May 10, 2018 .
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  17. Petra Nieweg: Competition law for non-medical practitioners: May signs indicating the practice be put up in the village? In: October 17, 2009, accessed May 10, 2018 .
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  23. (PDF) Fachverband Deutscher Heilpraktiker eV, 2013, accessed on December 31, 2015 .
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  32. Stiftung Warentest: Heilpraktiker: Overall impression positive , in: test, issue 03/2008 (accessed on: January 3, 2013)
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  34. Der Sterrn : "Dangerous Heilpraktiker", print edition from April 20, 2017
  35. a b Archive link ( Memento of the original from April 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  36. In a motion for a resolution for the 111th GERMAN MEDICAL DAY 2008 in Ulm it was said: “The legislature must finally acknowledge that the Heilpraktikergesetz of February 17th, 1939 is completely out of date and no longer meets the requirements of medical care for the population.”
  37. How dubious alternative practitioners endanger human life. April 20, 2017, accessed September 1, 2019 .
  38. Münsteraner Kreis: Münsteraner Memorandum Heilpraktiker. August 21, 2017, online
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  41. ^ First physiotherapist, then alternative practitioner. In: August 21, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2018 .
  42. Doctors and scientists call for the abolition of the naturopathic profession. In: Spiegel Online . August 21, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2018 .
  43. Archived copy ( memento of the original dated August 29, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  44. Why are there still naturopaths at all? In: Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
  45. Wolfgang Wegner: Raden villages, Jörg (also: Rattendorfer, Rottendorfer). In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1211 f.
  46. ^ Gundolf Keil , Marianne halib : Radendorfer (Rattendorfer, Rottendorfer), Jörg. In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd Edition. Volume 8, Col. 966-968.
  47. Law on the professional practice of medicine without appointment (Heilpraktikergesetz, HeilprG) of February 17, 1939 (RGBl. 1 p. 251) as amended on October 23, 2001 ( BGBl. I p. 2702 ).
  48. ^ First implementing ordinance to the law on the professional practice of medicine without appointment (Heilpraktikergesetz) of February 18, 1939 (RGBl. 1 p. 259) i. d. F. of April 18, 1975 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 967 ).
  49. Justification for the law on the professional practice of medicine without appointment (Heilpraktikergesetz) of February 28, 1939 (Reichs- und Staatsanzeiger No. 50, p. 2).
  51. [3] Federal Statistical Office (2015), Fachserie 12 Reihe 7.3.1, page 16.
  52. ^ First implementing ordinance for the Heilpraktikergesetz, § 2 Paragraph 1, last sentence