Osteopathy (alternative medicine)

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The terms osteopathy (from ancient Greek ὀστέον ostéon , German 'bones' and πάθος páthos , German 'suffering' ), osteopathic medicine and osteopathic treatment describe various disease and treatment concepts in the field of alternative medicine .

In Europe, this is understood to mean various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are carried out manually, i.e. with the practitioner's bare hands. The terms “ manual medicine ”, “ manual therapy”, “chirotherapy” and “ chiropractic ” are sometimes used synonymously. Proof of effectiveness is only available for a few of the indications that are attributed to osteopathy.

In the Anglo-American language area, especially in the USA , the term osteopathy stands for a diagnosis and therapy concept that goes back to the US doctor Andrew Taylor Still . In 1885, Still coined the term osteopathy . Still's concept is based at least in part on assumptions that contradict modern scientific knowledge. The training in the USA to become a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, D.O. 'Osteopathic Doctor' , is, however, based on scientific medicine.

Since January 1, 2012, some of the statutory health insurance companies in Germany have been assuming part of the treatment costs for those with compulsory insurance. The prerequisite for this is an informal medical certificate of necessity and a recognized professional qualification of the practitioner. Most private health insurances cover the cost of osteopathic services. The reason for the assumption of costs by the health insurances is not, as with evidence-based treatment methods, in a proof of the effect of the osteopathy - especially in the treatment of infants or children - but is to be regarded as marketing of the insurances.

Andrew Taylor Still Basics and Theory

The basic conceptual assumptions in osteopathy, which can be traced back to the American doctor Andrew Taylor Still, correspond to a historically founded, philosophical structure of ideas. According to the scientific understanding of his time, the scientific orientation is strongly mechanistic, whereby he tries to express physiological and immunological connections with his mechanistic language that were still unknown at the time of his approach (approx. 1860–1875). Since Still's language has a strongly narrative and philosophical character, medical and scientific assessment from today's point of view is only possible with a good knowledge of the socio-cultural conditions of the 19th century, in particular of the American border region, and with primary consideration of the philosophical aspects he cites. A comprehensive source study in this context is still pending, which is why statements about Still's approach should be viewed critically.

Still's basic assumptions include that the body is viewed as a functional unit and, due to an intelligence that is superior to humans and that expresses itself in life, is basically capable of self-regulation, that all bodily functions depend on the development and supply by the nervous and vascular system that healing is only possible through the promotion of the body's self-healing powers . At the abstract level, some of his postulates are quite compatible with today's scientific thinking. It is also possible to interpret Still's original assumptions in the sense of general basic principles and not as an independent thought structure (such as anthroposophic or traditional Chinese medicine ).

In his publications, Still formulated the basics of the “osteopathic theory”, which he also called philosophy. He assumes that the body forms a functional unit. Disturbances in one area also affect other areas; by treating the skeleton and the musculoskeletal system , disorders of the organism should therefore be eliminated. Still's four key assumptions are:

  • The role of the artery is essential.
  • The body is a functional unit.
  • The function determines the body structure and vice versa.
  • The body has the ability to regulate itself .

According to Still, all bodily functions depend on the supply and disposal through the vascular and nervous system . Calcification of the arteries , blocked joints or tight muscles can hinder the body's supply of blood and lymph and lead to symptoms. If the supply is disrupted, the body will try to compensate for this, according to Still. According to his theory, the osteopath can use his hands to determine the basic tension of muscles, bones and joints and thus recognize disturbed functions. According to Stills, the body generally heals itself when there is a disturbance and it is not possible to heal it from the outside. Osteopathy is supposed to activate and promote the self-healing powers.

In general, osteopaths fundamentally assume that perfect alignment of the musculoskeletal system eliminates obstacles in blood and lymph vessels and thus leads to optimal health. A number of manipulative techniques have been developed to achieve ideal alignment.

Depending on the anatomical structures considered and the postulated functional mechanisms, osteopathy can be divided into three areas:

structure Area
Connective tissue, muscles and joints parietal osteopathy
internal organs and their connective tissue suspension visceral osteopathy
inherent "rhythms" of the organism cranio-sacral osteopathy (also highly controversial within osteopathy)

Diagnosis and therapy are usually performed by palpation and are also based on the anatomically existing body functions and structures or postulated by osteopathy . The osteopathic assessment is not to be equated with a (medical) differential diagnosis .

“A decisive prerequisite for avoiding complications from diagnostic and therapeutic measures of a previously damaged structure, in particular, is a comprehensive medical examination and differential diagnosis. In the context of such an examination, it is particularly important to exclude disease-related structural damage, which can cause complications in the context of the diagnostic and therapeutic measures customary in 'osteopathy'. Therefore, it is again desirable that doctors who prescribe osteopathic treatments have a basic knowledge of the structure and function-oriented procedure of 'osteopathy' and, when prescribing selected osteopathic diagnosis and therapeutic services, not only communicate disease diagnoses, but also in particular relevant information on damaged structures . "

Parietal osteopathy is based on Andrew Taylor Still (1828-1917), visceral osteopathy on HV Hoover or MD Young in the 1940s, and cranio-sacral therapy on William Garner Sutherland (1873-1954, student of Andrew Taylor Still) and John E. Upledger .

In cranio-sacral therapy, which in turn is divided into several directions, manipulation techniques (mostly on the skull and sacrum) are used, with the help of which independent, inherent rhythms of the human organism (primary respiratory mechanism - PRM) are to be harmonized. In the 1970s, Upledger's original concept was expanded to include the theory of so-called “energy cysts” and combined with alternative psychotherapy .

Osteopathy in animals

The Belgian physiotherapist and osteopath Pascal Evrard and the French veterinarian Dominique Giniaux are considered pioneers and co-founders of osteopathy in horses.


The osteopath feels tension and restricted mobility and tries to mobilize muscles and joints. For this purpose he uses, taking into account the osteopathic principles and a. following techniques:

Term delimitation / definition

Osteopathy in German-speaking countries is based on the results of basic scientific research in the fields of anatomy and neurophysiology with regard to the use of appropriate procedures , while osteopathy in the US-American sense is based on the "[...] special human image of" osteopathy "with US characteristics [...] " (Quote by). In its position paper, the German Society for Manual Medicine (DGMM) also differentiates between effective osteopathic techniques, the basis of which are neurophysiologically comprehensible models of thought (e.g. manual medicine) and those whose explanatory approaches contradict modern scientific research.

In German-speaking countries, various forms of diagnosis and therapy of reversible functional disorders of the active and passive musculoskeletal system are now used under the term osteopathy . These include manual medicine , chiropractic therapy, chiropractic , manual therapy, osteopathic medicine, and manipulation therapy. Outside the USA , osteopathy is not an independent treatment method. As a procedure or method, however, it is widespread in numerous countries without the historical concept.

In the Anglo-American language area, the terms osteopathic medicine , chiropractic and osteopathy are possible translations.

In the literature, other terms are often subsumed under the hyperonym “osteopathy”. This includes, for example, the cranio-sacral therapy that emerged in the 1930s, the principles of which are in contradiction to the findings of modern science, and its use as a “special type of body massage” for specific pediatric diseases such as “learning and development disorders” Society for Neuropediatrics is rejected.

Internationally, the definition of the term is difficult because different professional groups in different countries describe different forms of treatment as osteopathy and, moreover, the teaching is inconsistent; a wide variety of certificates and diplomas are awarded in this area. From a global perspective, (specialist) doctors (in the European sense), Doctors of Osteopathy (DO, USA), non-medical osteopaths (comparable to German alternative practitioners - e.g. England), alternative practitioners , physiotherapists , masseurs , certified sports teachers and other non-medical professional groups apply Osteopathy.

Different definitions of osteopathy are used in Europe and North America. In North America, osteopathy is seen as an independent treatment concept, which is also based on independent theories that contradict modern scientific findings. Despite these differences, the most important manual techniques are identical but are used on different premises .

The representation in German-language standard works is not entirely uniform. A lexicon (Springer Lexikon Medizin) describes that in osteopathy subluxations , which are supposed to cause pinching of root fibers, are the subject of treatment. In osteopathy, these subluxations are in turn responsible for "tangible symptoms " such as pain and poor posture , but also for other symptoms such as menstrual disorders or gastrointestinal disorders. The latter in particular has been criticized many times in the specialist literature, especially since significant undesirable effects (e.g. paraplegia) cannot be definitely ruled out if the spine is manipulated . Another (Roche Lexicon Medicine) also describes the diagnosis and therapy of functional movement disorders (“key term blocking”) for the purpose of relieving pain, mobilizing and relaxing the muscles using hand grip techniques. In addition, it differentiates between "soft tissue techniques", so-called "osteopathic techniques", active and passive mobilization techniques (mobilization therapy), and manipulation techniques (chirotherapeutic technique). Specific contraindications such as destructive disease processes are also mentioned there. In addition, osteopathy and chiropractic are presented as non-medical forms of treatment in the "Lexicon of Parasciences", which have been further developed into the medical treatment method chirotherapy (syn. Manual medicine ) .

Study situation and criticism

The evidence of the effectiveness of the treatment in the individual sub-areas is very different. Significant studies (related to specific indications and with a moderate level of evidence ) exist in sufficient numbers for parietal osteopathy (relating to the movement system), are sparse for visceral (affecting the intestines) osteopathy and in the sub-area of ​​cranio-sacral (skull-sacrum-related) osteopathy not known.

Parietal osteopathy

There are some indications that parietal osteopathy can be helpful for back pain, especially in acute and subacute stages. A 2014 meta-analysis compared osteopathy in the US school with various treatments (including without treatment or with apparent treatment) in patients with acute or chronic non-specific back pain. She concluded that osteopathic treatments can not only reduce pain effectively, but also improve the skills of doing daily chores. This has also been demonstrated in back pain in pregnant women and in women after childbirth. However, this effect did not last more than 3 months. In addition, the authors admitted that there were issues with blinding , which may skew the results. In addition, the number of patients examined was small. Finally, there is a lack of large, high-quality randomized trials. Side effects of osteopathic treatment have not been reported.

In 2018, the IGeL monitor of the MDS ( Medical Service of the Central Association of Health Insurance Funds ) analyzed the study situation on "osteopathy for unspecific low back pain" and rated it as "unclear". The scientists found no evidence of harm, but also none of benefit. Despite some positive results, the studies did not show that osteopathy was more helpful than the treatments paid for by the health insurers.

The evidence from clinical studies for other indications is scarce and not compelling. According to review articles, there was little evidence of the benefit of osteopathic forms of therapy for both head and back pain and asthma .

Visceral osteopathy

There are indications that visceral osteopathy can also be used to achieve treatment success in diseases caused by structural changes that are not primarily irreversible, such as three-month colic and recurrent otitis media . A more recent review from 2018, however, comes to the conclusion that there is no evidence on the benefit or reliability of visceral osteopathy. Visceral osteopathy (as well as cranio-sacral) is considered controversial in the USA and is hardly taught there.

Cranio-sacral osteopathy


Osteopathic treatments are not risk-free. In particular, previously damaged body structures can be further damaged. To avoid complications as completely as possible, a prior and comprehensive medical examination and differential diagnosis are necessary.

Osteopathy has been criticized from the medical and scientific side, especially because of the historical concept that is widespread in the USA. For example, there is currently no scientific evidence for the assumed stimulation of self-healing powers through stimulation of the connective tissue.

The former president and current honorary president of the professional association of paediatricians , Wolfram Hartmann , particularly criticizes osteopathy in children and infants. In particular, the so-called "baby osteopathy" is used by the health insurances as a lure, although there is no evidence of its effectiveness, nor are any possible dangers for the babies taken into account.

History and Development


Since the beginning of the 17th century, the art of bone setting (setting up bones and joints) developed in Europe . Since that time it has been the subject of scientific research and has mostly been viewed as part of surgery. At the time, the imaging methods commonly used today had not yet been developed, so doctors had to rely solely on the clinical findings. The clinical examination and treatment methods and the knowledge of the functional anatomy, especially with regard to bones, ligaments and muscles, developed. A central theme of the "bone-setters" were palpable joint misalignments, which they viewed as causally triggered by the muscles and treated accordingly. “Bone-Setters” not only treated actual dislocations or broken bones , but also saw themselves historically as a better alternative to contemporary conventional medicine : “ The simple and efficient means of setting bones, by relaxing muscles, according to the reformed practice, forms a striking contrast to the barbarous tortures of the regular faculty, with all their horrid implements - saws, pulleys, ropes, & c., & c. ”(Quote from - 1852). In 1871 Wharton P. Hood described typical handgrip techniques for pain in the spine or joints, as well as their indications, contraindications and risks, some of which are still valid in today's osteopathy.


Osteopathy goes back to the American Andrew Taylor Still (1828–1917). It is believed that he knew and possibly mastered the bone-setting method. At the same time he is also considered to be interested in other scientific currents of his time, such as Darwin's theory of evolution and the theory of John M. Neil about the self-healing powers of the body.

On June 22nd, 1874, Still presented osteopathy as a “new science” to the general public. He consciously avoided any reference to already existing knowledge; as a reference he referred to God and his own experience. It is believed that he deliberately avoided naming European sources in order to emphasize the "intellectual independence" of the United States (from Europe, which was still aristocratic at the time ).

The physician John Martin Littlejohn (1867–1947) from Scotland transferred Andrew Taylor Still's primarily anatomically based concept to physiology and promoted the scientific recognition of osteopathy. After returning to Europe in 1917, he founded the British School of Osteopathy (BSO) in London.

William Garner Sutherland (1873–1954), a student of Stills, extended the osteopathic concept to the area of ​​the skull and thus founded cranial or craniosacral osteopathy , which was later decoupled from osteopathy mainly by the American osteopath John Upledger and as an independent one Cranio-Sacral Therapy was further developed.

DD Palmer (1845–1913) came to Kirksville in 1893 on the recommendation of an ASO student, was a guest at Still's house for two weeks and familiarized himself with the new manual techniques of osteopathy. A doctor friend, who had also studied at the ASO, deepened Palmer's manual repertoire. In 1898 he renamed his training center founded in 1887 “Palmer Cure & Infirmary” to “Palmer School and Infirmary of Chiropractic”. There he taught the osteopathic grips z. Sometimes in a modified form, but without conveying the holistic concept. He reduced osteopathy in his so-called chiropractic to a purely symptom-oriented treatment system.

Today osteopathy in the USA is a medical training at colleges with the degree D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine) . American graduates of Osteopathic Medicine have all the rights of a doctor. Due to historical developments, however, only around three to five percent work predominantly with manual techniques on patients, and the holistic approach can only be seen in the beginning in the training.

Development of osteopathy


After the United States, osteopathy first spread to Great Britain . According to Littlejohn, osteopathy in England was shaped by the doctor and osteopath Alan Stoddard, who modified the demanding system, which was difficult to integrate due to the holistic aspects, similar to Palmer. After this step, the spread of osteopathy in England increased considerably. The US-American designation D.O. was initially also there; today only Bachelor (B. Sc.) certificates are awarded.

The term osteopathy came to Germany possibly through Pastor Gustav A. Zimmer, who was born on December 22nd, 1869 in Kraschen , Guhrau district in the province of Silesia , who temporarily lived in the USA and who, after returning in 1927 in Dresden, established a training center for chiropractic (“ chiropractic college "), which was mainly attended by alternative practitioners Zimmer ended his professional activity in 1938 and died on December 17, 1939. Three of the books published by Zimmer were on the " list of harmful and undesirable literature " and were by the National Socialists forbidden. In 1927, Volume 2 of the Library of New Healing Methods appeared in the book Osteopathic Massage - Easy to understand and practical instructions for everyone, along with instructions for dietary and mild water treatment. According to Dr. Charles E. Murray's 4th Americ. Edition freely edited by Dr. Medicus After the Second World War and the legalization of an amended version of the Heilpraktikergesetz of February 17, 1939, the Nuremberg naturopath Willi Schmidt resumed the professional training he had started in 1938, including in chiropractic from 1951 onwards. In 1959 Schmidt took over the management of the working group for chiropractic and osteopathy in the DH with working groups in all regional associations, an annual central specialist training congress in Bad Homburg and the publication of a total of 92 editions of the training sheets of the working group of German chiropractors and osteopaths in the DH , which were published by Published 1959 to 1971. At the naturopaths congress on 21./22. In September 1957 in Bad Kissingen, Schmidt gave a lecture entitled Osteopathy in a holistic view , which was also published in print.

In Germany, doctors began to use "manual medicine / therapy" in the 1950s, heavily influenced by the exchange with US chiropractors. In Germany, osteopathy can currently only be learned at private training institutes. Individual private universities offer courses leading to a Bachelor (B. sc.) And Master (M.sc.) degree. In 1994 the first professional association of osteopaths in Germany was founded, the Association of Osteopaths Germany (VOD) e. V. According to their own statements, various osteopathic professional associations in the so-called consensus group osteopathy strive to achieve a uniform training standard.

In 2011, a professorship in the field of osteopathy was awarded to Dietmar Daichendt , President of the DGCO , for the first time in Germany , and in 2015 the Steinbeis University Berlin established a university professorship for "Osteopathic Medicine" for the first time and Dietmar Daichendt was also appointed.

United States of America

Osteopathy (English osteopathic medicine ) in the USA describes a form of medical training at colleges with the degree of Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Some of these colleges are attached to universities . This training is based on scientific medicine and includes, for example, courses on pharmacy and surgery . During the studies, the manual alternative medical diagnosis and treatment concept, also known under this name in Europe, is only one of the many specialist areas during the primary medical training. The name of this department is there Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Physicians (OMT).

In everyday clinical practice in the USA, doctors with the title D.O. are on an equal footing with colleagues who have acquired the title M. D. ( Latin Medicinae Doctor , teacher of medicine).

Training can through with appropriate educational qualifications Regierungspräsidien be recognized in Germany as a doctor training. This is a discretionary decision that depends in particular on whether the duration of the training and the main training content correspond to the German medical degree. In the event of a positive decision, the D.O. can obtain a license to practice as a doctor in accordance with Section 10 of the Federal Medical Regulations. Alternatively, he can work as a naturopath. It is historically interesting that many US soldiers were unable to study medicine after the Second World War because the universities were overcrowded and therefore switched to the specialist courses of the osteopathy colleges .

Non-medical osteopaths are called non-physician osteopaths in the USA . Representatives of the European, alternative medicine osteopaths are also referred to in the USA as European osteopathic manipulators .

Legal position

The professional or commercial air medicine is only licensed doctors allowed in Germany to § 1 Heilpraktikergesetz also naturopaths . This also applies to alternative healing methods such as osteopathy. The use of delegable manual therapeutic services is stipulated in Germany in the Social Security Code and in Switzerland in the Therapeutic Products Act.

Since "osteopathy" is not a colloquial term in Germany, the meaning must be explained when it is used in advertising in the healthcare sector. In Hesse there are temporary further training and examination regulations in the field of osteopathy (WPO-Osteo). Otherwise the professional title “osteopath” is not legally permitted in the German health system; the use as a job title is usually warned. Other additional designations with letter combinations such as D. C., C. O., D. O. are not permitted, unless they are acquired and registered titles from universities. A judgment of the Düsseldorf Regional Court of July 24, 2006 is available.

Since there is no state regulation of training and professional title except in Hesse, a D.O. title acquired / awarded in Germany has no legal significance. However, "D. O. “a protected word mark of the Association of Osteopaths Germany (VOD) e. V., who can thus control the award of the title. In a judgment of June 18, 2009, the Hessian Administrative Court confirmed the legality of the Hessian further training and examination regulations in the field of osteopathy and A. executed:

"The WPO-Osteo [...] does not create an independent profession of 'osteopath'. With the decree of the WPO-Osteo, the legislator did not pursue this goal. The regulations of the WPO-Osteo also do not mean that an independent profession 'osteopath' is created. The WPO-Osteo is an ordinance of the state minister that regulates further training in osteopathy, which is concluded with an examination. After passing the exam, the candidate receives state permission to use the further training designation 'Osteopath' (§ 17 Paragraph 1 WPO-Osteo). The then Hessian Minister of Social Affairs did not want to create a new independent health profession of the 'osteopath', but only to regulate further training in osteopathy. A further education title cannot be equated with a job title. The applicant also does not explain in detail why physiotherapists, masseurs and medical pool attendants or alternative practitioners who have successfully completed further training in osteopathy should exercise an independent profession by using the further training permit 'osteopath'. Your job remains that of a physiotherapist, a masseur and a medical pool attendant or a naturopath, even if you also call yourself an 'osteopath'. "

The Federal Administrative Court rejected a complaint against the non-admission of the appeal against this ruling by ruling on November 20, 2009 and the ruling of the Hessian Administrative Court u. a. interpreted as follows:

“The Administrative Court just did not accept that physiotherapists would be empowered to practice medicine on their own responsibility through further training as osteopaths. Rather, he has interpreted the further training regulations, namely the regulation in Section 1 (2) WPO-Osteo, in such a way that the division of tasks between the medical professions on the one hand and the auxiliary professions on the other should not be changed, and that a physiotherapist should not be changed regardless of a license given to him the advanced training title osteopath may only perform therapeutic treatments on the basis of a doctor's prescription. "

Outside Germany there are universities where you can acquire a Master of Science or a doctorate in osteopathy. Due to the Bologna Agreement and intergovernmental agreements, these terms may also be used in Germany. A professional license as an osteopath is not associated with this in the German healthcare system. The use of degrees from German and foreign colleges, technical colleges, universities and colleges is subject to the Higher Education Framework Act (HRG) or the higher education laws of the federal states. In Germany, the use of the term “diploma” is only permitted for degrees at technical colleges and universities. Foreign titles must be recognized by the regional councils. This also applies to the professional degree of the US D.O. Some osteopathy schools offer a Bachelor of Science degree, sometimes in cooperation with universities . Some private universities such as Dresden International University also offer courses in osteopathy leading to a Master of Science degree .

further reading


  • Scientific evaluation of osteopathic procedures . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . tape 106 , no. 46 . Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag , November 13, 2009, p. A-2325 / B-1997 / C-1941 ( aerzteblatt.de [accessed on February 9, 2015]).
  • Forum for the article: Scientific evaluation of osteopathic procedures . In: Osteopathische Medizin Issue 1/2010
  • Karl-Ludwig Resch: Expert opinion on the question of "Osteopathy and evidence" , Expert opinion on the question of "Osteopathy and evidence"
  • Andrew Taylor Still: The Great Still Compendium . Pähl, 2005
  • William Garner Sutherland: The Great Sutherland Compendium. Pähl, 2004
  • C. Trowbridge: Andrew Taylor Still 1828-1917 . Pähl, 2005
  • N. Handoll: The Anatomy of Potency . Pähl, 2004
  • J. Stark: Stills fascia concepts . Pähl, 2007


  • JM Hoag, WV Cole, SG Bradford (Eds.): Osteopathic Medicine. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1969; Library of Congress 68-20990
  • DK Clawson (Ed.): Osteopathic Medicine: Past, Present, and Future. Conference proceedings, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, New York 1996
  • Andrew Taylor Still: The Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of Osteopathy. Kansas City 1902 epubli 2010 on books.google
  • Andrew Taylor Still: Osteopathy, Research and Practice. Kirksville 1910
  • William Garner Sutherland: The Cranial Bowl. 1939
  • William Garner Sutherland: Contributions of Thought. The collected Writings of William Garner Sutherland. 1971
  • William Garner Sutherland, Editor: Ann Wales: Teachings in the Science of Osteopathy. 1990
  • Rebecca Lippincott Conrow, Howard A. Lippincott: A Manual of Cranial Technique. 1943
  • John Wernham: The Fundamentals of Osteopathic Technique. Maidstone (compilation from classroom scripts by J. M. Littlejohn)
  • John Wernham: The Pathology of the Osteopathic Lesion. Maidstone (compilation from classroom scripts by J. M. Littlejohn)
  • John Wernham: Principles. Maidstone (compilation from classroom scripts by J. M. Littlejohn)
  • John Wernham: Lesionology. Maidstone (compilation from classroom scripts by J. M. Littlejohn)
  • Harold Ives Magoun: Osteopathy in the Cranial Field. Denver 1951
  • Charles Owens: An Endocrine Interpretation of Chapman Reflexes. Newark, Ohio 1963
  • Irvin M. Korr: The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy. Michigan State University, 1977
  • Irvin M. Korr, Ed .: Barbara Peterson: The Collected Papers of Irvin M Korr. Indianapolis 1979

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k Scientific evaluation of osteopathic procedures . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . tape  106 , no. 46 . Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag , November 13, 2009, p. A-2325 / B-1997 / C-1941 ( Online [accessed February 9, 2015]).
  2. Max Geiser: The return to reason in the health care system of the 21st century In: Schweizerische Ärztezeitung. Volume 88, Number 17, 2007, pp. 758–760 (PDF; 190 kB)
  3. ^ Origin of osteopathy ( Memento from October 17, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) German Society for Osteopathic Medicine.
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  8. Christian Hartmann: Thoughts on A. T. Still's philosophy of osteopathy. JOLANDOS, 2016, pp. 89-124, ISBN 978-3-936679-95-3
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  10. Edzard Ernst , D. Eisenberg: Praxis Naturheilverfahren: Evidenzbasierte Komplementärmedizin , p. 84 ( limited preview in the Google book search)
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  13. ^ A b Position paper of the German Society for Manual Medicine (DGMM) on osteopathy. ( Memento of the original from October 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 2006. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.dgmm.de
  14. ^ A b c Peter Reuter: Springer Lexicon Medicine. Springer, Berlin a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-540-20412-1 , p. 1596.
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  19. D. Karch et al.: Craniosacral Therapy , Statement of the Society for Neuropediatrics, ( PDF file ( Memento of the original from October 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link accordingly Instructions and then remove this notice. ) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.neuropaediatrie.com
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  25. IGeL-Monitor, Evaluation of Osteopathy in Nonspecific Low Back Pain , accessed on November 2, 2018.
  26. E. Edzard, D. Eisenberg: Praxis Naturheilverfahren: Evidenzbasierte Komplementärmedizin , p. 84 f. ( limited preview in Google Book search)
  27. G. Bronfort, N. Nilsson u. a .: Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic / recurrent headache. In: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Number 3, 2004, ISSN  1469-493X , S. CD001878, doi: 10.1002 / 14651858.CD001878.pub2 , PMID 15266458 (Review).
  28. ^ WJ Assendelft, SC Morton u. a .: Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. In: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Number 1, 2004, ISSN  1469-493X , S. CD000447, doi: 10.1002 / 14651858.CD000447.pub2 , PMID 14973958 (Review).
  29. MA Hondras, K. Linde, AP Jones: Manual therapy for asthma. In: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Number 2, 2005, ISSN  1469-493X , S. CD001002, doi: 10.1002 / 14651858.CD001002.pub2 , PMID 15846609 (Review).
  30. ^ Albin Guillaud et al .: Reliability of diagnosis and clinical efficacy of visceral osteopathy: a systematic review . In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine . tape 18 , February 17, 2018, doi : 10.1186 / s12906-018-2098-8 , PMID 29452579 , PMC 5816506 (free full text).
  31. KR Meltzer, PR Standley: Modeled repetitive motion strain and indirect osteopathic manipulative techniques in regulation of human fibroblast proliferation and interleukin secretion. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Volume 107, Number 12, December 2007, ISSN  1945-1997 , pp. 527-536, PMID 18178762 .
  32. Healing with the hands. In: nzz.ch. June 25, 2006, accessed February 9, 2015 .
  33. ^ Stiftung Warentest : The other medicine. "Alternative" healing methods for you evaluated , p. 211 ff. Berlin 2005. ISBN 3-937880-08-9 .
  34. E. Moxon: Dictionary of dates, and universal reference, relating to all ages and nations:, Edward Moxon & Co, London, 1851, p. 84 ( limited preview in the Google book search)
  35. W. Hooker: Physician and patient; or, A practical view of the mutual duties, relations and interests of the medical profession and the community , Baker and Scribner, New York, 1849, p. 146 ff. ( limited preview in Google Book Search)
  36. a b W. P. Hood: On Bone-Setting (so called), and its Relation to the Treatment of Joints Crippled by Injury, Rheumatism, Inflammation, Etc , Macmillan & Co, London / New York 1871, pp. 1 ff., Reprint of the publisher READ BOOKS, 2008, ISBN 1-4086-9836-6 ( limited preview in the Google book search)
  37. ^ J. Hollins: The reformed botanic practice, and the nature and cause of disease clearly explained, and expressly arranged for the use of all classes , T. Simmons, Birmingham, 1852, p. 152 ff. ( Limited preview in Google Book search)
  38. a b Torsten Liem, Tobias K. Dobler: Guide to Osteopathy: parietal techniques , Urban & Fischer Verlag, 2005, p. 15, ISBN 3-437-55781-5 ( limited preview in the Google book search)
  39. AT Still: Philosophy of Osteopathy , BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009, p. 12, ISBN 1-103-35112-5 ( limited preview in Google book search)
  40. ^ John Martin Littlejohn (1866–1947) ( Memento from August 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: jolandos.com
  41. KJ Thomas, J. Carr et al. a .: Use of non-orthodox and conventional health care in Great Britain. In: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Volume 302, number 6770, January 1991, ISSN  0959-8138 , pp. 207-210, PMID 1998760 , PMC 1669035 (free full text).
  42. A detailed family biography of Zimmer (with numerous historical illustrations) can be found under [1] . Zimmer also self-published a number of books in Germany and edited Das ist Chiropraktik! from JS Riley with the following recommendation and his address in Dresden: "Healthy, sick and nervous sufferers - with a friendly 'Grüß Gott!' - Presented by Gustav A. Zimmer - American chiropractor and osteopath - In Dresden = A.24, Nürnberger Straße 40. This brochure was later published by "Hedwig Zimmer's publishing house for chiropractic and unmedicated healing methods", Dresden and was labeled " Presented by Alfred Singler (alternative practitioner, chiropractor and osteopath) “distributed.
  43. The titles of the books were: The shortest path to health (1933), chiropractic or the human backbone as the carrier and cause of health and disease (1934) and chiropractic (1935) Berlin.de - List of literature banned by the National Socialists. In: berlin.de. Retrieved February 9, 2015 .
  44. ^ Editors: Karl Erhard Weiss and Walther Kröner
  45. Pyramidenverlag Dr. Schwarz & Co. Berlin 1927.
  46. The osteopathic techniques are illustrated in a series of 27 pictures. It says:

    "In accordance with the basic explanations given here, we now want to set out the technique of osteopathic massage in a very simple, generally understandable manner, and for this we use a number of drawn images that are drawn from recordings from nature and that together with the enclosed description enable every person of normal mind and sufficient attention to learn the osteopathic massage completely according to these pictures. "

  47. This copy of the book by Dr. Medicus is included in the book Chiropractic or The Human Backbone as the Carrier and Cause of Health and Disease by Gustav Adolf Zimmer (self-published by the author). It should have originally appeared as a stand-alone font.
  48. All of the specialist articles published in these advanced training sheets are published in the book by Willi Schmitdt: Die Kunst der Chiropraktik und Osteopathie - Essays and lectures on theory and experience of manual holistic therapy , Marczell-Verlag Munich 1984, ISBN 3-88015-093-1 , das the professional association of German Heilpraktiker Landesverband Bayern e. V. (today Heilpraktikerverband Bayern e.V. ) published on the tenth anniversary of Willi Schmidt's death. This includes a biographical article by the naturopath Norbert Seidl (a student of Willi Schmidt) under the title Der Heilpraktiker Willi Schmidt on the 10th anniversary of his death .
  49. Congress publication Heilpraktiker-Kongress 1957 Bad Kissingen , publisher: Deutsche Heilpraktikerschaft e. V. Munich 1957 (editor Albert Baginsky)
  50. elsevier.de: Dietmar Daichendt appointed first professor for osteopathy
  51. steinbeis.de: Appointment as professor for osteopathic and manual medicine ( memento of the original from May 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.steinbeis.de
  52. Deutsches Ärzteblatt
  53. Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse - 14 August 2013, p. 526.
  54. ^ LG Düsseldorf judgment of July 24, 2006 , Az. 12 O 66/05, full text.
  55. VGH Hessen, judgment of June 18, 2009 , Az. 3 C 2604 / 08.N, full text.
  56. BVerwG, BVerwG, decision of November 20, 2009 - 3 BN 1.09 , full text.
  57. Osteopathy schools in Germany as of April 2011 (PDF file)