For the regulation of the medical profession important health care regulations and the practice of health care professions have been issued since the Middle Ages (Sicily 1140 and 1240, Augsburg 1582, Hesse 1616, Prussia 1685, 1725, 1825 and 1852, North German Confederation 1869, German Reich 1883, 1935, 1937 and 1939, Federal Republic of Germany 1953, 1961, 1970 and 1998).
Legal situation in Germany
According to Article 74, Paragraph 1, Number 19 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany , the Federation has the right to regulate admission to medical and other medical professions and to the medical trade ( regulated professions ). To this end, he enacts special laws.
Medical professions with license to practice
According to the law in force in Germany, the practice of medicine is only permitted to members of an academic medical profession and alternative practitioners. The classic academic health professions include ( doctor , dentist , psychotherapist , veterinarian and pharmacist ) whose members are organized in professional chambers .
According to sales tax in Germany .(14a) UStG, “medical treatments in the field of human medicine that are carried out in the course of working as a doctor, dentist, alternative practitioner, physiotherapist, midwife or similar professional activity” - with the exception of certain services in connection with dentures or Orthodontic appliances - exempt from
Non-academic and semi-academic health professions
The professions occupational therapist , registered nurse , health and pediatric nurses , geriatric nurse , midwife / midwives, support workers , speech therapist , masseur and medical pool attendant , medical-technical radiology assistant , surgeon's assistant , nursing aid , physiotherapist , dietician , orthoptists and paramedic or emergency medical are not academic or partially academic health professions. The corresponding job titles are protected. Some of the professions are grouped together, e.g. B. Nursing chambers .
The profession of alternative practitioner (Germany, Switzerland) includes the practice of medicine with restrictions, such as the prescription of prescription drugs or the treatment of some infectious diseases. The job title may only be used by those who have a corresponding state permit in accordance with the Heilpraktikergesetz .
Special health professions
Music therapy and art therapy (both without a license to practice medicine, that is, medical care professions or health care professions) were initially designated as “special medical professions” . Lists of “special medical professions” now include more than 50 different job titles.
The media reported in 2018 about plans by the grand coalition to abolish school fees for health professions. In individual federal states, training courses for (certain) medical professions have now been made free of charge.
- Jörg Schnitzler: The law of the health professions. Overview, concept, constitutional questions . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2004, ISBN 3-8329-0534-0 (review: see  ).
- From 2014 new regulations for recognition procedures in the medical professions , Federal Ministry of Education and Research, October 7, 2013
- Federal Constitutional Court judgment of October 24, 2002 - 2 BvF 1/01
- Federal Ministry of Health
- Federal Ministry of Health - General Health Professions
- Ralf Bröer: Medical legislation / medical law. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 942-950; here: p. 942 f. ( Health professions ).
- Katrin Sanders: School fees: GroKo wants to abolish costs for training in health professions. In: www.deutschlandfunk.de. February 2, 2018, accessed July 24, 2019 .