Music therapy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The music therapy (from ancient Greek μουσική musike "Music" and θεραπεία therapeia "service, care, healing") is a self-healing method. Through the targeted use of music or its elements, therapeutic effects are achieved in music therapy. Music therapy is used to restore, maintain and promote mental and physical health .

About history

Through its ability to evoke strong emotional responses, music was linked to healing and wellbeing from an early age. Chants, sounds and rhythms, understood magically, served at early stages of culture to drive away sickness (demons). Right up to early antiquity , the targeted putting into trance was used to conjure up the gods and drive away demons. In classical antiquity, it was assumed that sick people are in disorder and that spiritual and emotional inner harmony can be restored with the help of music . In the Old Testament there is an indication of the use of music for healing of diseases . In the Renaissance , the connection between affects , especially melancholy , and music gained interest.

Already in the Old Testament it is reported how an “evil spirit” left Saul when he heard zither music; the Roman doctor Celsus suggested "pieces of music, the sound of cymbals and din" in order to dissuade the sick from their sad ruminations. Since the 9th century there have been reports by Arab scholars about the effects of music on people and the possibilities of healing through music. A doctor at the court of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mūn mentioned around 800 the therapeutic use of music on the mentally ill. The Arab doctor Haly Abbas (ʿAli ibn al-ʿAbbās, died 944) treated the pain of small children with music and brought them to sleep. Against a fever from sadness and against melancholy, he recommended lovely singing and the caste-veils kithara and lyre . The hospital in Cairo , founded by Sultan Qalawun and completed in 1284, employed musicians to comfort the sick on sleepless nights. In addition, the were in the heyday of the Ottoman Empire as a healing method also Makame used. The exact indication and application are described for a total of twelve Makams. Important historical sources for this are Evliya Çelebi in the 17th century and other Ottoman manuscripts. The twelve macams traditionally used in classical Persian music, called Dastgah and Awaz there, were not only assigned to the twelve signs of the zodiac, but also to the (four) body fluids , according to their different emotional characters and thus became therapeutic ( "humoral pathological ) moods" of people used in opposite directions.

In the Renaissance and Baroque periods , the focus was on regulating the blood through vibrations. In the Romantic era , the classical medical reference system of music changed to a psychologically oriented focus. After the Second World War , various music therapy directions and schools emerged.


The Deutsche Musiktherapeutische Gesellschaft eV sees music therapy as “a practice-oriented scientific discipline” that interacts closely with medicine , social sciences , psychology , musicology and education . By its nature, music therapy can be characterized as psychotherapeutic - in contrast to pharmacological and physical therapy. Music therapy methods follow depth psychology, behavior therapy-learning theory, systemic, anthroposophic and holistic-humanistic approaches equally.

Wormit formulates the facts of the approaches as follows: "Despite the need for empirically tested treatment concepts and the principles of music, a school-oriented and recently eclectic thinking is in the foreground in German music therapy."

In addition, Wormit lists the following "schools" or methods of music therapy:

  • integrative music therapy (Müller & Petzold, 1997; Frohne-Hagemann, 2001) is one of several creative, self-contained methods of integrative therapy , a depth psychologically and psychodynamically oriented psychotherapeutic procedure with a phenomenological and depth hermeneutic approach.
  • Behavior- centered music therapy (Mastnak, 1994; Hanser & Mandel, 2005) works with concepts from behavioral therapy. Music is used actively and receptively as an amplifier.
  • In creative music therapy ( Nordoff -Robbins, 1975), the focus is on people and their natural artistic potential.
  • Orff music therapy ( Gertrud Orff , 1985; Voigt, 2001)
  • neurological music therapy (Thaut et al., 2004; Thaut, 2005)
  • music medicine therapy (Spintge & Droh, 1992; Spintge, 2001). The term MusikMedizin first appeared in the German-language specialist literature of the 1970s. This term was primarily initiated by medical professionals, who mostly applied their musical knowledge to specific patient groups in an individual-experimental manner. A scientifically based form of intervention developed exclusively in the area of analgesia and anxiolysis . As a research and application area, music medicine can only be separated from music therapy insofar as the application area affects all medical subjects mostly therapeutically.
  • regulative music therapy (Schwabe & Röhrborn, 1996; Schwabe 2004) is based in part on findings from paradoxical therapy (Watzlawick).
  • Guided Imagery and Music Psychotherapy (Bruscia & Grocke, 2002; Geiger & Maack 2010; Frohne-Hagemann, 2014) is a method of receptive music psychotherapy that is mainly carried out as a single treatment.
  • Music therapeutic relaxation training according to [Bolay] & Selle (1982).
  • Decker-Voigt (1996) mentioned in the lexicon of music therapy and the systemic therapy as an influencing factor: systemically oriented approaches relate in psychotherapy understood music therapy the social environment as a co-designer of health and disease with one. Since then, systemic concepts for music therapy have been developed (Zeuch et al., 2004).
  • The music therapy approach of Rosemarie Tüpker and Eckhard Weymann is based on psychological morphology , an approach related to gestalt therapy and psychoanalysis .

Music therapy can generally take place in two different settings:

  • The first is called individual music therapy, in this form the therapist and possibly co-therapist work with a patient.
  • The second type is called group music therapy. This is about the needs of several patients, in contrast to individual music therapy.

Another division that can be found particularly in the German overview literature on music therapy after 1950 is that between active and receptive music therapy. The distinction relates to the aspect of the patient's musical and creative participation in the therapy. However, it is "counteracted by many overlaps" so that it has increasingly lost its importance. It no longer appears in the Kassel theses on music therapy , with which a common definition of all music therapy associations in Germany was found. An assignment of the two forms to different areas of application is no longer possible in practice due to the many overlaps.

Receptive music therapy

Receptive music therapy means “listening to and experiencing pieces of music of various genres with therapeutic objectives.” The reception of music is an active process because a listener actively participates and experiences the music. The patient can hear music from the sound carrier and then reports on his experience. It is also possible for the therapist to play an instrument live for the patient or a group of patients. Transitions to an activity of the patient are possible, for example, if the therapist pays attention to the breathing rhythm of a comatose or weakened patient. In receptive music therapy as psychotherapy , introspection and self-perception are promoted through intensive perception and experience of the music . Biographically significant music or carefully compiled music programs, as is usual in Guided Imagery and Music, can activate resources , but also make people aware of conflicts.

In music medicine, receptive forms of music therapy are used for relaxation and calming, e.g. B. before or after medical procedures. The effect of the music is very much influenced by the music preference, which is influenced by musical biography, age, social status, listening situation, etc. Particularly developed receptive methods are the regulatory music therapy according to Christoph Schwabe and the Guided Imagery and Music (Geiger & Maack, 2010, Frohne-Hagemann, 2014).

Active music therapy

Active music therapy “is a collective term for all types of music therapy in which the patient is personally involved with instruments or voice. Usually the therapist plays or sings along, so that a common musical improvisation arises. The musical instruments with which the patient (mostly) improvises musically give him another possibility of expression in addition to the conversation. The choice of instrument or instruments is usually tailored to the specific therapy situation, i.e. That is, it is closely related to current issues and the patient's situation. Usually the patient chooses the instruments he wants to play himself. For this he has a number of easy-to-play instruments that represent different musical and emotional areas. The patient does not need to have any previous musical or instrumental training, as music therapeutic music does not make any demands on skills or virtuosity and the therapist supports the patient's shaping by playing along. As early as the 1960s there was a shift in favor of active music therapy; In the 1970s the focus in music therapy literature was on activity - the principle of “therapy through music” was replaced by the principle of “therapy with music”.

The musical communication between therapist and patient is the starting point of the therapy, whereby it is mostly in exchange with the therapeutic conversation. The active process of music therapy makes use of the communicative side of music and its possibilities of expression. In addition to improvisation, there are other active forms that are used such as singing songs, e.g. B. in working with old people, song-writing with young people, forms of band work or transitions between music and free play in child therapy. Active music therapy can be linked with movement ( dance therapy ) or with design ( art therapy ).


Fields of work

Music therapists are used in curative , palliative , rehabilitative and preventive areas as well as in aftercare . Artistic therapists work with people of all ages. Institutionally bound or in an independent establishment, they treat patients with somatic, psychological, psychosomatic and psychiatric illnesses and people with impairments, disabilities and impairments. Music therapists create spaces for participation in socio-cultural life both inside and outside the health care system. In addition, they work in research and teaching. Many music therapists work in psychiatric and psychosomatic care institutions. Here music therapy is of particular benefit to psychotic patients, borderline and geriatric psychiatric patients as well as addicts. In addition, music therapy is used in patients with eating disorders, anxiety disorders, somatization disorders, and depression .

In the field of child and adolescent psychiatry, specific problems are dealt with, such as: developmental disorders, social behavior disorders , attention deficit disorders, and anxiety and depressive disorders. In the rehabilitation field, music therapy is mainly used for neurological diseases. Persistent vegetative state , early rehabilitation for children, adolescents and adults, multiple sclerosis , Parkinson's disease and stroke are fields of treatment for a more functionally oriented music therapy.

Other fields of work in music therapy are areas

  • special and curative education
  • with severely and multiply disabled people
  • with developmentally delayed or dysfunctional children
  • in nursing homes and in geriatric psychiatry
  • at music schools, schools and family education centers

Manualized procedures

  • Music therapy for tinnitus
  • Music therapy for chronic pain
  • Music therapy for migraines
  • Music therapy for tumor diseases
  • Music therapy for premature babies

Takeover by cost bearers

Music therapy is not one of the standard health insurance benefits in Germany. Music therapists with a university degree have the opportunity to complete their training as child and adolescent psychotherapists and to settle music therapy with the social welfare and youth welfare offices via their license to practice as a child and adolescent psychotherapist. Depending on the federal state, it is also possible for the government districts to assume the costs as part of the integration assistance for children and adults who are disabled or at risk of disability . Otherwise, the patient has to pay for treatment by music therapists who run their own practice.

Job profile, professional politics

Music therapists practice their profession “institutionally bound or independent” in health and social services, education and consulting (e.g. business). Music therapy is curative, rehabilitative and preventive, works exercise-centered / functional, experience-centered / creative and conflict-centered / revealing. Therapies take place in individual and group therapies. The social environment can also be included. “The profession is understood as an independent medical profession that enriches the existing health , social and educational system with a non-verbal and creative therapeutic approach.” Music therapists are also active in research , evaluation and public relations . On 7./8. In October 2006 the 38th Kassel Conference of the National Associations and Organizations took place, at which the conference was converted into a Federal Music Therapy Working Group (BAG Music Therapy) by unanimous decision . The BAG Music Therapy is currently developing the interdisciplinary professional profile of artistic therapists together with three other conferences .

As far as music therapy serves to cure or alleviate illnesses, its independent practice in Germany is bound to an approval according to the Heilpraktikergesetz .

In Austria, the Music Therapy Act (MuthG, Federal Law Gazette I No. 93/2008) was passed in 2008 and came into force on July 1, 2009. This gives the Austrian music therapy professional group the appropriate legal framework for practicing music therapy and a legal basis for the music therapist profession. So far, Austria is the only European country with a law specially created for this professional group.

The World Federation of Music Therapy works worldwide for the recognition and further development of the profession.


Main article: Psychotherapy research

In Germany the biggest claims to music therapy research institute in Europe is located, the German Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute DZM) in Heidelberg. A chair for qualitative research was established at the Institute for Music Therapy at the University of Witten-Herdecke until 2010. The University Clinic Ulm , the Research Center for Music Medicine at the University of Music and Theater Hamburg , the University of Münster and the International Music Therapy Institute Berlin eV continue to conduct research

At the University of Augsburg, Leopold Mozart Center, there is a “Music and Health Research Center” in addition to the part-time master’s degree in music therapy. Today this comprises 4 focal points:

1. Continuation of the (previous) “ulmer werkstatt” as “workshop for music therapy research augsburg”: The research workshop founded in 1988 at the University of Ulm has been taking place since 2009 in the premises of the Augsburg University. In terms of the timetable, a close connection was made to the music therapy master’s course; The workshop became part of the lesson and was intended to enable students to have lively encounters with research and researchers, as well as to be included in planned or ongoing research projects. Several courses followed this concept. This structure is intended to facilitate better communication and possibly the bundling of research. Master theses and doctoral projects with a research character are to be presented and discussed to an interested audience. Research ideas and projects from students and doctoral candidates should be presented and discussed in the workshop beyond internal supervision. 2. Interdisciplinary networking with relevant institutions: Networking with other international projects increases research efficiency and promotes contact with music therapy colleagues and researchers at home and abroad. The research center sees itself as part of a network of comparable and related research institutes. It collects research results on an international basis with a view to a coordinated evaluation of results and networks with other internationally coordinated projects. 3. Doctorate; Doctoral colloquium; Directory of dissertations: In 2008, the subject of music therapy was included in the doctoral regulations of the University of Augsburg.

There are further doctoral courses at the University of Music and Theater Hamburg and at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster and at the University of the Arts Berlin.

In 2011, with the support of the other German-speaking training institutes, a dissertation list was drawn up in Augsburg, for which all German-language music therapy dissertations were researched. This list is posted on the homepage of the Augsburg master’s course and is accessible to all training programs.

In Austria there has been a professorship with a scientific focus at the Institute for Music Therapy at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna , the non-university “Vienna Institute for Music Therapy” and the music medicine research program at the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg . In Switzerland , research activities are brought together in the Swiss Association for Music Therapy (SFMT).

Training / studies

The Deutsche Musiktherapeutische Gesellschaft eV (DMtG) offers a detailed overview of national and European training and further education opportunities with its music therapy study landscape .

Music therapy has been a university discipline in Germany since 1979 . The only German bachelor's degree is offered at the SRH Hochschule Heidelberg . Postgraduate courses with accredited master’s degrees are offered by the Berlin University of the Arts , the Hamburg University of Music and Theater , the SRH University of Heidelberg, the University of Augsburg and the Würzburg University of Applied Sciences . In the "Permanent Training Representation for Private Law Music Therapy Training" (SAMT), further and advanced training institutes recognized by the Deutsche Musiktherapeutischen Gesellschaft eV are represented, whose curricula correspond to the BA. The Kassel Conference of Music Therapy Associations in Germany formulated the personal requirements for professional practice as well as training content and entry requirements for training as a music therapist in a consensus finding.

In Austria , training to become a music therapist takes place as part of a master’s degree (8 semesters) at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna and a bachelor’s course has been established at the IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems since autumn 2009 - there has also been a part-time master’s course since 2012. A part-time course has been offered in Graz (GRAMUTH) since 2010.

In Switzerland , the Swiss Professional Association for Music Therapy (SFMT) offers information on training opportunities. The Zurich University of the Arts offers part-time training in music therapy and a master’s course in clinical music therapy. Further training, courses, lectures and concerts are offered at the Zurich Institute for Music Therapy (zim). In Schwaderloch there is the possibility of a combined training in music therapy with instrument making , which is organized by the Forum for Music Therapy Training - in conjunction with the Herbert von Karajan Foundation Berlin and the University of Music and Theater Hamburg .

See also


Book publications

  • Udo Baer, ​​Gabriele Frick-Baer: Sound to live in: Methods and models of body-oriented music therapy. Affenkönig Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2004, ISBN 3-934933-08-4 .
  • Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt (Ed.): Schools of music therapy. Reinhard-Verlag, Munich / Basel 2001, ISBN 3-497-01574-1 .
  • Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Eckhard Weymann Played from the soul. An introduction to music therapy. Goldmann, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-442-13561-3 .
  • Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Paolo J. Knill, Eckhard Weymann (eds.): Lexicon music therapy. Hogrefe, Göttingen 1996.
  • Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Dorothea Oberegelsbacher, Tonius Timmermann (ed.): Textbook music therapy. Reinhardt / UTB 2008. (2nd edition. 2012)
  • Isabelle Frohne-Hagemann (Ed.): Receptive music therapy. Theory and practice . Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-89500-389-1 .
  • Isabelle Frohne-Hagemann, Heino Pleß-Adamczyk: Indication music therapy for psychological problems in childhood and adolescence. Music therapy diagnostics and manual according to ICD 10. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-525-46211-5 .
  • Isabelle Frohne-Hagemann, (Ed.): Guided Imagery and Music - Concepts and Clinical Applications. Zeit Musik, Reichert Verlag 2014, ISBN 978-3-89500-979-2
  • Edith M. Geiger & Carola Maack: Textbook Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), Zeit Musik, Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2010 ISBN 978-3-89500-734-7
  • Barbara Gindl: Anklang - The resonance of the soul. About a basic principle of therapeutic relationship. Junfermann, Paderborn 2002.
  • Fritz Hegi: Improvisation and Music Therapy - Possibilities and Effects of Free Music . Junfermann, Paderborn 1993, ISBN 3-87387-270-6 .
  • Fritz Hegi-Portmann among others: Music therapy as science - basics, practice, research and training . Verlag, Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-033-01158-6 .
  • Karl Hörmann: Music in Medicine: Textbook / Scientific Music Therapy. Pabst 2009, ISBN 978-3-89967-597-9 .
  • Ruth-Susanne Hübert: Possibilities and limits of music therapy intervention in premature babies . Musikverlag Burkhard Muth, Fernwald 2007, ISBN 978-3-929379-17-4 .
  • Sandra Lutz Hochreutener: Play - Music - Therapy: Methods of music therapy with children and adolescents. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8017-2198-5 .
  • Gertrud Katja Loos : Playrooms. Music therapy for an anorexic and other premature patients. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart / New York 1986. (2nd edition 1994)
  • Werner Kraus: The healing power of music. Introduction to music therapy. CH Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47636-8 .
  • Ruth Liesert: From Symptom to Feeling: Guided Imagery and Music for Inpatient Psychosomatics. Westphalian Wilhelms University 2018, ISBN 978-3-8405-0179-1
  • Monika Nöcker-Ribaupierre: Hearing - a bridge to life. Music therapy with premature and newborn children. 2., act. Edition. Reichert, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-89500-869-6 .
  • Susanne Metzner: Taboo and turbulence. Music therapy with psychiatric patients. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, ISBN 3-525-45854-1 .
  • Hansjörg Meyer: Emotions are not handicapped - music therapy and music-based communication with people with severe multiple disabilities. Lambertus Verlag, Freiburg i. Br. 2010, ISBN 978-3-7841-1894-9 .
  • Hansjörg Meyer: Composers with severe disabilities - case histories from music therapy. Lambertus Verlag, Freiburg i. Br. 2010, ISBN 978-3-7841-1978-6 .
  • Dietmut Niedecken : assignments, material and relationship figure in musical production . VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1988.
  • Sabine Pranz: Overwhelming feelings. An empirical study on the therapeutic effectiveness of addict patients in withdrawal. Music publisher Burkhard Muth, Fernwald 2008, ISBN 978-3-929379-19-8 .
  • Hans-Peter Reinecke : Communicative Music Psychology. In: Gerhart Harrer (Hrsg.): Basics of music therapy and music psychology. Fischer, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-437-10736-4 , pp. 99-111.
  • Paul Ridder : Music for body and soul: music therapy in the history of medicine . Publishing house for health sciences, Greven 2006.
  • Wolfgang C. Schroeder: Music, mirror of the soul: an introduction to music therapy. Junfermann, Paderborn 1995, ISBN 3-87387-069-X .
  • Manfred Spitzer : Music in the head. Listening, making music, understanding and experiencing in the neural network. Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart 2005.
  • W. Strobel, G. Huppmann: Music therapy. Göttingen / Toronto / Zurich, 3rd edition. 1997.
  • Tonius Timmermann: Depth psychologically oriented music therapy. Building blocks for an apprenticeship. Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004.
  • Tonius Timmermann: Sensing - hearing - seeing. Which approaches do non-verbal psychotherapies choose? Using the example of diagnosis: personality disorder. Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden. 2004.
  • Rosemarie Tüpker : I sing what I can't say. On the morphological foundation of music therapy . Lit-Verlag, Münster 1996.
  • Rosemarie Tüpker: Through music to language. Manual . 2009, ISBN 978-3-8370-6948-8 .
  • A. Zeuch, M. Hänsel, H. Jungaberle (eds.): Systemic concepts for music therapy: solve with play. Carl Auer Systems Verlag, Heidelberg 2004.

Important articles

  • Hans Volker Bolay u. a .: Music therapy. In: Franz Resch, Michael Schulte-Markwort (Hrsg.): Course book for integrative child and youth psychotherapy. Beltz / PVU, 2005.
  • HV Bolay ao: music therapy. In: F.-E. Brock (ed.): Handbook of naturopathic medicine . Landberg 1999.
  • HV Bolay: Music Therapy. In: R. Corsini (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Psychotherapie. Munich 1983, pp. 729-754.
  • Herbert F. Elfgen: Music Therapy. In: Eberhard Aulbert, Friedemann Nauck, Lukas Radbruch (eds.): Textbook of palliative medicine. With a foreword by Heinz Pichlmaier. 3rd, updated edition. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-7945-2666-6 , pp. 1231-1239.
  • Thomas K. Hillecke et al: Scientific Perspectives of Music Therapy. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1060, 2005, pp. 271-282.
  • Thomas K. Hillecke and others: Plea for a creative diversity of research methods in scientific music therapy. In: Musiktherapeutische Umschau. 25 (3), 2004, pp. 241-256.
  • TK Hillecke, F.-W. Wilker: Special issue "Music Therapy". (Guest editor). In: Hans Reinecker et al. (Hrsg.): Behavior therapy & behavior medicine. 28th vol., 1, 2007.
  • F. Jádi: Improvisation and ontology - questions about treatment through making music. In: German Professional Association of Music Therapists eV (Ed.): Insights. (5), volume “Resonanz”, 1994, pp. 34–53.
  • D. Muthesius: Music and Biography. Songs and singing in the life of old people. In: Contributions to Music Therapy 1999. p. 451.
  • HU Schmidt, H. Kächele: Music therapy in psychosomatics. Development and current status. In: Psychotherapeut. 1, 54 2009, pp. 6-16.
  • T. Stegemann, HU Schmidt: On the indication and contraindication of music therapy in child and adolescent psychiatry - a questionnaire study. In: Musikth. Switch 31 (2), 2010, pp. 87-101.
  • Tonius Timmermann: Music pedagogy and music therapy - intersections and boundaries. In: Barbara Busch (Ed.): Just make music !? Study texts on instrumental pedagogy. Wissner textbook. (= Forum Music Education. Volume 81). Wissner Verlag, Augsburg 2008.
  • Tonius Timmermann: Transgenerational Interactions in Music Therapy. In: British Journal of Music Therapy. British society of Music Therapy, London 2011.
  • Rosemarie Tüpker: The therapeutic use of music: music therapy. In: Helga de la Motte-Haber, Günther Rötter (Ed.): Music Psychology. (= Handbook of Systematic Musicology. Volume 3). Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2005, ISBN 3-89007-564-9 , pp. 339-356.
  • AF Wormit: On the situation of outpatient music therapy. In: Musiktherapeutische Umschau. 23 (4), pp. 409-411 2002.
  • AF Wormit among others: Patient-oriented music therapy to improve the quality of life in patients with cancer - an interdisciplinary treatment strategy. In: Palliative Medicine. 6, 49, 2005.
  • Marcello Sorce Keller: Some Ethnomusicological Considerations about Magic and the Therapeutic Uses of Music. In: International Journal of Music Education. 8/2, 1986, pp. 13-16.

Therapy manuals

In the series evidence-based music therapy , (ed. Von Bolay, Dulger, Bardenheuer, Resch). uni-edition:

  • Thomas K. Hillecke: Heidelberg music therapy manual . Chronic, non-malignant pain. ISBN 3-937151-42-7 .
  • AK Leins: Heidelberg Therapy Manual: Migraines in Children. 2006.

Trade journals

  • Music therapy review
  • Music and being healthy. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden
  • Magazine for music, dance and art therapy.


Web links

Teaching and Research


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Werner Friedrich Kümmel: Music and Medicine. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1018.
  2. 1st Sam. 16, 14-23
  3. Hans Engel: The position of the musician in the Arab-Islamic area. Publishing house for systematic musicology, Bonn 1987, pp. 36–38.
  4. Multicultural communication. Alternative medical treatment methods - German homeopathy versus Turkish music therapy: only theories?
  5. Jean During, Zia Mirabdolbaghi, Dariush Safvat: The Art of Persian Music . Mage Publishers, Washington DC 1991, ISBN 0-934211-22-1 , pp. 77 f.
  6. AF Wormit, HJ Bardenheuer, HV Bolay: Current status of music therapy in Germany. In: Behavioral Therapy & Behavioral Medicine, special issue "Music Therapy". 28, 1, 2007, 10-22
  7. Music therapy. In: Brockhaus-Riemann Musiklexikon. Volume 3, 187
  8. Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt : Played from the soul. An introduction to music therapy. Munich 1991.
  9. ^ Rosemarie Tüpker: The therapeutic use of music: music therapy. In: Helga de la Motte-Haber ; Günther Rötter (Ed.): Handbuch Musikpsychologie , Laaber-Verlag, 2005, p. 339.
  10. Kassel Theses (PDF file)
  11. Manfred Kühn; Rosemarie Tüpker: Music Therapy. In: Hans Müller-Braunschweig, Niklas Stiller (Ed.): Body-oriented psychotherapy . Springer-Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-540-88803-1 , pp. 246f.
  12. Isabelle Frohne Hagemann: Receptive music therapy : In: Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Eckhard Weymann: Lexicon music therapy . 2., revised. and exp. Edition. Hogrefe, 2009, p. 411.
  13. Ralph Spintge, Roland Droh (ed.): Music in medicine. Neurophysiological basics, clinical applications, humanities classification. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / New York 1978.
  14. Christoph Schwabe: Regulative Music Therapy. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1979.
  15. Geiger, E. & Maack, C .: Textbook Guided Imagery and Music . Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-89500-734-7 .
  16. Frohne-Hagemann, I .: Guided Imagery and Music - Concepts and Clinical Applications . Ed .: Frohne-Hagemann, I. Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-89500-979-2 .
  17. Johannes Th. Eschen : Active music therapy. In: Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Eckhard Weymann: Lexicon Music Therapy. 2., revised. and exp. Edition. Hogrefe, 2009, p. 9.
  18. Harald Goll: Special educational music therapy. Lang-Verlag, Frankfurt 1993, p. 189, quoted in: Hans-Helmut Decker-Voigt, Eckhard Weymann (Ed.): Lexikon Musiktherapie. Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8409-2162-9 , p. 145.
  19. ^ Herbert F. Elfgen: Music Therapy. In: Eberhard Aulbert, Friedemann Nauck, Lukas Radbruch (eds.): Textbook of palliative medicine. With a foreword by Heinz Pichlmaier. 3rd, updated edition. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-7945-2666-6 , pp. 1231–1239, in particular pp. 1233–1238 ( music therapy in palliative medicine ).
  20. ^ Friederike Grasemann, Andreas Rett , Albertine Wesecky: Music therapy for the disabled. Huber, Bern 1981, ISBN 3-456-81100-4 .
  21. Music therapy in music schools
  22. Rosemarie Tüpker, Natalie Hippel, Friedemann Laabs (eds.) Music therapy in school . Reichert-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2005
  23. Federal Working Group on Music Therapy
  24. ^ University of Münster
  25. Dissertation collection music therapy ( Memento from May 12, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  26. ^ University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
  28. ^ German Music Therapy Society: Germany. Retrieved November 24, 2018 .