Dastgāh ( Persian دستگاه; Literally translated: place of the hand , but also system , mode , also scheme , arrangement , instrument , tool ) is a modal system in traditional Persian art music characterized by its pitch (intervals of the underlying scale) .
There are basically seven Dastgāhs (Pers. Pl. Dastgāh -hā ) as well as five other modes derived from them, called Āwāz ( Persian متعلقات, DMG mota'lleqāt , "the belonging"). In addition, more than 50 other modes have been preserved. A Dastgāh or Āwāz is a by its tonal substance (also called Māye , Persian مايه, denoted modal scale) and its associated basic melodies or (melody) motifs or respectively as gusheh ( Persian گوشه, DMG gūše , "Winkel, Ecke") in the sense of a kind of melody types, characterized system, on the basis of which the musician improvises and whose tradition was reflected in the Radif system .
Each Dastgāh contains seven basic tones (macro-intervals; whole and semitones) and many variable tones (micro-intervals; incorrectly called "quarter tones"), which are used for the decoration (known in vocal music as melismatic taḥrīr ) of the music and for modulation . Each dastgāh is a particular modal variation object for development and predetermined by the previous order of sequences . There are around 365 “atomic” melodies or “melodic ideas” in the form of melodic lines with certain motifs and rhythms, called Guschehs , which in a kind of “cyclical development” ( Persian تكامل, DMG takāmol ) within a Dastgāh. A musician learns this through experience and listening. The whole collection of gushehs in all Dastgahs is radif called. During the meeting of the United Nations Inter-governmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage on September 28, 2009 in Abu Dhabi , radifs were officially included in the UNESCO list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity .
The Dastgāh is related to the Maqam of Arabic music , the Azerbaijani Mugham , the Tajik Shashmaqom ("six Maqame") and the Uighur On Ikki Muqam ("twelve Maqame"), whereby the Dastgah, in contrast to the Maqam and other non-Persian concepts, is always formal is bound to the Radif. All these systems have their roots in the music of the Sassanids , which became known throughout the Islamic world due to the Arab invasion in the 7th century. Theoretical foundations of the Persian music system can be found from the 9th century mainly in Arabic-language works, some of which use Greek terms (e.g. by al-Kindī , Al-Farabi or Avicenna and Al-Masʿūdī , who - like Ibn Chordadhbeh - already "seven royal modes" ( Arabic الطرق الملوكية, DMG aṭ-ṭuruq al-mulūkiyya ) mentioned).
The ( traditional since Safi al-Din al-Urmawi ) twelve-part system of the Dastgāhs (or, according to Mirza Abdollah, seven Dastgahs and five Awaz derived from them) and the gushehs contained therein remained almost unchanged until it was established in the nineteenth century, especially by Mīrzā 'Abdollāh Farāhānī (1843-1918). No further dastgāh (and no new great gusheh) has been developed since this enactment, as the existing modal repertoire is considered to be "inherently perfect". Therefore a dastgah musician does not need new modal forms, but he draws his melodies from the existing repertoire, the radīf of Mīrzā 'Abdollāh . But due to his ability to improvise, which he draws from the atmosphere at the moment of music performance, new melodies emerge that put the audience in tension. Each dastgāh is associated with a specific state of mind (in medieval music theory and music therapy based on humoral pathology , also with elements and signs of the zodiac of the zodiac) and this is one of the decisive factors for the mutually influencing moods of the musicians and the listener that arise during a performance.
The terminology of the Dastgāh
In today's common classifications of the Persian Dastgāh system, which is similar in other musical traditions such as B. found in the music of Turkestan , Abū 'aṭā , Afšārī , Bayāt-e tork and Daštī are regarded as subclasses (Pers. Pl. Mota'alleqāt ) of the Dastgāhs Shur (Persian dastgāh-e schur ). The same applies to the Bayāt-e eṣfahān as a subsystem (pers. So. Mot'alleqe ) of the Dastgāhs Homāyun . This reduces the number of basic Dastgāhs or Dastgāh families to seven. The subclasses in the conventional system are called Āwāz (آواز), Naġme (نغمه) or, rarely, Māye (ماي,), sometimes also "Molḥaqāt" or "Mota'alleqāt".
Each dastgāh or Āwāz has a tone as a melodic starting point, which is called the shāhed (شاهد = "witness") and is played around as a recitation or repetition tone. Another tonal center is the sustaining tone īst (ايست), which marks the end of a melody arc, but is often identical to the Shāhed . This tone in particular is a special distinguishing feature of a mode. A tone alternating by about a quarter tone (Persian motaġayyer ) within the basic scale (Māye or Persian also gām , possibly borrowed as a terminus technicus from French gamme ) primarily characterizes the two Mot'alleqāt Afšārī and Daštī .
The cadencing melody formula that concludes the melody arc and dissolves the musical tension is called forūd (literally “landing”), since the melody “flying arc” begins again with the “landing” and thus gradually returns to the tonal starting level of the Dastgāh concerned.
The Dastgāhs with their Āwāz
Compared to the European tone scales of the major-minor system, the Iranian system used in the Dastgahs has more tones, which can be seen in the higher number of frets per octave for Iranian lutes (about 16 frets for the first octave) compared to conventional guitars (12 frets) shows. The (tempered) major-minor system has the following notes:
- C Cis D Dis EF Fis G Gis A Ais B
Theoretically, the following tones are available to the Iranian system:
- C C> Cis Dp D> Dis Ep EF F> Fis Gp G> Gis Ap A> Ais Bp B B>
- Explanation: B = H; is: increased by a semitone; b: lowered by a semitone; p ["koron"]: roughly a quarter tone (more precisely: 2/3 of a semitone) lowered; > ["Sori"]: increased by roughly a quarter tone (more precisely: by 1/3 of a semitone).
The following tone scales or Dastgahs are formed from this tone supply. In brackets, examples of the associated tone scales - here transposed to the starting note C - (consisting of two tetrachords ), which can also vary depending on the author or composer and the musical, local and temporal context.
- Schur شور (C Dp Eb F - G Ab Bb C; also D Ep FG Ap Bb cd)
- Nawā (also Nava ) نوا (CD Eb F - G Ap Bb C; or D Ep FGA Bb cd)
- Sehgāh سهگاه (C Dp Ep F - Gp Ap Bp C; also: CD Ep F - G Ap Bb C; or Ep FG Ap Bb c dp eb)
- Tschahārgāh چهارگاه (C Dp EF - G Ap BC; or Ap G H c dp ef)
- Homāyun همایون (C Dp EF - Ab Bb C; or D Ep FG Ap H cd)
- Māhur ماهور (CDEF - GABC; or GAH cdef)
- Rāst-Pandschgāh (or simply Rāst) راست پنجگاه (like Māhur; or CDEFGA Bb cd).
- Shur (with Nawā)
- Māhur (with Rāst-Pandschgāh)
Characteristics of each Dastgāh-hā
- Schur ("feeling", "emotion"): The interval structure of the most characteristic of Iranian music, originally (by Qutb ad-Din asch-Shirazi ) also called Nowruz , scale from Dastgāh-e Schur resembles a minor scale, the second stage of which is around is lowered a "quarter tone".
- Gushehs included (here only examples): Pischdarāmad (a kind of prelude ) and Tschahārmezrāb (a kind of intermezzo ), Āwāz (a song-like piece, usually without a fixed meter ), Gereyli , Husseini , Chārā , Mollā Nāzi . The short gushehs include Zirkesch-e Salmak (short Zirkesch ) and Golriz , the long salmak (sometimes combined with Zirkesch to form a gusheh), Razawi and Schahnāz .
- Awāz-e Abu 'Atā (formerly also called Awāz-e Dastān-e' Arab ): As one of the four "satellites" of Schur (Molḥaqāt-e Schur), this scale has the same tonal base as Schur, but a more cheerful character.
- Gushehs in Abu 'ATA: Tschahārmezrāb (with parane Ark ) AWAZ or Sayachi , Hijaz , Chahar Pare , Gabriella (with trailing Forud ).
- Āwāz-e Afshārī: of a similar tragic character to Shur, but a little less sad.
- Awāz-e Bayāt-e Tork (also Bayāt-e Zand ): Characterizing melody figures (Guscheh-hā) are Schekasteh and Masnawi . The temperament of this Dastgāh is able to “express both frivolity and sensuality as well as religiosity and abstinence”, so that both secular performances of this mode take place and the application by the muezzin when calling to prayer and in the chants of the dervishes .
- Āwāz-e Daschtī: containing about 10 gushehs.
- Āwāz-e Bayāt-e Kord: Great "Gusheh" (contains the small Gushehs Hajji Hoseyni , Baste-negār , Katār and Korāi ) within Shur, containing features of the Kurdish music that gives it its name and is very similar to Dashti .
- Nawā: A mode of calm and meditative character already described by Avicenna and traditionally unchanged since then.
- Sehgāh: Containing many 3/4 tone intervals; This is a widespread mode in the Orient, but less familiar to European hearing.
- Māhur: The scale of Dastgāh-e Māhur (associated with the feeling of cheerfulness and happiness) corresponds to the “occidental” major scale with regard to its interval structure. Māhur contains about 50 gushehs.
- Rāst (-Pandschgāh): To Persian rāst ('straight, right, simple, direct, orderly'), tonally very similar to Māhur. Pandschgāh is the name of a little gusheh.
- Tschahārgāh (from Persian chahār , 'four', originally related to the fourth level of the scale): Gushehs are, similar to Sehgāh, Darāmad , Zābol , Hesār , Mochālef , Muye , Maghlub and Mansuri .
- Homāyun ('auspicious', so named since the 14th century) corresponds in its basic form to a minor scale and is also widespread in Turkey and Azerbaijan. Corresponding gushehs (around 40) are, for example, Bāwi (a motif lasting less than 15 seconds), Tschakāwak (' lark song ') and Bīdād (' hardship ') as well as Oschāq , Leylī wa Madschnūn and the longer Gusheh Shushtari , which is also performed independently of Homayun .
- (Āwāz-e) Bayāt-e Eṣfahān (named after the city of Isfahan ): Mota'alleqe des Dastgāhs Homāyun , is perceived as plaintive and melancholy and is similar to the harmonic minor , but with a VI raised by a "quarter tone". Level and of a somewhat less gloomy and sad character than Homāyun.
- Hossein Alizadeh : Târ and Setâr Teaching Method. An intermediate course. (دستور تار و سه تار), Mahoor Institute of Culture and Art, 2nd edition. Teheran 2003, ISBN 964-6409-70-9 , in particular pp. 18-21, 31, 39, 49, 61, 71, 83 f., 97 f., 111, 121, 131 and 143.
- Mehdi Barkechli: La gamme de la musique iranienne. (Thèse de sciences) Paris 1948
- Mehdi Barkechli: Les systèmes de la musique traditionnelle de l'Iran (Radif) , Tehran 1352 AHS (1973/74)
- Jean During : The Radif of Mirzâ Abdollâh. A Canonic Repertoire of Persian Music . Mahoor Institute of Culture and Art, Tehran 2006, in particular pp. 290-301.
- Jean During, Zia Mirabdolbaghi, Dariush Safvat: The Art of Persian Music . Mage Publishers, Washington DC 1991, ISBN 0-934211-22-1 , pp. 47 f., 57-63, 72-81 and 90 f.
- Hormoz Farhat: The Dastgāh Concept in Persian Music . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990, ISBN 0-521-30542-X . (from the Cambridge studies in ethnomusicology series. ), in particular pp. 19–21.
- Also: a review by Stephen Blum . In: Ethnomusicology , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn 1992), pp. 422-425.
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi: The Persian Doctrine of Dastga-Composition. A phenomenological study in the musical modes. Israel Music Institute, Tel-Aviv 1963
- N [ater] Kanani: The Persian Art Music . Mussighi'e assil'e Irani. Dissertationsdruck Höpfner GmbH, Berlin 1978 (30 pages), in particular pp. 6-8 and 28-30
- Nasser Kanani: Traditional Persian art music: history, musical instruments, structure, execution, characteristics. 2nd revised and expanded edition, Gardoon Verlag, Berlin 2012, pp. 192–226
- Khatschi Khatschi: The Dastgah. Studies on New Persian Music . Regensburg 1962 (= Cologne contributions to music research, 19)
- Lloyd Clifton Miller: Persian Music. A Study of Form and Content of Persian Āvāz, Dastgāh & Radif . Eastern Arts, Salt Lake City UT 1995, (University of Utah, Dissertation, December 5, 1991)
- Lloyd Miller: Persian Music. Eastern Arts, Salt Lake City / Utah 1991, pp. 16-27.
- Mohammad Taqhi Massoudieh: Āwāz-e Šur. For the formation of melodies in Persian art music. Regensburg 1968
- Bruno Nettl: The Radif of Persian Music. Studies of Structure and Cultural Context . Elephant & Cat, Champaign IL 1987
- Ella Zonis: Classical Persian Music. An Introduction . Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA 1973, ISBN 0-674-13435-4
- Ella Zonis: Contemporary Art Music in Persia . In: The Musical Quarterly . Vol. 51, No. 4 (October 1965), pp. 636-648.
- Lian Records: Persian Music Theory
- Example of a solo performance on a setār by Ahmad Ebadi in the following dastgahs: Segāh , Chahārgāh , Homāyoun , Esfahān , Afshāri .
- Mehrdad Farsidjani: Radif. Classical music of Iran
Individual evidence and explanations
- This term therefore corresponds directly to the Arabic equivalent Maqām (= "place where [in this context] the hand is erected on the fingerboard of the lute").
- Jean During, Zia Mirabdolbaghi (1991), 60-63 ( From scale to Āvāz ).
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi: The Persian Doctrine of Dastga Composition. A phenomenological study in the musical modes. Israel Music Institute, Tel-Aviv 1963, p. 8
- Nasser Kanani 2012, pp. 183-188
- The Radif of Iranian music: Inscribed in 2009 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity , UNESCO .
- Noruz and Iranian radifs registered on UNESCO list , Tehran Times, October 1, 2009,  .
- Persian music, Nowruz make it into UN heritage list , Press TV, October 1, 2009,  .
- Nowruz became international , in Persian, BBC Persian, September 30, 2009,  .
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, pp. 10, 23 and 25
- During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. 1991, p. 72.
- Nasser Kanani: Traditional Persian Art Music: History, Musical Instruments, Structure, Execution, Characteristics. 2nd revised and expanded edition, Gardoon Verlag, Berlin 2012, p. 192 f.
- Awamusik.de: Independent Persian Music. , 2004
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 194 f.
- Persian-language cultural journal Rūdakī No. 51 (1353/1974), conversation with the Setār master A. Ebadi: “Our music was as it is now” ( Persian موسيقى ما همان بوده كه هست mūsīqī-ye mā hamān būde ke hast ).
- Lloyd Miller : Persian Music. Eastern Arts, Salt Lake City / Utah 1991 (Schur / fire, Mahur / wind, Segah / water etc.).
- Tschahargah / Aries, Dashti / Cancer, Segah / Libra, Tork / Capricorn, Homayun / Taurus, Mahur / Leo, Shur / Scorpio, Afshari / Aquarius, Esfahan / Gemini, Abu-'Ata / Virgo, Nawa / Sagittarius, Rast- Pandschagh / fish. See During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. , P. 77 f.
- Nasser Kanani: The Persian Art Music. History, instruments, structure, execution, characteristics. (Mussighi'e assil'e irani) . Friends of Iranian Art and Traditional Music, Berlin 1978, p. 12
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, p. 14.
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 196.
- Ardavan Taheri: Today's System of Traditional Music in Iran (The Annotation to the Radif) .
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 199.
- Jean During, Zia Mirabdolbaghi (1991) 60th
- Hormoz Farhat: The Dastgāh Concept in Persian Music. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990, ISBN 0-521-30542-X , p. 23. On the other hand, this term also means “step” as a Persian root word, which can be equated with “tone step” (scale).
- Nasser Kanani: The Persian Art Music. History, instruments, structure, execution, characteristics. (Mussighi'e assil'e irani) . Friends of Iranian Art and Traditional Music, Berlin 1978, p. 16.
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 201.
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, p. 21 f.
- Mehrdad Pakbaz: Persian modal structures and their early Islamic sources. Dissertation, University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna 2011, p. 11.
- Bruno Nettl: The Radif of Persian Music. Studies of Structure and Cultural Context in the Classical Music of Iran. Elephant & Cat, Champaign / Illinois 1987, revised 2nd edition 1992, p. 19 f.
- Hossein Alizadeh : Setar Teaching Methodology. An elementary course. Mahoor Institute of Culture and Art, (1998) 8th edition. Tehran 2007, ISBN 964-6409-33-4 .
- The interval C-Dp z. B. varies, depending on the scale, but also on time and person-related performance practice, between 136 and 152 cents .
- Ella Zonis: Classical Persian Music. 1973, p. 56 f.
- Ella Zonis 1973, pp. 52-58 ( The Persian Scale )
- Ella Zonis 1973, p. 73
- avestic for new .
- Ella Zonis 1973, p. 89
- Hossein Alizadeh: Târ and Setâr Teaching Method. An intermediate course. (دستور تار و سه تار), Mahoor Institute of Culture and Art, 2nd edition. Tehran 2003, ISBN 964-6409-70-9 , p. 18.
- During (2006), p. 297
- During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. 1991, p. 74.
- In the Radif of Mirzâ Abdollâh, Rāst and Pandschgāh designate two gushehs within the Dastgāh Rāst-Pandschgāh
- Hossein Alizadeh: Târ and Setâr Teaching Method. An intermediate course. 2003, p. 18.
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 196 f.
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, pp. 11-14 and 32
- In the Radif of Mirza Abdollah, however, 34 gushehs are available for Schur.
- Persian آواز, Singing ( vocal music ); see. Arabic Taqsīm
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, p. 17 f.
- Nasser Kanani: Traditional Persian Art Music: History, Musical Instruments, Structure, Execution, Characteristics. 2nd revised and expanded edition, Gardoon Verlag, Berlin 2012, pp. 214–221
- Gerson-Kiwi 1963, p. 12 f. and 17-22
- Bruno Nettl (1992), pp. 20 and 98
- Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, pp. 24-30
- A maqam of Arabic origin; see. Edith Gerson-Kiwi 1963, pp. 27-29
- German: "Four parts"
- During et al .: The art of persian music. 1991, p. 73.
- Nasser Kanani 2012, pp. 152 and 201 f.
- During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. 1991, p. 72 f.
- Khatschi Kahati (1962), p. 78.
- During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. 1991, p. 73.
- During et al .: The Art of Persian Music. 1991, p. 74 f.
- Bruno Nettl: The Radif of Persian Music. Studies of Structure and Cultural Context in the Classical Music of Iran. Elephant & Cat, Champaign / Illinois 1987, revised 2nd edition 1992, p. 19
- Ella Zonis 1973, p. 84
- Nasser Kanani 2012, p. 203
- Ella Zonis 1973, pp. 85 and 104
- Nasser Kanani: Traditional Persian Art Music: History, Musical Instruments, Structure, Execution, Characteristics. 2nd revised and expanded edition, Gardoon Verlag, Berlin 2012, pp. 228–230