Wandering years

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Traveling journeyman meeting in Bad Kissingen (2010)

The term wandering years (also wandering , rolling , typing , journeyman hike ) describes the time of the wandering of traditional journeyman after completing their apprenticeship ( acquittal ). From the late Middle Ages until the beginning of industrialization, it was one of the requirements for admission to the master craftsman's examination . Above all, the journeymen should get to know new work practices, foreign places, regions and countries and gain life experience. A craftsman who is on this traditional wandering is called a foreign writer or stranger .

Today's picture of journeyman hikes is partially transfigured - for example through poems or Schubert's song cycles . Only a few fragmentary traditions are generally known, mostly relating to the period between the late 18th and early 20th centuries. The history of migration as part of the craft and industrial history as well as migration research has so far only been reconstructed in fragments.

In December 2014, the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs in Germany announced that the journeyman's hike in Walz would be included as one of 27 forms of culture in the application list for the nationwide directory of intangible cultural heritage . On March 16, 2015, the award took place within the meaning of the Convention for the Conservation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO .


Journeyman hikers often refer to themselves as strangers who are on a hike or tipple tour. In general, it is also customary to speak of wandering or traveling journeyman craftsmen or journeyman journeyman, with the addition of “proper” or “respectable” to underline the character of the journey . Traveling journeyman is currently in the shafts for life, which is why after the end of the actual wandering years, local journeyman journeys or, for short, locals are spoken of.

The term “waltz” is common, but uncommon among strangers and locals alike. The term "Tippelbruder" is seen as an insult, as this can also be used to describe Berbers and bacon hunters and thus presupposes improper or dishonorable travel. In contrast, with the growing number of female journeymen and probably also the increasing age of some journeymen, the term “wandering boy” is no longer up to date.

Obligation to walk between the Middle Ages and industrialization

The duty of journeyman journeys had only been introduced in certain guilds in post-medieval times , but by no means in all of them, as part of the prescribed training path. In the Romanesque and especially Gothic times, these regulations were preceded by the migration of individual builders and entire building huts from one church building project to another, which today is only seldom comprehensible in terms of sources and can only be understood through art-historical comparisons and analysis of stylistic features. The period covered by the wandering differed over the centuries, depending on the trade and location of the guild. The requirements for this were precisely defined in their statutes.

After half of the traveling years had elapsed, relatives had the opportunity to register as candidates for the championship in the book of the respective guild. It was only after the end of the wandering and a further several years of work, the so-called courage years in a workshop at the place of application, that it was possible to register for the masterpiece . On obtaining the championship that was right of establishment bound and registration as a citizen in the Bürgerbuch the city. Only then did some guilds offer the possibility of marriage . For example, hiking was first mentioned for furriers in the Silesian Neumarkt in 1701, but it was a custom there long before that. A brave fellow migrated from Brieg to start his own business here. At that time in Neumarkt there was an obligation of six years of hiking time for foreign journeymen in order to achieve the title of master craftsman and the associated independence, for master sons three years.


Since the beginning of the early modern period , the guilds' guilds had laid down the duty of journeys to migrate. Depending on the trade, the focus on knowledge and technology transfer was different. The hike also formed a control instrument on the labor market. The masters were able to structure the employment flexibly and it opened up opportunities for the journeymen in a labor market that tended to be saturated. The journeyman migrations can be understood as a migratory search for job market opportunities, family formation and sedentarism. Despite the commercial reform, the abolition of the compulsory migration and the loss of importance of the guilds, the movement patterns of the journeyman craftsmen remained until well into the middle of the 19th century.


The course of the journey was laid down in the articles , the article book, which were specially tailored to the internal order of the guild and differed in time, region and according to the trade.

Cities in the Reich were considered as destinations for the journey, and for professions related to art and luxury production, such as sculptors or goldsmiths, also abroad. When the traveling journeyman came to a foreign city, he would look around with the help of a specially appointed foreman or attendee by visiting the workshops in a specific order and asking for work. If he didn't find any, he was given a small amount of money at certain guilds (in Northern Germany: at the so-called gift offices ) and immediately traveled on. Those who stayed had to work at least for a certain period of time, often half a year. The entry into the circle of journeymen was in many places well into the 18th century the occasion for a feast with the associated crude and excessive drinking jokes. The enrollment of journeymen after arriving at the ark was connected with the taking of a journeyman's oath on the guild ark . Often the journeymen were assigned to certain masters, since there were restrictions on the number of journeymen to be employed for the number of masters. The termination was possible on both sides.

Customers for a journeyman carpenter, issued in Bremen in 1818. Copper engraving form with handwritten entries and seal stamp imprint.

Between 1730 and 1820, when they ended longer periods of work in larger towns, the traditionally bound traveling journeymen were given customers a printed document with an engraved location as proof of working hours and good conduct. Without one he could hardly find work in the next town. While he was in a local workshop, the customers stayed in the guild drawer until their proper farewell. Despite this control instrument, the escape of the journeymen was a grievance often lamented by the masters. In some journeyman's hostels there was a “black board” on which all journeyman journeys had the names of those who had left the city, leaving behind a caring debt, as a warning and warning.

The article book of the guild generally regulated the conditions of wandering for the traveling journeymen as well as the labor law relationship between journeymen and masters. In addition to the wages, the contributions to the journeyman's draw, the sickness system and the regulation of the journeyman's life were also determined. One example of this is the irrigation held at different intervals on the so-called Zechtage . This drinking binge during the journeymen's meetings had to be approved by the guild elder and his assessor and had to be reported to the hostel father, the shop father .

The journeyman corporations formed in the 18th century were not tolerated everywhere without contradiction. The larger journeyman guilds were often headed by one or more senior journeyman , the shop assistant . As a journeyman one belonged to the have-nots, the have-nots.

Hiking routes

The migration behavior of journeymen is examined in historical migration research. Hostels and restaurants for artisans made the rolling easier. Language barriers, religion and already existing migration networks had a not insignificant influence on the chosen goals. Their European effects, e.g. B. on knowledge transfer, have only recently been scientifically investigated. Metropolitan areas were the preferred destination for the walks. State restrictions on migration did not take effect until the 19th century.

Loss of importance in the 19th and 20th centuries

As early as the first half of the 18th century , reforms of trade law began in the Holy Roman Empire , such as the Imperial Crafts Code ratified by the Emperor in 1731 , which was intended to transform the corporate society into a pre-industrial society. However, there was no consistent implementation. Only after the end of the Seven Years' War did many German states accelerate state reforms that resulted in a liberalization of the economy. With the increase in the newly founded manufactories, conflicts with the old handicrafts arose. On the part of the state, there was an ever more open promotion and preference for trade and manufacturing. The reform of the trade in the 19th century marks the administrative conclusion of the development.

This resulted in consequences for the traditional privileges, regulations and customs of the craft guilds. The obligation to wander was also affected. Increased specialization and the beginning of mechanization made new demands on the workforce. Only a few masters, journeymen and apprentices had extensive training in the respective branch of the manufacture . Special regulations made it possible to employ non-professional masters and journeymen. In addition to these, the proportion of unqualified unskilled workers in the factories who now only knew and carried out partial work of the craft grew . The in-house training of the few still comprehensively trained apprentices was coupled with the long-term commitment to the company. As a rule, only these were given the opportunity to become a journeyman, master or foreman in the company.

Their support was targeted towards the company's profile. The self-determined wandering was agreed through the domesticated company prescriptions and delegation to special companies in the same branch of good reputation. Subsequently, the knowledge gathered should fertilize the local company. The form of knowledge transfer through prescriptions already lost its importance at the end of the 18th century . The further specialization of many trades was accompanied by the establishment of trade , engineering and universities , which have largely replaced hiking as a qualification. Only in a few main and ancillary trades of the building trade continued to wander.

The number of traveling companions was subject to constant and great fluctuations. At the beginning of the 20th century, the number of foreigners was in the four-digit range and particularly high towards the end of the 1920s. During the world wars and the time of the Hitler dictatorship, the number of foreign writings decreased significantly, as many young men were drafted into the military and the strangers' love of freedom was in conflict with the politics of National Socialism . Therefore, the shafts were banned by the National Socialists.

After the Second World War , interest in traditional rolling grew rapidly in the early 1950s, but never reached the dimensions of the 1920s. Proper travel was soon banned in the GDR . Nevertheless, a few tried their luck within the borders, but the prevailing conditions of the state- owned enterprises (VEB) made working at various jobs almost impossible.

With the growing prosperity in the economic wonderland of the FRG, the motivation to take to the streets for three years quickly declined, so that in the 1970s the traveling craftsmen with black hats were a rarity. The years of privation were no longer necessary. The locals in the shafts feared that the old traditional rituals would die out with them.


Two Free Vogtlanders in Erfurt, 1990

Around 1980 the awareness of tradition grew , but at the same time also the emancipation of women and the spirit of the "alternative" way of life. Two new shafts were founded, the structures of which differed greatly from the "old" traditional shafts and which also accepted women. In addition, more and more journeymen of both sexes went wandering without joining one of the shafts. These call themselves free travelers to underline their independence from the journeymen's associations.

After German reunification , many East German journeymen took advantage of the opportunity to go on the roller coaster. Growing unemployment , from which the construction industry also suffered, additionally stimulated the new boom. So quite a few made a virtue out of necessity and left their homeland for several years.

If one has but opted to three years and one day wanderings as a minimum at are shafts as the righteous stranger , the Roland brothers , the stranger freedom bay in ax and trowel or the outdoors encounter bay prescribed. A minimum travel time of two years and one day is only used for the Free Vogtländer of Germany . In contrast, there is no maximum travel time, and a five-year journey is not uncommon, but it should remain a phase of life and not become a longer-term way of life.

Currently, only the free meeting shaft, ax and trowel and free travelers allow women to hike.

In 2005, between 600 and 800 journeymen were either free-traveling or organized in shafts. The proportion of women, tending to rise, is around 10 percent in total, but differs greatly depending on the trade and shaft. In 2010 there were little more than 450 traveling journeyman in Germany. However, these are always estimates as there is no reliable form of counting, especially for free travelers.

Rules and custom

Hiking luggage, hiking sticks and Charlottenburgers

In order to travel the world in the traditional way as a foreign writer, certain requirements must be met. Today, only those who have passed the journeyman's examination, are single, childless, debt-free and under 30 years of age are allowed to go hiking. Wandering should not be misused as an “escape” from responsibility. Often a police clearance certificate without entries is required. Most manholes have an age limit. Union membership is also sometimes required. Any championship title that may already have been obtained must rest during the hike. Nationality or religious affiliation do not play a role, as long as residence laws or pragmatic reasons such as lack of language skills stand in the way. Typically, some Swiss, Liechtenstein or Austrians always travel as part of the traditional hike, but in individual cases also French, Danes or Americans.

The typing was and is partly linked to difficult conditions. During the travel time, the foreign writer is not allowed to enter a restricted circle of mostly 50 km around his home town, not even in winter or on public holidays. He is not allowed to own a vehicle and can only get around on foot or by hitchhiking . Public transport is not generally prohibited, but frowned upon. Traveling to other continents by plane is allowed, but alternatives such as hiring on a sailing or cargo ship or using long land routes are considered the more companionable way of traveling.


Furthermore, a journeyman must always wear his outfit in public . Since a stranger is often dependent on the support of the population (for example when looking for work or a place to sleep), he must always behave respectably and properly so that the next person is also welcome. This is also the main reason for all sorts of do's and don'ts, in particular for the manner in which a journeyman has to behave towards his surroundings.

All his belongings , e.g. The wandering journeyman stows tools, underwear, sleeping bags in a Charlottenburger ("Charlie") or (less often) in a Felleisen , a historical knapsack of the Swiss Army . With free travelers in particular, the use of a wooden stroller or a Charlottenburger with a two-belt system is becoming more and more popular in order to be able to distribute the luggage on both shoulders. Traditionally, however, luggage is only carried with the left shoulder.

The earrings worn by journeyman journeymen were not yet a group indicator of journeymen or certain professional groups in the time of the guilds . Before the French Revolution, they were only worn by soldiers and seafarers, but were occasionally infected by all classes in Germany between 1810 and 1850, but increasingly by wandering builders after the middle of the century. In an emergency, selling them could also bridge financial bottlenecks, for example in the event of temporary unemployment.

Striking is the Stenz (walking stick) and especially the clothing: a sign of a free man, a black hat with a wide brim , cylinder , floppy hat, melon or similar that were before the French Revolution reserved for the nobility... There was also a gap with wide bell-bottoms made of mostly coarse corduroy or German leather , a waistcoat (eight buttons for eight working hours per day), jacket (six buttons for six working days per week) and a white shirt (Staude). The buttons worn on the gown and shirts are traditionally made of mother-of-pearl or at least a natural material or metal. The gap colors provide rough information about the craft of the journeyman, woodworks wear black, metalworks blue, stone handicrafts gray or beige, food trades the Pepita pattern , coloring trades red and nature-related trades green. The handicraft coat of arms or a symbolic representation of the individual handicraft can be found on the belt lock, sometimes as an earring hanger or embroidery on the back of the vest. While wearing private, non-craft-related jewelry is generally frowned upon or forbidden, many journeyman journeys are equipped with a pocket watch with a chain attached across the waistcoat. Each shaft has its own distinctive mark on the chasm, for example a blue (Roland shaft), red (Stranger Freedom Brothers), gray (Free Encounter shaft) or black (Righteous Stranger) honorableness with a craft pin attached to it. Free Vogtlanders, on the other hand, can be recognized by the so-called spinner buttons, members of the ax and trowel wear standardized earring, and free travelers have no identifying marks, apart from their inwardly turned herbaceous collar.

Since a high percentage of strangers are carpenters and the tradition of wandering has been preserved best and for the longest time among them, it is hardly known that journeymen from other trades can also go on wandering. For example, carpenters , bricklayers , roofers , concrete workers , boat builders , ceramists, blacksmiths , plumber , stonemasons , stone setters, locksmiths, wood sculptors , bookbinders , tailors , upholsterers, goldsmiths , instrument makers , church painters , rope makers , bakers, confectioners, cooks, millers are on the road , Cheesemakers, gardeners, farmers and many more, estimated at around 30 to 35 trades. Even relatively modern trades such as two-wheel mechanics or electricians are now on the move in individual cases, while older trades such as furriers, shoemakers, coopers or butchers are rarely hiked or have died out due to a lack of interested parties. The mistaken belief that only carpenters would be on the roll is reinforced by the fact that many journeymen from other trades also wear the typical black carpenter's uniform with the white bush , a collarless shirt, often against the financial background that only the black outfit of the Carpenters are mass-produced industrially, as they are also used by them as normal work clothes outside of traveling.

The hike may only be interrupted for really compelling reasons and then in agreement with the responsible shaft, for example in the event of a serious illness. Otherwise an interruption would be “dishonorable”, the hiking book would be withdrawn and the gap “hung up”. Journeyman journeys who end their journey "dishonorably" are called "Harzgangers".

Hiking book

The most important item that every journeyman takes with him is his hiking book. It is an irreplaceable document of your own wanderings and, after the end of it, its most important memento. Since the form and content are to be protected from misuse, hiking books are only to be presented in a confidential environment or for official reasons; in particular, they may not be published.

Journeyman traveling in a shaft that is a member of the CCEG have a standardized hiking book published by this journeyman association with them. In this only job references and the city seals of the visited places are entered after the mayors with the traditional handicraft greeting "properly asked for the seal". Often CCEG journeyman also have a second, private hiking book in which other entries can also be found. Non-CCEG journeyman, such as free travelers, have a hiking book that is only partially standardized, in which all other content can be found in addition to the official ones, whereby it is up to each journeyman to determine who is allowed to make an entry for what occasion . In general, journeyman journeys do not make their own entries in their hiking book, and this only officially becomes their property at the end of their journey.


There are numerous hostels for journeyman hikers, most of which at the shafts are connected to the local journeyman hikers and the meeting points they organize. Each shaft therefore also has its own structure, which is constantly changing, of places where the arrival of craftsmen is desired or - depending on the length of stay in the immediate vicinity - is also required. Travelers from other shafts or journeymen who travel freely can therefore often not be accepted here, or only in the company of a corresponding journeyman. However, there are also hostels that span shafts, such as the Europahaus in Dümmer, or hostels for free-traveling journeymen that usually emerged from traveling journeyman construction sites.

In addition to the locals themselves, hostels and restaurants with regular local get-togethers are often the best way to make the necessary personal contact with traveling companions as an interested apprentice or a fully trained journeyman.

To meet

There are numerous meetings and occasions at which traveling journeyman come together in large numbers and which essentially establish what can be called a traveling journeyman culture. Many of these meetings are wholly or in certain sections public, for example to give interested parties a chance to get in touch and to enable journeymen to meet with friends or family members.

Annual meetings or congresses at Schächten are general meetings that are mandatory for traveling journeyman journeys, at which, in addition to a general reunion or getting to know each other, everything important is discussed and decided. Often these are also connected with small construction sites in order to work together. This applies in particular to ax and trowel as well as the free travelers whose annual meetings (summer construction site) are always large work meetings and support a charitable project.

Going out and going home

The most common, on the other hand, are going home and going home or hiking and registering as a local, i.e. the beginning or the end of a hike. The character of these events differs strongly in some cases, so in many shafts one hikes through a company, the actual "training" of new journeymen takes place over several weeks at a fixed place before the actual start of the hike. A local report often makes you local too, far from your actual hometown. It is customary for free travelers and, to varying degrees, for other journeymen to walk the 50 km as the crow flies to the banned mile within a few days with the new comrades who have traveled for this purpose after a celebration with a warm-up in their home town and the farewell at the town sign. In return, you become local by meeting some journeymen outside the ban mile and then covering the route together to your own place-name sign. At the celebration that follows, you finally take off your gaps.

Annual meeting

For some professional groups there are annual meetings for professional exchange and working together or learning from one another, such as the metal meeting, stone meeting or the victual meeting for food craftsmen.

Other meetings include the annual Stranger for Strangers, where lectures and seminars are organized on a generally political topic. The building trade meeting exists especially for women. Singing meetings, so-called Schallertreffen, also take place at irregular intervals. Spring and May meetings are also irregular, but at least have a certain tradition. In addition, there are various celebrations, for example to spend Christmas, New Year's Eve or Easter together.

The annual Ascension Meeting took place in Hamburg in 2017 with 400 journeymen from all over Germany. It was organized by the Society of Righteous Foreign Carpenters and Slateers to Altona, founded in 1793.

Internal and external communication

The essential endeavor of the third-party journeyman is to keep the character of traditional wandering alive in a constantly changing world. Traveling journeyman are not a homogeneous group of people and each of them has a different way of traveling and very different goals, both professionally and personally, but they unite a lot through their living conditions. Realizing this and practically experiencing it first-hand is a decisive factor in a journeyman's first year of travel. This can also lead to a certain alienation between the traveling companions and the majority society, which can become a problem especially when they want to fit into a normal life as locals.

Since a wandering is about personal experiences and journeyman journeys generally do not represent a public concern in addition to the preservation of the wandering itself, the image of a very closed and self-related parallel society emerges from the outside. Elements of this impression are, for example, the ban on most young travelers contacting their family and friends for the first few months, the ban on demonstrations in Kluft with the exception of May 1, or the general renunciation of their own means of communication such as smartphones. In general, there are also many events or quasi-ceremonies at which non-immigrants are not welcome, as well as topics that are not brought up to them.

Among strangers, only personal contact is actually decisive, which is why this is maintained very differently than is generally the case. As a stranger you never know where you might see each other again, so personal greetings and farewells have a different status. Even after work you still ask personally on site, only in exceptional cases due to long journeys or visa questions with a phone call or an e-mail. There is also a lively exchange of contacts, so that the “bush radio” used by the traveling companions is usually astonishingly effective as a means of communication. Nevertheless, the use of e-mails is also common today, which is why it is one of the basic skills to be able to find an Internet-enabled computer, for example.

Other countries

Naver på valsen

The Danish term " Naver " is a short form of " Skandi-Naver " (Scandinavian) and refers to the traveling Danish, Swedish and Norwegian journeymen who travel south and seek work. The form of travel is called “ på valsen ” with a phonetic similarity to the German Walz. The traditions of the Northern European Vals are also very similar to the Central European Walz because it was inspired by the German tradition.

Many Danish navers were, some are still today, integrated into German shafts. That is why there are two German hostels in Denmark today; “Stenbohus” in Ribe and “Nanok bar” in Valby , Copenhagen. The Danish shafts still have 22 “hulen” lodges, but they cannot send bachelors on the roll. In September 2015 a “navercamp” took place on the grounds of the Hjerl Hede open-air museum in Jutland. All European journeyman journeys were invited to work in the old cultural and historical buildings for 14 days with specialized mentors. The main aim was to get children and young people interested in the craft.

Tour de France du Compagnonnage

The «  Compagnonnage  » is the journeyman's brotherhood that was formed to support traveling journeymen. The journeyman's associations ( associations de compagnonnage ) still exist today, but they have mostly taken the form of trade unions and training organizations. For example, there is the Institut européen de formation des compagnons in the form of a technical college.

The Association ouvrière des compagnons du devoir du tour de France ( Association of Journeyman Craftsmen on Tour), to which a good two thirds of French journeymen belong, has a strong position . She invites the bachelors ( itinérants ) to wander. The Werkbund of the Compagnons du devoir community offers courses and temporary work for 21 professions in 45 countries around the world and is thus more similar to the organized internship abroad for students.

The term Tour de France has nothing to do with today's bicycle race. It simply describes a tour (round trip) through the country of France, which was assigned to the journeymen. In France there are 50 hostels in which the Compagnons live for a year and study and work six days a week. The Compagnons can choose between a tour of three, five or seven years. They are then elite craftsmen ( Compagnon Fini ), only the Compagnons restore cultural and historical buildings such as the Eiffel Tower , Palace of Versailles , etc. It is now possible to travel abroad as a Compagnon for just one year; women can now also become Compagnons.


The journeyman journey of Central European journeyman crafts was different from that of journeyman in the United Kingdom. Journeyman is now the name for the completion of an apprenticeship, but no longer has any reference to wandering - journeyman migrations were lost on the British Isles early on. The language alone still attests to the existence - the word Journey comes from the French journée (“day span”, “course of the day”) and referred to the day's work for which the craftsman is paid. Today, in the English language , journey means “traveling around”. The change in meaning is explained by the experience with traveling companions in the country.


Australian cork hat, draped in a modern style with beer and slippers
Elderly wandering swagman, 1901

Swagman (also Tussocker ) in ancient Australia describes traveling artisans who went from farm to farm in the hinterland (outback) and performed handicraft services for a day's wage. In particular, during the Depression of 1890 and the Great Depression of 1930, the swagmen were at their peak. As an early form of a social system, arriving swagmen were offered a meal in the wards in the evening, regardless of whether these sundowners traveled on the next day or offered their services locally.

While many elements of the wandering swagman were derived from Central European traditions of journeyman migration , the cork hat ("cork hat") is typically Australian - pieces of cork (often simply bottle corks) were attached to cords on the broad brim of the swagmen. These hardly weighed down the hat, but the dangling corks ensured that the ubiquitous flies and mosquitoes that were omnipresent in the bush did not keep buzzing around the hiker's head. Today it is a typical Australian headgear when you drive into the Australian bush or sit on the veranda with friends.


Journeyman travelers often use parts of the Rotwelschen or Yeniche to communicate with one another or to designate certain things. It is an oral language with great diversity, which can only be written down to a limited extent and which should also retain its character as a purely oral language on the part of the traveling companions. A vocabulary of journeyman expressions should therefore be used with caution.

The following expressions are in use:

Aspirant, aspi
Young traveler on trial with ax and trowel, as well as the free encounter shaft
colorful or wild traveling
non-traditional traveling fellows, sometimes with elements of the rift or traveling by some of the rules
Former traveling journeyman who settled down after traveling.
Export journeyman, export, alt
Traveling journeyman responsible for getting rid of and training young travelers, especially for free travelers.
to be hiked
Introduction of the young hikers to the customs and life of journeyman journeys, especially in the case of shafts.
Interested party
Journeyman or apprentice interested in wandering.
Young traveler, youngster
Newcomer to the roller coaster, especially when traveling with the exporter.
Kamérad, Kamerud (with a long e)
Good buddy. Form of greeting among journeymen.
Master craftsman, employer.
Association of traveling and former journeymen.
hinge, snag, hinge, snake
Singing journeyman's songs .

Famous wanderers (selection, alphabetically by surname)

Cultural references

See also


  • Theresa Amrehn: Queen of the Highway. My years on the roll . Piper Verlag, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-492-06026-4
  • Anne Bohnenkamp, Frank Möbus : With favor and all due respect! Wandering craftsmen: tradition and alternative. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-89244-006-9
  • Lukas Buchner: About the life of journeyman craftsmen on the "Walz". An empirical analysis (series field research , volume 10). LIT Verlag, Berlin / Münster / Vienna / Zurich / London 2017, ISBN 978-3-643-50798-3
  • Eric J. Hobsbawm : Tramping Artisan . In: Eric J. Hobsbawm: Laboring Men. Studies in the History of Labor . 2. Imprint. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1965, ISBN 0-297-76402-0 , pp. 34-63.
  • Werner Krebs: Old craft customs. With special consideration of Switzerland . Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel 1933.
  • Grit Lemke: We were here, we were there. On the cultural history of modern journeyman hiking . PapyRossa Verlag, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-89438-247-3
  • Museum of Ethnology and Swiss Museum of Ethnology: With your permission and permission! Book for the exhibition, Basel 1987
  • Paul Rowald: Custom, saying and song of the builders . Schmorl & v. Seefeld successor, Hanover 1903. (Reprinted by Th. Schäfer Verlag, Hanover 1994, ISBN 3-88746-329-3 )
  • Annemarie Steidel: Off to Vienna! The mobility of Central European handicrafts in the 18th and 19th centuries using the example of the capital and residence . Publishing house for history and politics a. a., Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-486-56738-1 , ( Social and Economic History Studies 30), (Partly also: Vienna, Univ., Diss., 1999: Regional mobility of urban craftsmen, the origin of Viennese apprentices / apprentices , Journeymen and masters in the 18th and 19th centuries ).
  • Frieder Stöckle: traveling journeymen - the old handicraft customs and traditions . 1st edition. Arena Verlag, Würzburg 1980, ISBN 3-401-03893-1
  • Pavla Vosahlikova (Ed.): On the roll, memories of Bohemian craftsmen . Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 1994. So that it doesn't get lost ... Volume No. 30, first edition, ISBN 3-205-98147-2 , 323 pp.
  • Sigrid Wadauer: The journey of the journeymen. Mobility and biography in the craft from the 18th to the 20th century . Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / New York 2005, ISBN 3-593-37625-3 .
  • Rudolf Wissel : The old handicraft law and custom . Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, Berlin 1929.
  • Heidrun Wozel: Training problems between craft and manufacturing. Represented on the basis of Dresden archive materials . In: Karl Czok (Hrsg.): Studies on the older Saxon craft history . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1990, ( session reports of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig, Philological-Historical Class, Volume 130, Issue 6, submitted on October 14, 1988), ISBN 3-05-001063-0
  • August Topf: The craftsperson . In: The Gazebo . Issue 44/47/49, 1864, pp. 697-700, 744-746, 781-783 ( full text [ Wikisource ]).

Newspaper articles


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Press release of the Standing Conference
  2. unesco.de: Award Intangible World Heritage , accessed on March 16, 2015
  3. ^ Fritz Wiggert: Origin and development of the old Silesian furrier trade with special consideration of the furrier guilds in Breslau and Neumarkt . Breslauer Kürschnerinnung (Ed.), 1926, pp. 259–260 Book cover and table of contents .
  4. ^ Jochen Oltmer : Migration in the 19th and 20th centuries . Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN 978-3-486-57753-2 , p. 16 f.
  5. A copy from 1839/45 has been preserved in the Focke-Museum Bremen Inv.-No. C. 1377
  6. Knut Schulz (Ed.): Crafts in Europe. From the late Middle Ages to the early modern period. Oldenbourg, Munich 1999. ISBN 978-3-486-56395-5
  7. Three years of travel and one day in BlickPunkt Frankfurt (Oder) , July 31, 2010, p. 1
  8. Elfriede Streitenberger: Lifted up in a foreign country. In: Mainpost of October 8, 2015, p. 32.
  9. Henrik Jacobs: Hiking is the carpenter's delight. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , June 18, 2014, p. 6.
  10. A close look - earrings from town and country from classicism to the new youth culture . Museum for German Folklore SMPK, Berlin 1989/1990. In: Writings of the Museum für Deutsche Volkskunde , Volume 16, pp. 118–123
  11. Report, the nordstory. Here today, there tomorrow - on the roll. Germany 2019. Broadcast on NDR television, March 22, 2019, 8:15 pm - 9:15 pm.
  12. (lno): 400 journeymen celebrate Ascension in the town hall . In: Hamburger Abendblatt , May 27, 2017, p. 14.
  13. Naver on denstoredanske.dk (Danish), accessed December 13, 2015
  14. Ernst Francke: The Gerber Secret . Self-published by Völt Verein Österreichischer Ledertechniker, Vienna 1959, pp. 35–36.
  15. Henrik Jacobs: Hiking is the carpenter's delight. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , June 18, 2014, p. 6.
  16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdbF4rEffO4