Different racetrack shapes
A distinction is made between open and closed racetracks. Open racetracks are characterized by the fact that the start (point A) and finish (point B) are separated from each other and the route is usually only driven once. You are in rallying for individual stages and in rally sprints , hill climbs or Dragster - drag race used. Most of the time, however, race tracks are closed circuits that are driven over several laps ( circuit races ). The start and finish are usually in the same place.
Race tracks can be set up permanently or temporarily. Permanent racetracks are used almost exclusively for motorsport and are not approved for public traffic. Temporary race tracks, on the other hand, are often only laid out on public roads for a few days. For this purpose, the route will be temporarily closed to traffic and provided with the infrastructure required for the race. A distinction is made between city courses that are used in city centers, airfield courses that are only created for the race in question on civil or military airfields, and racetracks that are laid out on country roads. In contrast to permanent racetracks, temporary racetracks (for example for rally evaluation tests, street circuit or airport car races , autocross and ice races ) are created or blocked off immediately before and for a limited time for the relevant competition.
The Circuit des 24 Heures is one of the few semi- permanent racetracks . As part of the 24-hour race at Le Mans , the permanent Circuit Bugatti race track will be expanded by 9.207 km of closed public roads for a week.
The best-known temporary racetrack is the Circuit de Monaco , for which large parts of the road traffic in the Principality of Monaco are closed every year in order to host the Monaco Grand Prix as part of the Formula 1 World Championship . Also on the Formula 1 racing calendar is the Silverstone Circuit, a former airfield of the British Air Force. However, this was converted into a permanent race track as early as 1948. While the original runways were used in the beginning, racing nowadays mainly takes place on the connecting paths of the site, which have been subject to safety changes over the course of time.
In the case of permanent, closed racetracks, a distinction is made between street courses, in which curves are lined up in different directions, and oval courses , which, according to the specifications of the FIA, consist of up to four left-hand curves.
Racetracks are not only used for races, but also for test drives and training. On some racetracks it is also possible to drive a private car or motorcycle for a fee without the restrictions that apply to public traffic.
Various types of racetracks
Race tracks for formula, touring and sports car races
Formula, touring and sports car races can be held on permanent or temporary circuits. According to the FIA rules, these must be made of asphalt and should not be longer than 7 km. The minimum length of a race track for Formula 1 races is 3.5 km, one of the best-known exceptions is the Monaco Grand Prix with 3.340 km. For touring car races, the route must be 3.0, 3.2 or 4.0 km long, depending on the duration of the race; for sports car races, racetracks must have a minimum length of 3.5 to 4.7 km.
The minimum width is 12 m, on the starting straight up to the end of the first curve it is even 15 m. The longitudinal gradient is regulated in relation to the speed, the starting straight should not have a gradient of more than 2%. The slope across the direction of travel should be 1.5 to 3% for drainage. The camber of curves must not exceed 10%. Each starting place must have a length of 6 m (in Formula 1 even 8 m).
According to the FIA regulations, autocross circuits can be both temporary and permanent, must have a total length of between 600 and 2,000 meters and only have loose track surfaces (earth, sand, gravel, etc.). However, the launch site may be asphalted or concreted.
Rallycross racing tracks
The Rallycross is performed exclusively on race tracks with varying permanent lining (min.. 35 to max 60% of asphalt or concrete, otherwise loose ground, mostly gravel) according FIA rules. The lap length is 950 to 1400 meters. In Germany, according to the DMSB regulations, rallycross races are also exceptionally possible on autocross tracks if at least the starting area has been paved or concreted there (“Matschenberg Offroad Arena”, Weigsdorf-Köblitz ). In addition, the DMSB also approves rallycross races on routes with almost exclusively asphalt (Gründautalring, Gründau -Lieblos).
Race tracks for ice races
The racetracks for the increasingly popular ice races are exclusively temporary slopes. In France and some other Alpine countries, they are groomed with natural snow or in mild winters with snow cannons , the additional water required is used to consolidate the course. In Scandinavia, on the other hand, only in very severe winters is a circuit marked out on the ice of a lake, which is then over half a meter thick . For such races, special tires covered with a large number of short spikes or nails about 25 mm long are almost always used, but relatively normal M&S tires are also rarely required.
|Bahrain International Circuit
|private Formula 1 tests
|Circuito de Navarra
Monoposti of groups D and E (over 2500 cm³) except Formula 1
sports cars of groups CN and E (SR1, SR2, LMP1, LMP2 and all over 2500 cm³)
historic cars of groups F1 / 4 , TSRC 17 , 18 , 29 , 30 , 41 , 42 , 47 , 48 and all period Z historic cars except Group B and WRC
Monoposti of groups D and E (up to 2500 cm³), except for the
sports cars of groups CN and E listed under grade 1 + 2 , except for the
cars of category II of groups GT1 , GT2 , GT3 listed under grade 2
Monoposti of groups D and E (up to 1600 cm³)
sports cars of groups CN and E (up to 1600 cm³)
cars of category I of groups N , R , A and SP (touring cars)
historic cars according to Appendix K (PDF; 7.7 MB) regulations, with the exception of those listed under Grade 2
|Vehicles that are powered by alternative energy sources, such as solar and electric cars
|Formula E racetrack Moscow
(As of November 2011)
- International racetracks are mostly based on international sports laws
- Test track - mostly non-public track for vehicle tests
- List of motorsport racetracks
- List of Formula 1 racetracks
- List of DTM racetracks
- Int. FIA Sports Act (ISG) - Item 30. Racetrack. In: DMSB-Handbuch Automobil- / Kartsport 2011. Green Chapter, p. 9 ( PDF file; 22.3 MB ).
- Appendix O to the International Sporting Code ( PDF , p. 5; Version of December 17, 2010; 222 kB) fia.com
- List of FIA licensed circuits ( PDF ; Version of July 18, 2011; 43 kB) ( Memento of May 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) www.fpak.pt FPAK Motorsport Association Portugal (not an official FIA List)
- FIA Alternative Energies Cup ( PDF , p. 1; version of June 3, 2011; 243 kB) fia.com