Hill climb

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hill climbing is a discipline within motorsport . In contrast to circuit races, they are basically only carried out as individual time trials on an uphill track. The finish line must be higher than the start; individual sections may also be flat or sloping. The characteristic return takes place in a convoy rolling downhill, sometimes with the engine switched off. The winner of a hill climb championship is like in cycling Bergmeister called.

Porsche 996 GT3 as a near-series vehicle of the GT3 class during the hillclimbs on Mount Cotton


Porsche 909 Bergspyder mountain racing car on a demonstration lap on the Nürburgring (1981)
Ludovico Scarfiotti , winner of the Sierre - Crans-Montana hill climb in 1964, in a Scuderia Filipinetti
Ferrari 250LM

The first hill climb in automobile history was held on January 31, 1897 as part of a race from Marseille to Nice . The third and final stage of the competition led over exactly 17 km from Nice up to the mountain village of La Turbie . The race is said to have been won by motor racing tire manufacturer André Michelin , but other sources name a racing driver named Pary as the winner of the La Turbie debut.

Before the Second World War, mountain races with Grand Prix racing cars were held on large Alpine passes such as the Grossglockner and many other mountain roads in the low mountain ranges. B. Carried out by Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union , with famous drivers such as Bernd Rosemeyer , Rudolf Caracciola and the mountain king Hans Stuck at the wheel.

At the beginning of the 1960s, as part of the increasing mass motorization, hill climbs were resumed or newly introduced. In addition, some hill climbs were occasionally rated for the sports car world championship , thus equating with classics such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans , the 1000 km race on the Nürburgring or the Targa Florio . Up until the 1970s, Porsche , Ferrari , Abarth and BMW built some extremely light hillclimbing cars such as the Porsche 909 Bergspyder or Ferrari Dino especially for the European Hill Climb Championship.

After that, the automobile factories shied away from the effort of hill-climbing only, so that the overall victories since that time have only been determined by amateurs among themselves. This did not detract from the popularity of the events, especially since well-known professional racing drivers continue to demonstrate their racing cars, which are otherwise only used in circuit races. Even without much sponsor support, mountain racing drivers use a wide range of different racing cars, ranging from near-series cars to sports prototypes and Formula 3000 vehicles.


Andrew Gowen in a 1.7 liter Ward Mk 80 during the Prescott Speed ​​Hill Climbs

One distinguishes between

  • Hill climb for automobiles,
  • Hill climb for motorcycles and
  • mixed mountain races for both motorcycles and automobiles.

This article explains in more detail hill climbs for automobiles. Mountain races for motorcycles are analogous, but with different brands and drivers. There are also specific mountain race routes on which exclusively motorcycle competitions are or have been held.

One differentiates from the organizational process

  • Hill climb with paddock down and
  • Hill climb with the paddock above.

With the former, the participants are called immediately before the start and drive from their stand to the pre-grid. After crossing the finish line, the participants gather in the finish area and are led back to the paddock (return). Advantage: simpler organization, usually better infrastructure at the starting point. Disadvantage: a defective vehicle has to wait for repair to be returned. If fluids are lost, a recovery vehicle must bring the defective racing car to the paddock so that the track is not soiled.

If the paddock is at the top, a defective vehicle is in the paddock if it was able to finish the run on its own, which is not infrequently the case. Any pollution is limited to the last few meters of the route. The paddock above usually has more space, but poorer infrastructure (shops, electricity, water, asphalt surfaces). Of course there are also deviations from the scheme. In addition, it is problematic to lead the field of participants back to the paddock to change tires when it starts to rain and then downhill again to the start.

Competition mode

A hill climb is usually held on a weekend (Saturday and Sunday), with many participants arriving on Friday to visit the track unofficially ("wild" training is prohibited). Schleiz is the only route in Germany that allows untimed coordination runs on the closed route on Friday. In Winterstein (Rennsteig) there is a drag race over the quarter mile on Friday night, but this is not part of the event.

One-day events (formerly: Edelstein mountain races) where training and races take place on a single day, such as Ascension Day , are rare .

Everywhere, Saturday serves as the largest possible number of timed training runs, of which a minimum number must be completed in order to be admitted to the race. In special circumstances, a training run will be scheduled on Sunday morning.

On Sunday, depending on the length of the route, the number of participants and imponderables such as accidents or a dirty route, two or three, rarely four, races will be held. In Germany, which has rather short distances, all times are added up and form the basis of the rating. A slip can cost a placement or lead to non-evaluation, depending on whether the run can still be ended on its own. The Swiss organizers prefer the fastest two runs out of three. However, this only applies to the Swiss Championship, in the EBM all runs are added up. In Luxembourg, the fastest run out of three counts. Particularly long racetracks (Trento Bondone) only allow a single race.

A circular course in which the return does not take place via the route itself offers favorable conditions for a large number of runs. Only a few events (Hauenstein, Mickhausen and partly Trier) have the space requirements. Solutions like in Oberhallau, which omit parts of the route, offer the advantage of not having to torment the field of participants through the "bottleneck" of the pre-start.


Switzerland, France and Italy are known for the most demanding tracks, and fast vehicles up to Formula 1 racing cars can also be used . In Sweden and Norway, hill climbs are mostly run on gravel roads, with rally and rallycross vehicles being used.

France has several hill climbs in Alsace alone , in particular the six-kilometer route from Turckheim and the legendary Mont Ventoux . Runs for the European Championship are also held in Austria ( Rechberg Race ), Portugal , Spain , Italy , the Czech Republic , Slovakia and Croatia , i.e. also in countries that are mostly excluded from popular international racing series. In Hungary , a run will be held in the Mátra Mountains. Other countries with mountain races are Andorra , Malta , Romania , Sweden and Poland (Sienna in Lower Silesia).

International events

The most important hill climb championship in Europe is the European hill climb championship organized under the sport sovereignty of the FIA . There are also the European Hill Climb Cup and International Hill Climb Challenge racing series, which are monitored by the FIA and are held in two different European regions.

A mixed Italian-Slovenian competition called "Slovenia and Triveneto Hill-Climb-Trophy 2013" was, as the name suggests, held in 2013 in Slovenia and Italy. Four of the six trophy runs were also counted towards the Austrian championship.


Mitsubishi Lancer Evo IX at the Race to the Sky in New Zealand

The steepness and the mostly curvy course of the mountain race routes (often with switchbacks) limit the speeds and thus improve safety. Naturally, the disadvantage of the location on the slope is that extensive run-off areas cannot be set up either on the mountain side or on the slope side . Due to the character of the individual time trial, mountain races are not actually a race, as there are never any overtaking maneuvers - which is also provided for by the regulations. Failures are exclusively due to vehicle defects or errors by the driver. For the drivers with their very expensive racing vehicles, this has the advantage that they do not have to worry about damage from the mistakes of others. Although there is no direct competition, the demands on the drivers are high, as the respective route can usually only be trained once a year in two to a maximum of four rounds. During these training runs, the drivers have to internalize the route details of several kilometers of hill climbing distance in order to be successful in the few races.

Part of the sporting appeal is the variety of the individual curves, the characteristics of which can be extremely different. So-called dog curves and combinations (which are becoming narrower) appear, which one looks for in vain on modern circuits. In the past, the “Schlossbergkehre” at the Gernsbach Schlossberg race was one of the slowest. The slowest corners in today's active German mountain program are z. B. the "quarry curve" in Trier and the "bit curve" in Wolsfeld. Well-known fast passages are the "little bridge" in Homburg as well as the last two curves before crossing the finish line in Trier and the finish curve in Schleiz. The fastest corners in the EBM are Les Grippons in the lower third of Saint-Ursanne -Les Rangiers. Popular medium-speed passages are the "Klinge" in Eichenbühl, the last four corners in Osnabrück and the "slip curve" in Alzey, which is no longer driven. For safety reasons, not all of the curves mentioned are accessible to the public.


Particularly difficult and / or important curves ( key curves ) are occasionally "marked" in a subtle to conspicuous manner. A conspicuous but not too large area, for example the head of a delineator post or a 20 cm × 20 cm area on the guardrail , is colored with signal color. If the view of the marking is very flat, or if the delineator posts are removed during the race, the marking must be applied to more distant natural areas (and removed afterwards). This can be done on the outside (normal) or inside (in an emergency) of the curve, for example if the turning point is to be marked. There is also the rare case that a marking is necessary on the inside of the guardrail and curve.

Markings are used for:

  • Braking point , which, however, can be very far apart for vehicles of different speeds. Here, different colors are usually used to differentiate the car classes.
  • Turn-in point : the most important point on the curve, which shows only very small deviations even with different vehicle concepts. This is by far the most frequently marked point. In combinations of curves, the marking on the back of the guardrail is sometimes the only visible position. Occasionally, a particularly conspicuous marking is placed on the inside of the route, as the driver's gaze is already oriented towards the apex, i.e. the inside.
  • Vertex : Occasionally important in connection with the turning point. If both points are correct, the further course of the curve is correct and it can be fully accelerated.

Other guidance

The marshals are numbered consecutively from start to finish. Ideally, these numbers are visible to the drivers, namely when they are on boards at the posts. In other cases they are painted on the asphalt; Of course, this cannot be seen while driving.


In the remaining hill climbs in Germany, safety for drivers and spectators is considered optimal. Since 1995, neither drivers nor spectators have died in mountain races in Germany. In the area of ​​route safety at the edge of the route, three marshals were killed in the EM hill climb. Injuries to the drivers occasionally occur, also to press photographers and cameramen who - with a declaration of release and thus granted a special permit - are allowed to stay outside the safety zones, thus in the immediate danger area.

In 2004, a driver had a fatal accident in his touring car in Switzerland . As a consequence, an additional diagonal strut in the roof was prescribed, i.e. the roll cage was reinforced. The greatest danger, however, is for the drivers of open racing cars , the structure of which does not correspond to that of modern Formula 1 cars.

For a number of years it has been possible for amateur drivers to take part in the amateur mountain championship in the NAVC . There are other races taking place as part of this racing series, e.g. B. the Heckmo-Cup or regularity rides.


Hill climbing has been gaining popularity again for many years. This is associated with increasing audience numbers. The accommodation of sometimes several thousand spectators at the very often extremely sloping track edges is a main problem for hill climbs. Especially safety distances to the track are difficult to enforce there against an enthusiastic audience. This is due not least to the great lack of discipline on the part of the spectators and the problem for the organizer to manage the spectator management personally.

The negative consequences are at the expense of security and can affect sensitive, but also particularly protected biotopes. In this respect, the audience control represents an essential factor of an event, which is checked in the course of the respective approval process.

Hill Climb by States

Bosnia Herzegovina

The Bosnian Mountain Championship has been held annually since 2004. One run takes place in Croatia ( Skradin ), three inland ( Cazin , Glava Cete , Dubrovnik ).


A hill climb championship has been held in Bulgaria regularly since 2002. There is also a touring car championship on mainly temporary circuits (partly in the city centers and partly on motorway junctions). The drivers of the two championships are almost identical.



Bergrennen Zotzenbach 1989

Numerous hill climbs were held in Germany well into the 1980s. In addition to some internationally important ones , such as the Schauinsland race in the Black Forest on the mountain of the same name near Freiburg im Breisgau , there were a number of smaller events on a regional level.

Since the mid-1980s, hill climbs in Germany have only been carried out occasionally with the necessary special permits under Section 29 StVO ( excessive road use ). In the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg no more permits for hill climbs are issued.

In 1984 around 30 planned, in some cases traditional, hill climb races in Baden-Württemberg had to be canceled because the exemption was not granted. On the other hand, there were individual demonstrations by motorsport fans, for example on June 17, 1984 at the canceled Heilbronner Bergpreis .


Hilda Wickenhäuser, one of the first women among German hillclimb drivers

Today , mountain races take place in almost all of the federal states that are suitable for this, except in North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg .

In Lower Saxony , the International Osnabrück ADAC Hill Climb is held in Hilter am Teutoburg Forest .

40th Trier Hill Climb 2011

The federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate hosted the German run for the European Mountain Championships at the Trier hill climb until 2011 , and an event will be started in Homburg on Saarland soil (starting with a downhill section) that crosses the state border, as the finish is in the Rhineland-Palatinate town Käshofen is located. In Rhineland-Palatinate, which also owns the Nürburgring and hosts the German run for the World Rally Championship , there is also the traditional race in Wolsfeld near Bitburg .

In Thuringia in 2011, after a 19-year break, the Glasbach race was revived on a first section of 2.2 km. Since 2012, the entire 5.5 km of the original race track, the so-called Glasbach (a winding section of the provincial road 1027 near Bad Liebenstein up to the Rennsteig ) has been used again. For this purpose, the section of the longest mountain race track in Germany and one of the most modern mountain race tracks in Europe was upgraded. Before that, the Rennsteig hill climb from Winterstein took place leading from the north into the Thuringian Forest for several years . It was given up in favor of the Glasbach race because of irreconcilable differences with a new forest owner, mainly because of the crowd control. At Schleiz , a section of the Schleizer triangle is used as a mountain race track contrary to the usual racing direction, as is the Iberg near Heilbad Heiligenstadt . At Kelbra (Kyffhäuser), a hill climb was allowed to take place once a year in the Kyffhäuser Nature Park until 2008 , with part of the Kyffhäuser hill climb route in Saxony-Anhalt .

In Hesse , mountain races are no longer allowed in Zotzenbach in the Odenwald , but a mountain slalom with chicanes is still allowed .

Uwe Lang - overall winner of the hill climb in Eichenbühl 2012

In Bavaria , the hill climb on the Hauenstein is held in Hausen / Rhön as well as an event in the "Dreiländereck" in Eichenbühl / Lower Franconia (near Miltenberg am Main ) and in Mickhausen near Augsburg ( Mickhausen hill climb ).

Traditional mountain races on the edge of the Alps, such as the one on the Oberjochpass , which was once banned because of "impairing tourism", are now being used again to promote the same, but only as a classic car event. B. in Baden-Württemberg on Schauinsland near Freiburg, on Schlossberg in Gernsbach / Murgtal, on Eggberg near Bad Säckingen , on Haldenhof near Ludwigshafen on Lake Constance and other former routes such as on Gaisberg in Austria.

For a number of years now, the ADMV Classic Cup has been increasingly reanimating old hill climbs in the new federal states, also as a classic car event, demonstration and regularity drives. So were u. a. with the Naumburg vineyard race in the Saale-Unstrut-Triasland, the Lückendorfer mountain race in the Zittau Mountains or the Mühlwand near Reichenbach in the Vogtland, old traditional routes have been revived, which can also look back on a long history back to the 1920s.

As in the previous year, the resumption of the race in the Sauerland near Brilon was prevented by the responsible district president in 2004: I refused the application for the 21st International ADAC Sauerland Mountain Prize 2004 , as it is in the public interest that this race should not take place takes place, and the interest of the ADAC in holding the race outweighs.

One run of the "German Mountain Cup" will be held in Luxembourg , another in Austria .

Group H.

Group H is a separate chapter , which has held its own championship within the DMSB championship races since 1987, sometimes also outside of it (Berg-Cup Gr. H). The field of the size H cars often represents the largest group in the racing events. Almost without prior notice, the majority of the engines were declared to be non-compliant by an exegesis of the regulations. This resulted in the resignation of the Mountain Race Technical Committee, as there are no other countermeasures against being able to no longer use a large number of engines.


In France there are 14 races in the championship, which is held in two groups. Series A includes Monoposti, mostly Formula 3000. In addition, this includes Formula 3, Formula Renault and sports prototypes. Series B includes GT vehicles (series and “Spéciales”), touring car group A, Clio Cup, touring car group N + FN, and touring car group F 2000.


In Georgia, hillclimb championships are held irregularly, for example in 2003, 2009 and 2010.

Great Britain

In Great Britain, Shelsley Walsh can boast a short 914-meter route, but a 100-year-long tradition, with unchanged routing, which is also used several times a year and is therefore considered the "Mecca" of British hillclimbing.


The championship, abbreviated to “CIVM” in 2012, but not always otherwise, is almost ideally distributed over the Italian “boot”. It includes the following runs (the province in brackets):

  • May 1st - 39th Passo dello Spino (AR)
  • May 15 - 54th Monte Erice (TP)
  • May 22nd - 57th Coppa Nissena (CL)
  • June 5th - 42nd annual sella Chianzutan (UD)
  • June 19 - 50th Coppa Paolino Teodori (AP)
  • July 3rd - 61st Trento Bondone (TN)
  • July 10th - 50th Rieti - Coppa Bruno Carotti (RI)
  • July 24th - 54th Coppa Selva di Fasano (BR)
  • August 7th - 25th Salita della Sila (CS)
  • August 21 - 46th Tropfeo Luigi Fagioli (PG)
  • September 4th - 33rd Caprino-Spiazzi (VR)
  • September 25th - 29th Pedavena-Croce d´Aune (BL)

From a sporting point of view , the “trophy”, called TIVM , is located below this , which is distributed separately in the north and south regions.


Even before the country's independence was proclaimed (2008), a Kosovo mountain championship was held in 2004, and thereafter continuously every year. There are three hill climbs, each with two races.


A mountain championship has been held every year since 2003. There are ten different routes available. The last round of the FIA - European Hill Climb Championship takes place on the most famous one near Buzet . The Croatian Niko Pulić won the European Hill Climb Championship for touring cars from 1999 to 2001, three times in a row. In 2013 Tomislav Muhvić became European Mountain Champion category 1 (touring cars).


The national racing series in Malta is called "The Grimaldi Lines 2013 Hillclimb & Sprint Championship" after the main sponsor. According to the population density of the island, the routes are narrow and short. The route near Kalkara is approx. 1.3 km long.

North Macedonia

A Macedonian mountain championship has been held since 1992. Until 1999 certain vehicles, such as the Zastava Yugo , were rated separately and were able to get into the points. In Vodno the most frequently used route is. Other routes are near Kočani or Kruševo .


Runs for the Austrian state championship are the Rechbergrennen or are held in St. Anton an der Jessnitz, St. Andrä / Kitzeck, St. Urban, St. Agatha, in Slovenia (Lucine, Ilirska Bistrica), the Czech Republic (Ústí nad Orlicí, Ecce Homo Šternberk ) , Germany (Mickhausen) and Italy ( Verzegnis , Cividale).

In the Alpine republic there is also a special form of hill climb , the so-called mountain rally . The mountain rally is a sprint event with a maximum length of 2,000 m.


The Polish hill climb championship is held exclusively with touring cars . It is not uncommon for races to take place in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as well as the championship there partly in Poland ( Limanowa ). Even in the Baltic Sea region, near Sopot / Gdynia , there is a run. The series has existed since 1998.


The Romanian Hill Climb Championship has been contested on eight different tracks in Germany since 2002, in a joint classification for racing vehicles ( "Group OPEN" ) and various touring car classes ( Group N , Group A ) etc.

Mountain races were held as early as the 1930s, as in many other countries. Féléac had the highest average speed in Europe: 142 km / h, achieved by Hans Stuck on Auto Union . Hans Stuck also set the standard for the lowest average speed: 54 km / h in Tojana.


After the previous championship consisted of circuit races and hill climbs with a common final classification, they returned to separate classification in the early 2000s. In 2010 there was a competition called Abarth Trofeo Rally , in which 4 rallies and 4 hill climbs were scored. All took place within Switzerland. The Arosa ClassicCar , an international hill climb for historic vehicles , has also been held annually between Langwies and Arosa since 2005 . The Klausenrennen Memorial, which takes place irregularly, and the race from Saint-Ursanne to the Col des Rangiers (Caquerelle) in the Jura should also be mentioned .

The Hemberg hill climb in eastern Switzerland celebrated a comeback after 22 years of abstinence .

Not only within Switzerland, but also in the European Hill Climb Championship , one of which is held in Saint-Ursanne, three races are held, of which the two fastest are rated.


From 2003 to 2006, a joint mountain championship Serbia / Montenegro ( Šampionat Srbije i Crne Gore - Klasa Brdo ) was held (seven races). Since 2007 the series Mountain Championship has been called Serbia ( Šampionat Srbije - Klasa Brdo ). There are eight different routes. The 2010 national champion, Dušan Borković , finished third overall in category I (touring cars) in the EBM in 2011, and won the category in 2012.


The Slovak hill climb championship was held from 2001 to 2006 exclusively with historical vehicles. At Pezinok an EBM run was held until 2010, which had to be canceled in 2011 due to track damage ( Slovakia Matador ). In Dobšiná a protection link was found.


In Slovenia there are three hill climbs available (Gorjanci, Lucine and the EBM-listed Ilirska Bistrica ); five races will be held abroad, namely Buzet and Stubicke Toplice in Croatia, Cividale Castelmonte and Verzegnis in Italy and the Rechberg race in Austria. The championship has been held since 2003. The 2011 European champion in category I (touring cars), Aleš Prek , comes from Slovenia.


Within Spain there is a separately rated Balearic hill climb championship, which consists of eight races , in addition to the "normal" one . The German Helmut Kalenborn , born in 1940, became famous and won the title nine times between 1983 and 2001.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic occupies a special position among the former Eastern Bloc countries. With Ecce Homo and Ústecká 21 near Ústí nad Orlicí, there are two venues on the FIA ​​calendar. Soon after the fall of the Iron Curtain , there was a Czech national team whose drivers received logistical support. The field of activity was the European Hill Climb Championship , the title of which was given eight times to a Czech between 1994 and 2009 (Josef Kopecký, Otakar Krámský 3 ×, Robert Šenkýř 2 ×, Miroslav Jakeš, Václav Janík). In some years, like 2009, Czechs took the top three places in the EBM, and five drivers were in the top ten.

In 2012 the German Glasbach race is part of the Czech mountain championship.

United States

Randy Schranz at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb 2007

On Pikes Peak in the Rocky Mountains ( Colorado , USA ) there is a varied track (156 curves) of almost 20 km in length, on which rally aces such as Walter Röhrl and Ari Vatanen with particularly powerful versions of theirs equipped with huge spoilers Turbocharged works cars were able to achieve overall victories. The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb takes place here every year. While the route was entirely gravel for many decades, it has been gradually paved since the early 2000s and is now completely covered with asphalt.

Hill climbing

Hill climbing represents a completely different variant of motor sports on the mountain , in which a particularly steep slope has to be climbed as high as possible with modified motorcycles of all kinds.

Well-known mountain racers

First and foremost, Hans Stuck can undoubtedly be mentioned, who as the “mountain king” won numerous victories and championships on the mountain between 1925 and 1960. The so-called “mountain lion” Herbert Stenger was considered the mountain racing specialist par excellence, with an impressive record of successes from the mid-1970s onwards. Among other things, Stenger won a total of seven FIA European championships and ten German mountain championships. From 1996 until his fatal accident in 2011, Georg Plasa was one of the most successful hill climbers. In addition to many other victories, he won the FIA Hill Climb Cup from 2006 to 2009 and the FIA Hill Climb Challenge in 2003 and 2004 .

Well-known active drivers include Norbert Handa, Norbert Brenner, Horst Fendrich, Jörg Weidinger, Franz Weissdorn as well as the Swiss Bruno Ianniello and Reto Meisel and the two Austrians, the "Bergfex" Felix Pailer and the motorsport veteran Hermann Waldy. In Scandinavia, the Norwegian Tore H. Bratlie is considered the most successful mountain racer ever.

The important core team, which in principle meets again at every German hill climb, includes the course spokesman Hannes Martin and the technical inspectors responsible for the vehicle groups. The late tire supplier Dieter Knüttel was also often involved as an active racing driver.

Racing drivers rarely “get lost” from the circuit to the mountain. Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips was a prominent example at the time in 1958, as was Hans Herrmann , Edgar Barth and Ludovico Scarfiotti . Many drivers began their racing careers on the mountain and then switched to the circuit, such as Rolf Stommelen , Gerhard Mitter , Sepp Greger , Reinhold Joest , Claus Dupré, Roland Asch and Andy Priaulx , who contested his first hill climb on the Channel Islands .

Interfaces between mountain and circular routes

Special mountain racing vehicles are extremely optimized for these short-distance sprints and are hardly suitable for the circuit. A driver with a near-series touring car , on the other hand, could in principle take part in slaloms , hill climbs, rallies and circuit races. In 2003 Manuel Reuter demonstrated his DTM -Opel at the hill climb in Mickhausen , because his Holzer team is based nearby.

See also


  • Henning Volle: Mountain record on the Schauinsland. The story of the famous ADAC hill climb. EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-895-1 .
  • Erich Rostek, Jürgen Hug, Dieter Knorrenschild: German automobile hillclimb racing. Volume 1 + 2: 1970-1979 and 1980-1990, respectively. Racing Promotion Vlotho, 2006.

Web links

Commons : Hill Climb  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. DMSB 2013 regulations, red part, mountain championship, page 32.
  2. Werner Schneider : Mountain Racing Trophy Slovenia-Triveneto 2013. ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) On: berg-meisterschaft.de. February 12, 2013.
  3. ↑ Mountain race St Ursanne - Les Rangiers. Spinning wheels. On: hofmaenner-racing.ch.
  4. ^ Bosnia Herzegovina. Hill climb (Brdska trka) and circuit (Kruzna trka) 2010. On: puru.de.
  5. Bulgaria. On: puru.de.
  6. Close victory at the 22nd international Glasbach race , eisenachonline.de, accessed on June 12, 2017
  7. 20 years Berg-Cup Gr. H - how it all began…. On: berg-cup.de. December 12, 2011.
  8. 45th AVD / GAMSC Hill Climb Lower Franconia Eichenbühl. Entry list. On: bergrennen-unterfranken.de. PDF.
  9. Alexander Boppert: Regulations Group H 2013 - engine block. On: rallyebook.de. January 27, 2013.
  10. Thomas Bubel: Mountain Race Technical Committee resigns as a whole. ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) On: berg-meisterschaft.de. April 23, 2013.
  11. Hill climb and circuit Georgia 2009 to 2011. On: puru.de.
  12. ^ Thomas Bubel: Dates 2011: Italian Hill Climb Championship (CIVM). ( Memento from September 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) On: berg-meisterschaft.de. December 30, 2010.
  13. ^ Automobile racing: Kosovo - Mountain Championship 2004. On: puru.de.
  14. Croatian Mountain Championship 2010. On: puru.de.
  15. islandcarclub.com. ( Memento from September 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  16. MPZ-Markus: Hill climb on the Mediterranean island of Malta - there's that too. ( Memento from June 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) On: berg-meisterschaft.de. 5th September 2013.
  17. Mountain Championship Macedonia 2010. On: puru.de.
  18. ^ Mountain Championship Poland 2010. On: puru.de.
  19. ^ Romania. On: puru.de.
  20. Ecce Homo hill climb. ( Memento from September 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) On: sternberk.eu.
  21. Same time, same place. 2015 at the Hemberg. On: bergrennen-hemberg.ch.
  22. European Hill Climb Championship & Int. Race: Course de Cote St. Ursanne - Les Rangiers (EBM). ( Memento from June 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) On: berg-meisterschaft.de.
  23. ^ Serbia (and Montenegro). On: puru.de.
  24. a b 2011 FIA European Hill-Climb Championship - Category 1. ( Memento from August 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Slovakia. On: puru.de.
  26. Slovenia. On: puru.de.
  27. Rudolph Greuel: For the camera again in the bolide. On: rundschau-online.de. April 15, 2009.
  28. Czech Hill Climb Championship. ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF, on: glasbachrennen.de.