|Magyar Államvasutak Zrt.
|Seat||Budapest , Hungary|
|Branch||Transport / logistics|
The first railway line was opened on July 15, 1846 between Pest and Vác . This date is considered to be the birth of the railway in the Kingdom of Hungary (Royal Hungarian State Railways) . It was one of the first sections of the planned railway connection Budapest - Pressburg (Pozsony) - Marchegg - Vienna on the northern bank of the Danube, later part of the route of the legendary Orient Express until 1938 .
In the second half of the 19th century, the route network of the Ku state railways grew rapidly, and soon all major cities in Hungary were connected by rail lines.
An important section of the line from Temesvár to Vienna was built by the Austrians and is located in the Banat , which at that time was the crown land directly subordinate to the Vienna Ministry. The inauguration took place on November 15, 1857. This route connected the cities of Temesvár (today Timișoara, Romania), Hatzfeld , Kikinda and Szeged over a length of 112 km. This reduced the travel time from Temesvár to Vienna to 36 hours. In the then Hungarian Batschka , the railway age began in 1869 with the opening of the Subotica - Sombor section as part of the Hungarian network.
In the years that followed, the size of the rail network in Hungary, as in other European countries, grew sharply, and with it the number of small, partly private operators. In 1894, the Hungarian railway was nationalized and a three-digit number of railway companies were combined in the MÁV, which was founded for this purpose. In other countries too, railway companies were nationalized to a large extent during these years (see e.g. kk Austrian State Railways ).
Development at the beginning of the 20th century
After the First World War , MÁV lost numerous rolling stock and parts of the route to the neighboring countries of Czechoslovakia , Romania and Yugoslavia, some of which had emerged from the old Hungarian territory . New routes were often necessary because an area had been assigned between two stations, i.e. the route ran through foreign national territory and could no longer be used.
MÁV played a major role in the development of the technology for rail operations with single-phase alternating current of 50 Hz. It was the first railway company to use single-phase alternating current with the standard mains frequency of 50 Hz for rail operations. The first attempts at this began on the initiative of the engineer Kálmán Kandó at the beginning of the 1920s on a 15 km long route near Budapest's West Railway Station. The locomotives he developed had a rotating converter on board that converted the single-phase alternating current into three-phase current, which in turn fed the traction motors. After the test drives were successful in 1928, the route from Budapest to Hegyeshalom (border station towards Vienna ) was electrified with single-phase alternating current 50 Hz and 16 kV by 1932 . For the first time, the N-shaped brackets, which are still most widespread today, were used to secure the overhead contact line.
The MÁV in World War II
During the Second World War , with the help of MÁV 1944/1945, Jews and Roma were quickly deported from the country to concentration camps, where many of them perished or were murdered. This section of history has not yet been dealt with. Hungary was an ally of Germany in World War II even before the German occupation in 1944. Survivors and relatives of the victims therefore filed a lawsuit with a US court in February 2010.
The MÁV after the Second World War
Since the Hungarian industry was not in a position to remedy the shortage of locomotives with new copies after the war, over five hundred American war locomotives had to be purchased.
As a result, the railroad played an important role in the reconstruction of the country. Due to its central location in Europe , many international rail connections run through Hungary. During this time, the route electrification was continued with single-phase alternating current 50 Hz, but with a voltage of 25 kV. This ended the era of the steam locomotive in 1983 .
Development since 1990
Since 1993 MÁV has been a joint stock company with the name MÁV Hungarian State Railways AG (MÁV Magyar Államvasutak Zrt.). In 2007 it was converted into a holding company, the main subsidiaries of which are MÁV-START Personenverkehrs-AG (MÁV-START Zrt.) And MÁV Cargo AG (MÁV Cargo Zrt.).
The freight division MÁV Cargo was taken over by Rail Cargo Austria at the beginning of December 2008 for around 100 billion forints . In 2010 the name of MÁV Cargo was adapted to Rail Cargo Austria with Rail Cargo Hungaria .
At the beginning of 2010 MÁV's debts amounted to around 1 billion euros. The reasons given by commentators were mismanagement and ongoing uncovered operational losses.
The rail network has a total length of 7664 kilometers. Of these, 7394 kilometers are in standard gauge of 1435 millimeters; 36 kilometers were laid out in broad gauge of 1520 millimeters to facilitate the connection to the eastern neighboring country Ukraine , where this Russian broad gauge is also common. The Hungarian narrow-gauge lines cover 176 kilometers.
MAV offers the START Club Card as a half-price card. This offers a 50% discount on 2nd class travel. On Saturdays an additional person can travel at half price. The card is valid for one year and costs 34,900 HUF (approx. 111 euros), for people up to 26 years of age 24,900 HUF (approx. 79 euros). The card includes RailPlus.
EU citizens aged 65 and over are transported free of charge in 2nd class, but must pay surcharges and reservation fees if necessary.
- Leon [knight] von Biliński , Emil [knight] von Guttenberg (ed.): History of the railways of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy . III. Tape. Verlag Karl Prohaska, Vienna / Teschen / Leipzig 1898, appendix: The railway system in Hungary: History of the railways in Hungary , p. 353 ff . ( openlibrary.org : Volume 3; pdf, 40.8 MB ; archive.org).
- Website of the MÁV Group
- Web presence of MÁV-START Personenverkehrs-AG
- Railway map - with nodes and route types
- Railway map (PDF; 1.05 MB) - with all stops, German-Hungarian legend + text
- Photos of train stations and stops
- Railways and public transport - travel tips, transport policy, news
- MÁV Nosztalgia - nostalgic transport, historical railway park
- Banat's Historical Chronology for the Last Millennium: XIX Century . genealogy.ro. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- See MÁV AG, History of the Hungarian Railways . Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Dionys v. Kelety: The mangled Hungarian state railways. After a lecture by the President of the Royal Hungarian State Railways - "- on May 20, 1921 at the Technical University of Budapest. In: Die Lokomotive , born 1921, No. 8/1921 (18th year), pp. 119-122. ( Online at ANNO ) .
- Pester Lloyd: "Holocaust - Victims Sue Hungarian State Railways MÁV" ( Memento of the original from July 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Budapest February 11, 2010.
- portfolio.hu: Holocaust survivor heirs sue Hungarian railway company MÁV for USD 1.24 bn . February 11, 2010.
- See MÁV AG, list of the most important subsidiaries (MÁV Group) . Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- See www.railcargo.at, Rail Cargo Austria and MÁV Cargo together number one in Central and Eastern Europe, press release of December 2, 2008 . Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- MÁV Cargo is now called Rail Cargo Hungaria ( Memento of the original from May 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in Pester Lloyd on March 8, 2010, accessed on March 11, 2010
- Pester Lloyd: “ Deficit on Wheels ( Memento of the original from May 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. " . Budapest February 3rd 2010.
- See MÁV AG, Most important characteristics of the MÁV Group . Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 11, 2011.